th 5 Grade Earth Science Chapter 7 Water on Earth The Hydrosphere • All water on the surface of the Earth make up the _____________. Hydrosphere • 97% of the hydrosphere is made up of _______ water. ocean • 3% comes from rivers, streams, ponds, and creeks - ________ freshwater ¾ • The hydrosphere covers approximately ___ or ____ 75% of the Earth’s surface. Oceans from largest to smallest Pacific Ocean - and deepest • 1. __________ • 2. __________ Atlantic Ocean • 3. __________ Indian Ocean • 4. __________ Arctic Ocean Oceans are all ________. They vary in _______, connected salinity ___________, and _________. temperature Sea levels Earth Spheres Salinity • Oceans get salt from _____ rivers - salt is carried to oceans from the rocks and soil in river beds. • ________________ NaCl – sodium chloride - common table salt makes up most of the salt in ocean water. salinity - a measure of how salty the water is • _____ • Salinity varies from place to place in oceans • When water is evaporated in oceans – the salt is greater left behind – therefore salinity is _______ in evaporation rate is shallow waters because the __________ higher. Salt water and density • A liter of cold water with a high salinity is ______ heavier than a liter of water that is either warmer or has a lower salinity. • ______ currents in the oceans are caused by Warmer water ________water sinking under ___________. Cold salty • Currents on the oceans surfaces are caused by _____ winds Temperature • Ocean water near the _________ is warmer equator than water near the poles ____. • _______ currents can carry warm water towards the poles and cold water towards the equator Gulf Stream • _________is a current that carries warm water from the Caribbean sea to the North Atlantic Ocean. • California ___________ current is a current that carries cold water southward along the coast Where is fresh water found? • ___________ is water used for drinking, Fresh water cooking, and cleaning. • Fresh water has some dissolved salts _____ but much less than seawater. rain • Fresh water comes from _____ or _____ snow • Some water falling to the ground in the form precipitation of ____________ seeps into the ground and becomes _________, Groundwater other water collects in rivers and lakes Groundwater groundwater - rain or melted snow that soaks • __________ into the ground. – Groundwater fills spaces between rocks and soil – Groundwater sinks until it reaches a layer of rock or clay that it cannot move through. aquifer - the layer of rock or soil that groundwater _______ occupies ___________ - top level of groundwater in an Water table aquifer. Water Table rises • The level of the water table ______ when water is added by rain or snow melt decline • The level of the water table will ________ during a drought. • _______ - people get their water from an wells aquifer. • Wells can become dry if we pump water out of an _______ faster than it can be replaced aquifer Groundwater / Water table Assessments • 1. How much of Earth is covered with water? • 2. What is salinity? • 3. What causes some ocean water to have a higher salinity than other ocean waters? • 4. how is freshwater different from ocean water? Surface Waters • Surface waters include: rivers – __________ – __________ lakes streams – __________ Surface waters are formed from: Melting snow __________ __________ Rain water groundwater ___________ Water Flow • Water from rain and snow melt always flows in a __________ direction. downward • Water from precipitation flows downward into small ______. streams • Streams flow into larger streams and _______. rivers • ___________ also seeps into rivers. groundwater • _____ lakes - form when water collects in a low spot reservoir - an artificial lake that forms behind a • ________ dam. Ice • ____ 7/10 of the Earth’s fresh water is frozen into ice glaciers Ice sheets • _________ and __________ form when each year’s snowfall is greater than the amount that melts. • When glaciers and ice sheets reach the ocean, Ice bergs large pieces of ice can break off - ________ • When ocean water freezes, the resulting ice is not salty – the salt is pushed out of the ice crystals as they form. Pollution • Some people get their water from ___________ groundwater • Some towns get their water from ___________ - surface water might have Surface water harmful bacteria • Water can easily dissolve materials _______ pollution from fields, parking lots, and lawns contaminate surface and groundwater. Water Treatment • 1. water is pumped to a _____________ Treatment plant pumped from wells at the bottom of lakes, reservoirs, or other collecting areas • 2. __________ are added to the water to attract chemicals dirt particles. • 3. _______ particles sink to the bottom of a tank • 4. The water passes through _____ filters - sand and gravel • 5. chemicals such as chlorine are added to the water to kill _______ bacteria Pine Creek / Squaw Run Watershed http://pinecreekwpa.org/?page_id=44 What is the Water Cycle? solid • Water can take the form of a ________, ________, or _____ liquid gas Water vapor • __________ - water in the form of a gas Constant motion • Water vapor particles are in _____________ • _____________ - the pressure of the gas Air pressure particles against another object. • Air pressure __________ as you move decreases higher _______ into the atmosphere Water Cycle Water cycle • ___________ - the constant movement of water through the environment in different forms. • Steps of the water cycle evaporation – _____________ condensation – _____________ precipitation – ______________ – ______________ runoff Water cycle can be affected by….. temperature 1. _______________ 2. _______________ pressure 3. _______________ wind Elevation of land 4. ________________ _________ Evaporation - changing of liquid to water vapor _________ Condensation - water vapor turns to liquid – water clouds dew droplets in ______ or _____ Water Cycle Continued Precipitation • _____________ - water falls from clouds as rain, snow, sleet, or hail. Sublimation - ice changing into __________ Water vapor • __________ without first melting frost - forms when water vapor turns t ice • ____ crystals Energy from the sun - drives the water cycle – • _____________ melting, evaporation, and sublimation Energy in the Water Cycle • Energy is needed to raise ___________ to the Water vapor clouds and move it by ____. wind • Energy is __________ when water vapor released _________ into liquid condenses photosynthesis • Water is used by plants during ____________ and animals need water for survival. • Organisms produce water during __________ respiration Sequence • Discuss two ways that water moves from precipitation through part of the water cycle and returns to precipitation. How Do Clouds Form? • ________-form when water vapor changes clouds into tiny water droplets or crystals. • ___________ - affects whether the water Temperature droplets are in the form of water droplets or ice crystals • Temperature of air high in the clouds is usually ________ than the temperature of air close to lower the ground • ____________ - affects the forming of clouds Air pressure Air pressure upward • When air moves _________ to areas of less air pressure – clouds are formed • When the air pressure is ________, the air less expands and cools Ice crystals • If the air cools enough - ___________ are formed Types of Clouds • Cirrus clouds – • Thunderheads – • Altocumulus - Clouds Continued • Stratus Clouds – • Fog – • Lenticular Clouds Precipitation • Clouds of __________ grow in cold air until Ice crystals they get large and heavy – fall to the Earth as snowflakes __________ if the temperature between the cloud and the ground is less than 0 degrees Celcius. • If the ice crystals fall and the air is warmer rain than 0 degrees the crystals will turn into____ • Rain that freezes again before it hits the sleet ground is called _____. Hail Formation hail forms when very strong winds blow • ____ upward into a cloud – the winds blow the raindrops back into the freezing air at the top of the clouds – creates a small piece of ___ ice • As the ice is blown through the cloud, many __________ Layers of water freeze on it until the ice crystals get too heavy and fall to the ground.