Global Warming Website Version

The 5-Paragrapgh-Essay Format
Paragraph 1: The Introduction
•Interesting opening line.
•Writer’s opinion.
•Thesis statement
Paragraph 2: Idea/Concept 1
•Topic sentence
•Evidence / Data
•Transition words
Paragraph 3: Idea/concept 2
•Topic sentence
•Evidence / Data
•Transition words
Paragraph 5: The Conclusion
•Wrap up main ideas
•Rephrasing of thesis statement
•Memorable statement
Paragraph 4: Idea/concept 3
•Topic sentence
•Evidence / Data
•Transition words
The 5-Paragrapgh-Essay Format
Paragraph 1: The Introduction
dramatic effect on Earth’s climate. Shifts in temperature
zones, rising sea levels, and changing storm patterns will
present serious challenges unless humankind cuts back on
activities that produce planet-warming greenhouse gases.
Paragraph 2: Idea/Concept 1
In the thesis statement the writer says:
shifts in temperature. In the first
paragraph he explains these shifts and
provides evidence
Paragraph 3: Idea/concept 2
In the thesis statement it says: the
‘serious challenges’ so the author
writes about the destruction of
extreme weather in paragraph 3
Paragraph 5: The Conclusion
“Countries will need to take measures as early as possible
to adapt to the potential changes, including changes to
the health sector and delivery of health services.”
Paragraph 4: Idea/concept 3
In the thesis statement the writer
mentions the activities that produce
global warming. In the fourth paragraph
he explains the consequences of global
warming on developing countries
Paragraph 1: Introduction
This is the ‘hook’
sentence for this
essay. It is used to
catch the reader’s
attention. In this
case, the author
decided to write a
statement. This
does not always
need to be the
case. The ‘hook’
can also be a
statement, or a
description of a
situation or place.
You can also
begin with:
Imagine that …
Many climatologists argue that the burning of fossil fuels,
such as coal and natural gas, produces greenhouse gases
that will raise average global temperatures by 3 to 10 F
(1.7 to 5.56 C) over the next century. While this may seem
like a small amount, such a planetwide temperature
increase will likely have a dramatic effect on Earth’s cli-
mate. Shifts in temperature zones, rising sea levels, and
changing storm patterns will present serious challenges
unless humankind cuts back on activities that produce
This is the thesis
statement. It tells
the reader how
temperatures will
have a dramatic
effect on the
climate and what
the consequences
are thereof. The
thesis statement
tells the reader
what the essay will
be about.
planet-warming greenhouse gases. In fact, many concerned
scientists speculate that these climate changes could set
off a life-threatening chain of events.
This is the opinion sentence to close the
introduction. You always need an opinion
sentence after the thesis so that the
reader gets a subtle foreshadowing of the
view-point of the writer.
Paragraph 2
Topic sentence: This tells
the reader what the
paragraph will be about.
‘Bouts’ (which means
sudden and
unpredictable moments)
is possible a link to
global warming. Notice
how the writer then
continues to explain this
topic sentence by giving
examples and discussing
these examples.
Bouts of extreme weather would be the first “link” in this
chain of events. A warmer atmosphere coupled with rising ocean temperatures could bring an increase in floods,
tornadoes, and hurricanes, as well as heat waves, droughts,
and wildfires. The climate of the 1990’s – the hottest decade
on record thus far – seems to bear out the warnings that
the weather becomes more severe as earth’s temperature rises.
The year 1998 began with an ice storm that left 4 million
people without power in Quebec and in the northeastern
United States. For the first time, rain forests in Brazil and
Warrant: The
warrant is a
discussion of the
data. A warrant
supports and
extends the
understanding and
interpretation of
the data.
Mexico caught fire as droughts encroached into inland
regions of Latin America. In 1999 a super-cyclone in eastern India claimed ten thousand lives, and winter mudslides
and rains in Venezuela killed fifteen thousand people.
Data: The writer
offers specific
data to support
the topic
sentence. Data
allows the
argument to be
Paragraph 3
Transition word.
Remember to look
at the list of
transition words
that I gave you in
In addition to causing massive numbers of injuries and
deaths, violent weather destroys shelter and health services, contaminates water supplies, and halts food production. A major challenge that such destruction poses is
population movement, as large numbers of evacuees seek
food, water, medical care, and shelter – often moving to
already populated areas with limited resources. According
Data: This is another
way to use data. You can
use a quote from an
important person.
Remember to add the
correct conventions
when quoting.
Topic sentence 2: It
explains to the
reader what this
paragraph will be
about, which is
what violent
weather does
beyond just
causing injuries
and deaths. Violent
weather also
‘destroys shelter
and health services
to Jonathan Patz of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School
of Public Health in Baltimore, Maryland, “The displaced
population issue could be the toughest and largest public health issue of climate change, yet it is without doubt
the most difficult to put our arms around.” Storm evacuees and migrants who are unable to find food, medical
assistance, or adequate sanitation are a breeding ground
for social conflicts and infectious illnesses, Patz and other
public-health experts note.
This is the warrant. It
synthesizes what the
quote states. It allows for
a deeper discussion and
extension to what Patz
Paragraph 4
Topic sentence: The
writer is now going
to address the next
issue: Developed
countries have a
better chance of
NOT getting
infectious diseases
because they have
Infectious diseases may be easier to contain in developed
nations, where more readily available medicines and vaccines could thwart a dangerous outbreak. But in poorer
nations, outbreaks of cholera, typhoid fever, influenza,
A transition word that is
telling the reader that this will
be a compare and contrast
paragraph because poor and
rich countries will be
infectious diarrhea – illnesses that are often spurred by
extreme weather events and their aftermath – can spread
from storm refugees to populations far from the initial
catastrophe. One disturbing possibility is that emerging
infectious diseases, such as Ebola and illnesses that have
not yet been discovered, could find new niches in popu-
lations that have no immunities to them. Dangerous epidemics could ensue.
Notice how the writer is
specific about the type of
infectious diseases that
he/she is writing about.
Always be very specific in
an essay.
Paragraph 5: The Conclusion
This is a strong
statement based
on the view-point
of the writer. It is
clear that this is
why he wrote this
essay. He wanted
to let the reader
know that action
should be taken to
prevent global
The risks of global warming demand action. While nations
should work together to cut down on greenhouse gases,
they must also find a way to meet the challenges posed
by extreme weather events. According to environmental
health specialist Carlos Corvalan, “Countries will need to
The re-phrased ‘hook’
statement from paragraph
1. Notice how the phrase
‘greenhouse gases’ appears
again (from the thesis
statement in paragraph 1.
Also notice that the phrase
‘must find a way’ is another
way of saying ‘argue’ which
is a word that appears in
the thesis statement in
paragraph 1.
take measures as early as possible to adapt to the potential changes, including changes to the health sector and
delivery of health services.” World leaders need to enhance
disaster-relief capabilities while striving to curb the pollution that contributes to global warming.
Re-phrased thesis statement. In this example the thesis
statement is found in a quote. This DOES NOT always have to be
the case. In this essay, it works well. Notice how the words have
shifted a little: ‘serious challenge’ in paragraph 1 is now rephrased as: ‘take measures’. The examples of the types of
weather in paragraph 1 is re-phrased as: ‘potential changes’.
The final sentence is a re-phrasing of the final
sentence in the first paragraph but it has more content
attached to it. In the first paragraph the writer
mentions ‘chain of events’. Now that he has discussed
these events in the essay, he ends off the essay by
offering some solutions to prevent these devastating
events which are: enhance disaster relief and curbing

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