MACC_II: an updated European spatially distributed emission

Report
TNO MACC-II European emissions
Model-ready emission set for 2003-2009
Jeroen Kuenen, Hugo Denier van der Gon, Antoon Visschedijk
TNO, Utrecht, The Netherlands
Jeroen Kuenen
MACC-II European emissions
Outline
Motivation
Emission database
PM split in components
Spatial distribution
Conclusions and future work
Jeroen Kuenen
MACC-II European emissions
Motivation
Air quality models needs good quality emission input, which should...
describe all (anthropogenic) sources
be consistent in time and space
provide the best (scientific) estimate for the emission
Why develop this inventory?
Good emissions are the start of any environmental assessment
However, simply taking EMEP (gridded) emissions does not work
Gridded data are 50x50 km2 and not always available
Reported emissions is following guidelines, which is not
necesserily applying the best science
Often not consistent between (neighbouring) countries
Jeroen Kuenen
MACC-II European emissions
TNO_MACC-II emission inventory
Updating and improving TNO_MACC inventory
Improved point source representation
Improved variation between years, adding 2008-2009
Harmonization with latest reporting to the extent possible
Spatial resolution 1/8 x 1/16 degrees (lon/lat) ~ 7x7km
Pollutants covered:
NOx, SO2, NMVOC, NH3
CH4, CO
PM10, PM2.5 (and components)
Jeroen Kuenen
MACC-II European emissions
Reported emissions
In the ideal case, reported emissions from countries would be directly
usable as input for AQ modelling
This means
that the
largest
contributingand
sectors are as expected, or
A thorough
check
of availability
of reported
is crucial!
else thequality
difference
can bedata
explained
Differences from (e.g.)
This also means that trends in time series are understandable
- Errors in the data
- Resubmissions by countries
- fine
Every
reported
This works
forhistorical
a countryyear
like is
Germany...
every year, and methods change!
But...
Jeroen Kuenen
MACC-II European emissions
Methodology in a nutshell
Make use of official reported emissions (as of end 2011) where
possible (staying as close as possible to what is used in policy)
Reported emissions by source category (NFR/CRF)
Disaggregated using IIASA GAINS emissions to 75 source
categories
Direct use of IIASA GAINS emissions in cases where reported data is
not available or is not good enough
Corrections for specific sectors/pollutants, e.g.:
NOx and NMVOC from agriculture excluded
Agricultural waste burning from GAINS for all countries
CO not in GAINS; use of TNO internal bottom-up database
Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia not in GAINS: data from EDGAR
International shipping added from CEIP; additional in-port emissions
from TNO expert judgement
Jeroen Kuenen
MACC-II European emissions
Results
Consistent emission dataset for Europe (43 countries, 5 seas) and 8
pollutants, for 77 different source & fuel combinations
SNAP source categories:
1 energy industry
2 residential combustion
3-4 industry
5 extraction/distribution FF
6 product use
7 road transport
8 other mobile sources
9 waste
10 agriculture
Jeroen Kuenen
MACC-II European emissions
Change in emission
Jeroen Kuenen
MACC-II European emissions
PM components
SNAP source categories:
PM is a mix of many things, models need underlying
(PM
1 energy information
industry
2 residential combustion
split)
3-4 industry
5 extraction/distribution FF
6 product use
Generic PM split (per SNAP) not good enough,
because
different
7 road
transport
8 other mobile sources
fuels result in very different PM composition9 waste
10 Agriculture
PM split defined per detailed source/fuel combination underlying the
dataset (>200 categories)
For both coarse & fine mode, split in EC, OC (full molecular mass),
SO4, Na, other minerals
Split based on literature where available, and expert judgement
where needed
Jeroen Kuenen
MACC-II European emissions
Jeroen Kuenen
MACC-II European emissions
Spatial distribution
Use generic spatial distribution system throughout Europe
All emission sources distributed using proxy parameters, e.g.
Population density
(total, rural, urban)
Road network for
non-urban emissions
Jeroen Kuenen
MACC-II European emissions
Point sources
Use of European Pollutant Release and Transfer Register (and
predecessor EPER): http://prtr.ec.europa.eu
EPER: 2001 and 2004
E-PRTR: annual data from 2007 onwards
Used in TNO-MACC-II as relative proxy for distributing emissions for
specific sector/fuel combinations (2004 proxy for years 2003-2005,
2007 also for 2006)
Where E-PRTR data not available
or not suitable, TNO PS info from
TNO_MACC-I has been used as
proxy for distributing emissions
SO2 in 2009
Jeroen Kuenen
MACC-II European emissions
Resulting emission maps
NH3 in 2003
EC 2009
EC 2009 – 2003
NOx 2009
NOx 2009 – 2003
Jeroen Kuenen
MACC-II European emissions
Jeroen Kuenen
MACC-II European emissions
Conclusion and outlook
TNO_MACC-II: consistent and complete emission inventory for
UNECE-Europe, in line with official emissions and suitable for policy
analysis and support using AQ models
Already used in various research activities involving modelling e.g.
MACC-II, AQMEII-2 model intercomparison study
Outlook; what we would like to do more
Add more years (2010)
Various semi-natural sources exist that are important for modelling
AQ but not (well) covered in the reported emissions
Examples: Agricultural waste burning, resuspension by road
transport, Soil NOx emissions
“on the side” we aim to make data on semi-natural sources
available as model input in the same format
Jeroen Kuenen
MACC-II European emissions
Thank
you for your attention!
biogenic soil NO emissions across Europe”
Poster: E. Dammers et al., “A regional analysis of
x
Soil NOx adds 0.39-0.49 Tg N for Europe (~10%)
NOx Emissions
in kg ha−1by
yr −1
This Soil
work
was funded
Interested in using TNO_MACC-II data? Please contact us!
[email protected]; [email protected]

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