5th Grade Earth Science – chpt 7

Report
th
5
Grade Earth Science
Chapter 7
Water on Earth
The Hydrosphere
• All water on the surface of the Earth make up
the _____________.
Hydrosphere
• 97% of the hydrosphere is made up of
_______
water.
ocean
• 3% comes from rivers, streams, ponds, and
creeks - ________
freshwater
¾
• The hydrosphere covers approximately ___
or
____
75% of the Earth’s surface.
Oceans from largest to smallest
Pacific Ocean - and deepest
• 1. __________
• 2. __________
Atlantic Ocean
• 3. __________
Indian Ocean
• 4. __________
Arctic Ocean
Oceans are all ________.
They vary in _______,
connected
salinity
___________,
and _________.
temperature
Sea levels
Earth Spheres
Salinity
• Oceans get salt from _____
rivers - salt is carried to
oceans from the rocks and soil in river beds.
• ________________
NaCl – sodium chloride - common table salt makes
up most of the salt in ocean water.
salinity - a measure of how salty the water is
• _____
• Salinity varies from place to place in oceans
• When water is evaporated in oceans – the salt is
greater
left behind – therefore salinity is _______
in
evaporation rate is
shallow waters because the __________
higher.
Salt water and density
• A liter of cold water with a high salinity is
______
heavier than a liter of water that is either
warmer or has a lower salinity.
• ______
currents in the oceans are caused by
Warmer water
________water
sinking under ___________.
Cold salty
• Currents on the oceans surfaces are caused by
_____
winds
Temperature
• Ocean water near the _________
is warmer
equator
than water near the poles
____.
• _______
currents can carry warm water towards the
poles and cold water towards the equator
Gulf Stream
• _________is
a current that carries warm
water from the Caribbean sea to the North
Atlantic Ocean.
• California
___________
current is a current that carries cold
water southward along the coast
Where is fresh water found?
• ___________
is water used for drinking,
Fresh water
cooking, and cleaning.
• Fresh water has some dissolved salts
_____ but
much less than seawater.
rain
• Fresh water comes from _____
or _____
snow
• Some water falling to the ground in the form
precipitation
of ____________
seeps into the ground and
becomes _________,
Groundwater other water collects in
rivers and lakes
Groundwater
groundwater - rain or melted snow that soaks
• __________
into the ground.
– Groundwater fills spaces between rocks and soil
– Groundwater sinks until it reaches a layer of rock
or clay that it cannot move through.
aquifer - the layer of rock or soil that groundwater
_______
occupies
___________
- top level of groundwater in an
Water table
aquifer.
Water Table
rises
• The level of the water table ______
when
water is added by rain or snow melt
decline
• The level of the water table will ________
during a drought.
• _______
- people get their water from an
wells
aquifer.
• Wells can become dry if we pump water out of
an _______
faster than it can be replaced
aquifer
Groundwater / Water table
Assessments
• 1. How much of Earth is covered with water?
• 2. What is salinity?
• 3. What causes some ocean water to have a
higher salinity than other ocean waters?
• 4. how is freshwater different from ocean
water?
Surface Waters
• Surface waters include:
rivers
– __________
– __________
lakes
streams
– __________
Surface waters are formed from:
Melting snow
__________
__________
Rain water
groundwater
___________
Water Flow
• Water from rain and snow melt always flows in a
__________
direction.
downward
• Water from precipitation flows downward into
small ______.
streams
• Streams flow into larger streams and _______.
rivers
• ___________
also seeps into rivers.
groundwater
• _____
lakes - form when water collects in a low spot
reservoir - an artificial lake that forms behind a
• ________
dam.
Ice
• ____
7/10 of the Earth’s fresh water is frozen into ice
glaciers
Ice sheets
• _________
and __________
form when each
year’s snowfall is greater than the amount that
melts.
• When glaciers and ice sheets reach the ocean,
Ice bergs
large pieces of ice can break off - ________
• When ocean water freezes, the resulting ice is not
salty – the salt is pushed out of the ice crystals as
they form.
Pollution
• Some people get their water from
___________
groundwater
• Some towns get their water from
___________
- surface water might have
Surface water
harmful bacteria
• Water can easily dissolve materials _______
pollution from fields, parking lots, and lawns
contaminate surface and groundwater.
Water Treatment
• 1. water is pumped to a _____________
Treatment plant
pumped from wells at the bottom of lakes,
reservoirs, or other collecting areas
• 2. __________
are added to the water to attract
chemicals
dirt particles.
• 3. _______
particles sink to the bottom of a tank
• 4. The water passes through _____
filters - sand and
gravel
• 5. chemicals such as chlorine are added to the
water to kill _______
bacteria
Pine Creek / Squaw Run Watershed
http://pinecreekwpa.org/?page_id=44
What is the Water Cycle?
solid
• Water can take the form of a ________,
________,
or _____
liquid
gas
Water vapor
• __________
- water in the form of a gas
Constant motion
• Water vapor particles are in _____________
• _____________
- the pressure of the gas
Air pressure
particles against another object.
• Air pressure __________
as you move
decreases
higher
_______
into the atmosphere
Water Cycle
Water cycle
• ___________
- the constant movement of
water through the environment in different
forms.
• Steps of the water cycle
evaporation
– _____________
condensation
– _____________
precipitation
– ______________
– ______________
runoff
Water cycle can be affected by…..
temperature
1. _______________
2. _______________
pressure
3. _______________
wind
Elevation of land
4. ________________
_________
Evaporation - changing of liquid to water vapor
_________
Condensation - water vapor turns to liquid – water
clouds
dew
droplets in ______
or _____
Water Cycle Continued
Precipitation
• _____________
- water falls from clouds as
rain, snow, sleet, or hail.
Sublimation - ice changing into __________
Water vapor
• __________
without first melting
frost - forms when water vapor turns t ice
• ____
crystals
Energy from the sun - drives the water cycle –
• _____________
melting, evaporation, and sublimation
Energy in the Water Cycle
• Energy is needed to raise ___________
to the
Water vapor
clouds and move it by ____.
wind
• Energy is __________
when water vapor
released
_________
into liquid
condenses
photosynthesis
• Water is used by plants during ____________
and animals need water for survival.
• Organisms produce water during __________
respiration
Sequence
• Discuss two ways that water moves from
precipitation through part of the water cycle
and returns to precipitation.
How Do Clouds Form?
• ________-form
when water vapor changes
clouds
into tiny water droplets or crystals.
• ___________
- affects whether the water
Temperature
droplets are in the form of water droplets or
ice crystals
• Temperature of air high in the clouds is usually
________
than the temperature of air close to
lower
the ground
• ____________
- affects the forming of clouds
Air pressure
Air pressure
upward
• When air moves _________
to areas of less air
pressure – clouds are formed
• When the air pressure is ________,
the air
less
expands and cools
Ice crystals
• If the air cools enough - ___________
are
formed
Types of Clouds
• Cirrus clouds –
• Thunderheads –
• Altocumulus -
Clouds Continued
• Stratus Clouds –
• Fog –
• Lenticular Clouds
Precipitation
• Clouds of __________
grow in cold air until
Ice crystals
they get large and heavy – fall to the Earth as
snowflakes
__________
if the temperature between the
cloud and the ground is less than 0 degrees
Celcius.
• If the ice crystals fall and the air is warmer
rain
than 0 degrees the crystals will turn into____
• Rain that freezes again before it hits the
sleet
ground is called _____.
Hail Formation
hail forms when very strong winds blow
• ____
upward into a cloud – the winds blow the
raindrops back into the freezing air at the top
of the clouds – creates a small piece of ___
ice
• As the ice is blown through the cloud, many
__________
Layers of water freeze on it until the ice crystals
get too heavy and fall to the ground.

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