Final Presentation

• The rate of iceberg deterioration is
important to those modeling iceberg
drift and associated threats posed to
commercial fishing, transport, and
resource development industries in
iceberg-prone waters.
• Iceberg deterioration rates are
difficult to predict due to the natural
complexity of the ocean environment
and iceberg characteristics.
•The scarcity of full scale data and
the cost of obtaining it prevent
solving the dilemma at the full scale,
thus analytical, theoretical and
numerical solutions are sought
International Ice Patrol map showing
know iceberg positions,
Data collected through observation flights
Iceberg Collapse in
Battle Harbour NL
Iceberg Decay Factors
Thermodynamic Process
•Forced Convection
•Buoyant convection
•Wave erosion
Mechanical Process
and Calving
A good question is:
“How many of these factors can be accurately modeled using computer flow analysis”
Goal Of Work Term
To create standard simple series of ice melt experiments and data sets that can
be used to aid in the verification and calibration of Computational Fluid Dynamics
and Thermodynamics models to simulate iceberg melting.
Rough representation of flow around an iceberg
Preliminary Set up experiments
○ The making of consistent ice easily
○ The proper characteristics of dye
○ A method for dye injection and
image capture
Ice Experiments
○ Ice Sheet experiments
○ Dyed ice block experiments
○ Mass Flux Experiments
Dye / Visualization
Dye Has to be same density
and temperature as the flow you
are trying to track
Dye has to be low viscosity and
have no visible particles
Dye frozen in to pockets in the
ice can work effectively
Sharp white background on all
sides of the tank not in use
increases visibility
Tank set up
Fast dissolve water softener salt
works well for adjustment of
Water density
High temperature lights need to
In free floating ice test’s the ice
top surface area has to be less
the 4 % of the tank free surface
Accurate salinity and
temperature probe needed for
all tests
Ice Wall Testing
A 10 cm thick wall of ice was placed vertically on one side of the
tank and flow was documented
there was a noticeable
notch at the top of the
submerged portion of the
There was a great deal of
small bubble release
There was grater ice decay
in the top portion of the ice
There was separation of a
downward flow of water on
the ice face and the rest of
the water in the tank
Free Floating Dyed Ice Block
A 10 cm cube of ice was frozen with dye
impregnated the melt flow was then recorded
60 % of melt floated
constantly to the surface
40% Fell in a loose haze
to the bottom
Surface water was low
Water near the bottom of
the tank had a reduction
in salinity
Strong rotation and
vortex created
Shape Before
Shape After
Mass Flux Cube testing
Four equal 5 cm cubes of ice were submerged in saline water
and the mass was recorded every 4 min
Results were uniform and a
reasonable, therefore a mass
flux rate could be predicated
for the given shape
Due to the necessity of
weighing melt rate will be
affected due to in water
Flow 3D does have the ability to compute
Problems with
What was learned
This work would be suited to a person with advanced
computer modeling experience.
Choose which of the previous tests will be most
useful in the calibration of computer models of ice
in saline water
Execute these tests with greater accuracy and
Record a data set and flow patterns in a way that
can be used to validate flow analysis software
Record a method for recreating these experiment
with modifications to suit many applications

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