Scientific Methodology Review

Report
Scientific Methodology
(COE)
Multiple Choice
An organized way of gathering and analyzing
evidence about the natural world.
A.
B.
C.
D.
Science
Observation
Conclusion
Manipulated variable
True or False
The goals of science are to give explanations for
natural events, to understand patterns, and to
make predictions.
True
Multiple Choice
A logical conclusion based on evidence or
what is already known.
A.
B.
C.
D.
Manipulated variable
Inference
Theory
Data
True or False
Science almost always proves things in
absolute terms.
False
Science rarely proves things in absolute
terms.
Fill in the Blank
Experiments with multiple trials that include
large sample sizes that are randomly selected
error
help reduce sources of __________.
Multiple Choice
The act of noticing and describing what is
happening in an orderly way.
A.
B.
C.
D.
Conclusion
Controlled variable
Observation
Bias
True or False
Scientists often define “scientific uncertainty”
as being 95% sure that cause and effect have
been correctly identified.
True
Multiple Choice
A scientific explanation for a set of
observations that can be tested.
A.
B.
C.
D.
Conclusion
Peer Review
Skepticism
Hypothesis
Multiple Choice
A statement of how the responding variable
will change in response to changes in the
manipulated variable.
A.
B.
C.
D.
Prediction
Observation
Validity
Reliability
Multiple Choice
An experiment in which only one variable is
changed.
A.
B.
C.
D.
Procedure or process
Protocol
Controlled experiment
Analytic investigation
Multiple Choice
The result or consequence of an action,
influence, or casual event.
A.
B.
C.
D.
Effect
Selection
Inference
Cause
Multiple Choice
The factor of a system being investigated that is
changed to determine that factor’s relationship
to the responding variable.
A.
B.
C.
D.
Prediction
Control group
Controlled variable
Manipulated variable
Multiple Choice
Mistakes of perception, measurement, or
process during an investigation; an incorrect
result or discrepancy.
A.
B.
C.
D.
Cause
Observation
Inference
Error
Multiple Choice
Observations, measurements, or data
collected through established and recognized
scientific processes.
A.
B.
C.
D.
Evidence
Hypotheses
Theories
Consequences
True or False
Controlled experiments typically involve testing
two or more variables at a time.
False
Controlled experiments involve testing only
one variable at a time.
Sam wanted to see how exposure to sunlight
affects how easily a plant’s leaves would rip.
Fill in the Blank
In Sam’s experiment on leaf toughness, the
manipulated
leaf’s exposure to sunlight is the ____________
variable and how easily the leaf ripped is the
responding variable .
___________
Multiple Choice
The factor of a system being investigated that
changes in response to the manipulated
variable and is measured.
A.
B.
C.
D.
Quantitative data
Responding variable
Controlled variable
Qualitative data
Same built a simple device that clips on
a leaf to test its toughness. He then
counts how many pennies he must add
to the cup before the leaf rips. He calls
his device a rip-o-meter.
True or False
Placing the rip-o-meter’s binder clip in
the same position on each leaf tested is
an example of a controlled variable.
True
Fill in the Blank
Comparing the toughness of leaves as a
function of branch position was best graphed
Scatter plot
using a ___________________
chart.
Multiple Choice
The conditions that are kept the same from
trial to trial in a laboratory investigation.
A.
B.
C.
D.
Controlled variables
Responding variable
Manipulated variable
Quantitative data
Fill in the Blank
concluded from the data that his
Sam __________
hypothesis, which stated that leaves exposed to
sunlight would be tougher to rip than younger
leaves, was not supported by the evidence.
Multiple Choice
An investigation under which the conditions
for a phenomenon to occur are arranged
beforehand by the investigator.
A.
B.
C.
D.
Variable
Experiment
Trial
Effect
True or False
A strong correlation implies causation.
False
Remember the example about shoe size and
math ability among children showing a strong
correlation, but certainly no causation.
Draw a Graph
Draw a scatterplot graph that shows a strong
correlation between two variables.
Multiple Choice
The part of a controlled experiment that is
treated the same as the experimental set-up
except for one manipulated variable.
A.
B.
C.
D.
Qualitative data
Conclusion
Control group
Observations
Multiple Choice
Records of experimental observations.
A.
B.
C.
D.
Inferences
Bias
Experimental group
Data
Draw a Graph
Draw a scatterplot graph that shows little
or no correlation between two variables.
Multiple Choice
Data that consists of numbers that are found
by measuring or counting.
A.
B.
C.
D.
Variables
Qualitative
Quantitative
Sources of Error
Multiple Choice
Data that consists of descriptions because
they cannot be counted.
A.
B.
C.
D.
Variables
Qualitative
Quantitative
Measurements
Draw a Graph
Draw a plot of averages with error bars
showing a significant difference between
two sets of data.
Multiple Choice
An agent or condition that could cause a
change.
A.
B.
C.
D.
Factor
Observation
Effect
Hypothesis
Multiple Choice
An attribute of an investigation that describes
the degree of confidence that data collected and
logical inferences are accurate representations of
the phenomena being investigated.
A.
B.
C.
D.
Theory
Control
Validity
Hypothesis
Short Answer
List three ways to make an experiment more
valid.
1. Make sure that the relationship
between cause and effect is reasonable.
2. Test only one variable at a time.
3. Use a control as a comparison.
4. Control bias.
Multiple Choice
Repetitions of data collection procedures in
an investigation .
A.
B.
C.
D.
Trials
Quantitative data
Inferences
Experimental group
Multiple Choice
The attitude in scientific thinking that
emphasizes that no fact or principle can be
known with complete certainty; the view that all
knowledge is uncertain.
A.
B.
C.
D.
Open-mindedness
Skepticism
Bias
Conclusions
Draw a Graph
Draw a plot of averages with error bars
showing no significant difference between
two sets of data.
Multiple Choice
An attribute of any investigation that
promotes consistency of results during
repeated trials.
A.
B.
C.
D.
Inferences
Bias
Variability
Reliability
Short Answer
List three ways to make an experiment more
reliable.
1.
2.
3.
4.
Use a large sample size.
Randomly select the samples
Perform multiple trials.
Increase time over which
measurements are taken.
Fill in the Blank
bias is a certain preference or point of
A _____
view that is personal, rather than scientific.
Bias in weight loss
advertisement
Multiple Choice
Any changed or changing factor used to test a
hypothesis or prediction in and investigation
that could affect the results.
A.
B.
C.
D.
Variable
Data set
Inference
Hypothesis
Multiple Choice
A well-tested explanation that accounts for a
lot of observations and hypotheses and that
lets scientists make good predictions.
A.
B.
C.
D.
Hypothesis
Evidence
Theory
Observations
Multiple Choice
A summary of how the results of a scientific
investigation support or contradict the original
hypothesis. This statement also evaluates the
experimental procedure and its effectiveness.
A.
B.
C.
D.
Conclusion
Theory
Procedure
Predictions

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