The 5-Paragrapgh-Essay Format Paragraph 1: The Introduction •Interesting opening line. •Writer’s opinion. •Thesis statement Paragraph 2: Idea/Concept 1 •Topic sentence •Evidence / Data •Warrant •Transition words Paragraph 3: Idea/concept 2 •Topic sentence •Evidence / Data •Warrant •Transition words Paragraph 5: The Conclusion •Wrap up main ideas •Rephrasing of thesis statement •Memorable statement Paragraph 4: Idea/concept 3 •Topic sentence •Evidence / Data •Warrant •Transition words The 5-Paragrapgh-Essay Format Paragraph 1: The Introduction dramatic effect on Earth’s climate. Shifts in temperature zones, rising sea levels, and changing storm patterns will present serious challenges unless humankind cuts back on activities that produce planet-warming greenhouse gases. Paragraph 2: Idea/Concept 1 In the thesis statement the writer says: shifts in temperature. In the first paragraph he explains these shifts and provides evidence Paragraph 3: Idea/concept 2 In the thesis statement it says: the ‘serious challenges’ so the author writes about the destruction of extreme weather in paragraph 3 Paragraph 5: The Conclusion “Countries will need to take measures as early as possible to adapt to the potential changes, including changes to the health sector and delivery of health services.” Paragraph 4: Idea/concept 3 In the thesis statement the writer mentions the activities that produce global warming. In the fourth paragraph he explains the consequences of global warming on developing countries Paragraph 1: Introduction This is the ‘hook’ sentence for this essay. It is used to catch the reader’s attention. In this case, the author decided to write a factual statement. This does not always need to be the case. The ‘hook’ can also be a shocking statement, or a description of a situation or place. You can also begin with: Imagine that … Many climatologists argue that the burning of fossil fuels, such as coal and natural gas, produces greenhouse gases that will raise average global temperatures by 3 to 10 F (1.7 to 5.56 C) over the next century. While this may seem like a small amount, such a planetwide temperature increase will likely have a dramatic effect on Earth’s cli- mate. Shifts in temperature zones, rising sea levels, and changing storm patterns will present serious challenges unless humankind cuts back on activities that produce This is the thesis statement. It tells the reader how temperatures will have a dramatic effect on the climate and what the consequences are thereof. The thesis statement tells the reader what the essay will be about. planet-warming greenhouse gases. In fact, many concerned scientists speculate that these climate changes could set off a life-threatening chain of events. This is the opinion sentence to close the introduction. You always need an opinion sentence after the thesis so that the reader gets a subtle foreshadowing of the view-point of the writer. Paragraph 2 Topic sentence: This tells the reader what the paragraph will be about. ‘Bouts’ (which means sudden and unpredictable moments) is possible a link to global warming. Notice how the writer then continues to explain this topic sentence by giving examples and discussing these examples. Bouts of extreme weather would be the first “link” in this chain of events. A warmer atmosphere coupled with rising ocean temperatures could bring an increase in floods, tornadoes, and hurricanes, as well as heat waves, droughts, and wildfires. The climate of the 1990’s – the hottest decade on record thus far – seems to bear out the warnings that the weather becomes more severe as earth’s temperature rises. The year 1998 began with an ice storm that left 4 million people without power in Quebec and in the northeastern United States. For the first time, rain forests in Brazil and Warrant: The warrant is a discussion of the data. A warrant supports and extends the understanding and interpretation of the data. Mexico caught fire as droughts encroached into inland regions of Latin America. In 1999 a super-cyclone in eastern India claimed ten thousand lives, and winter mudslides and rains in Venezuela killed fifteen thousand people. Data: The writer offers specific data to support the topic sentence. Data allows the argument to be convincing. Paragraph 3 Transition word. Remember to look at the list of transition words that I gave you in class. In addition to causing massive numbers of injuries and deaths, violent weather destroys shelter and health services, contaminates water supplies, and halts food production. A major challenge that such destruction poses is population movement, as large numbers of evacuees seek food, water, medical care, and shelter – often moving to already populated areas with limited resources. According Data: This is another way to use data. You can use a quote from an important person. Remember to add the correct conventions when quoting. Topic sentence 2: It explains to the reader what this paragraph will be about, which is what violent weather does beyond just causing injuries and deaths. Violent weather also ‘destroys shelter and health services etc. to Jonathan Patz of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health in Baltimore, Maryland, “The displaced population issue could be the toughest and largest public health issue of climate change, yet it is without doubt the most difficult to put our arms around.” Storm evacuees and migrants who are unable to find food, medical assistance, or adequate sanitation are a breeding ground for social conflicts and infectious illnesses, Patz and other public-health experts note. This is the warrant. It synthesizes what the quote states. It allows for a deeper discussion and extension to what Patz mentioned. Paragraph 4 Topic sentence: The writer is now going to address the next issue: Developed countries have a better chance of NOT getting infectious diseases because they have medicine. Infectious diseases may be easier to contain in developed nations, where more readily available medicines and vaccines could thwart a dangerous outbreak. But in poorer nations, outbreaks of cholera, typhoid fever, influenza, A transition word that is telling the reader that this will be a compare and contrast paragraph because poor and rich countries will be compared. infectious diarrhea – illnesses that are often spurred by extreme weather events and their aftermath – can spread from storm refugees to populations far from the initial catastrophe. One disturbing possibility is that emerging infectious diseases, such as Ebola and illnesses that have not yet been discovered, could find new niches in popu- lations that have no immunities to them. Dangerous epidemics could ensue. Notice how the writer is specific about the type of infectious diseases that he/she is writing about. Always be very specific in an essay. Paragraph 5: The Conclusion This is a strong statement based on the view-point of the writer. It is clear that this is why he wrote this essay. He wanted to let the reader know that action should be taken to prevent global warming. The risks of global warming demand action. While nations should work together to cut down on greenhouse gases, they must also find a way to meet the challenges posed by extreme weather events. According to environmental health specialist Carlos Corvalan, “Countries will need to The re-phrased ‘hook’ statement from paragraph 1. Notice how the phrase ‘greenhouse gases’ appears again (from the thesis statement in paragraph 1. Also notice that the phrase ‘must find a way’ is another way of saying ‘argue’ which is a word that appears in the thesis statement in paragraph 1. take measures as early as possible to adapt to the potential changes, including changes to the health sector and delivery of health services.” World leaders need to enhance disaster-relief capabilities while striving to curb the pollution that contributes to global warming. Re-phrased thesis statement. In this example the thesis statement is found in a quote. This DOES NOT always have to be the case. In this essay, it works well. Notice how the words have shifted a little: ‘serious challenge’ in paragraph 1 is now rephrased as: ‘take measures’. The examples of the types of weather in paragraph 1 is re-phrased as: ‘potential changes’. The final sentence is a re-phrasing of the final sentence in the first paragraph but it has more content attached to it. In the first paragraph the writer mentions ‘chain of events’. Now that he has discussed these events in the essay, he ends off the essay by offering some solutions to prevent these devastating events which are: enhance disaster relief and curbing pollution.