Presentation

Report
Language Policy in Nepal: Some
Observations
Mr Bhim Lal Gautam
Lecturer
Central Department of Linguistics, TU
Vice-President
Linguistic Society of Nepal
Outline
•
•
•
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Introduction
Linguistic/Cultural Diversity of Nepal
Constitutional Provision
National Language Recommendation Commission
1993
• Existing Language/Educational Policies &
Activities
• Problems
• Conclusion(Suggestions/recommendations)
Introduction
• Nepal:Area-147,181 square KM(Topographical
heterogeneity: Terai- Mt.Everest)
Population:26,621,000(2011 census)
Literacy Rate:65.9% (2011 census)
Ethnic Groups & Castes: More than
100 officially recognized
(Mountains ,Hills & Terai Regions)
Natural & Cultural diversity
Linguistic/Cultural Diversity
• Ethnic Groups: More than 100(2011 census)
Terai: Tharu,Yadava,Teli,Mushahar,Dhanuk,Kanu,
Dhobi,Kurmi,Marwari,Gangai,Halwai,
Dhimal,Sikha,Muslim and so on.
Hilly Region:
Brahman,Chhetri,Magar,Gurung,Newar,
Tamang,Kami,Damai,Thakuri,Kumal,Majhi,
Lepcha,Gaine,Badi,Thakali,Limbu,Chepang and so
on.
Mountaineous Region:
Sherpa,Lohmi,Loha,Manange,Bhuike and so on.
Languages
• 124 plus languages(2011 census)
• 120 living languages and 4 listed
only(Ethnologue 2012)
• Four Major Language Families
• Four different sign languages
• Language isolate Kusunda
• ISO 639-3 listing
Indo-Aryan Languages(29)
Nepali,Maithili,Bhojpuri,Awadhi,Tharu,
Rajbansi,Kumal,Bote,Majhi,Danuwar,Darai,
Angika,Marwari,Bengali,Hindi,Urdu,Jumli,
Dailekhi,Dadheldhuri,Bajureli,Darchureli,
Gadhawali etc.
Tibeto-Burman Languages(86)
Tamang,Sherpa,Gurung,Thakali,Magar,Byansi,Li
mbu,Bantawa,Dolpo,Newar,Jirel,Kagate,Lhomi,L
horung,Puma,Chintang,Kulung,Athparia,Bahing,
Baram,Chamling,Chantyal,Chhulung,Dumi,Dhim
al,Ghale,Kaike,Bhujel,Khaling,Kham,Lepcha,Man
angba,Meche,Mugali,Narphu,Nubri,Raji,sampan
g and so on.
Austro-Asiatic(3)
• Santhali, Khadiya,Munda/Mundari
Dravidian(1):
Jhagadh/Kurukh
Language Isolate:
Kusunda (Watters etal.2005)
Sign Languages:
Nepali Sign Language
Jhankot Sign Language
Jumla Sign Language
Ghandruk Sign Language
Languages With Written Tradition
• Nepali,Sanskrit,Maithili,Bhojpuri,Awadhi,Newari,
Tamang,Sherpa,Limbu,Urdu,Panjabi,Gurung,
Bangali
• Common script for Nepali and most of the
undescribed languages: Devanagari
• Magar:Akhha,Maithili:Tirahuta/Kaithi/Mithilkchh
yar,Tibettan/Sherpa:Sambota,Tamang:Tamahing,
Punjabi:Gurumukhi,Urdu:Arabi,Lepcha:Rong,
Limbu:Sirijanga,Newari:Ranjana,Santha
li/Gurung:Roman,Bangali:Bangla
Constitutional Provision(Interim
Constitution of Nepal 2007)
Article 5. Language of the nation:
• (1) All the languages spoken as the mother tongue
in Nepal are the national languages of Nepal.
• (2) The Nepali language in Devanagari script
shall be the official language.
• (3) Notwithstanding anything contained in clause,
it shall not be deemed to have hindered to use the
mother tongue in local bodies and offices. The state
shall translate the languages so used to an official
working language and maintain record thereon.
Article 17. Education and Cultural
Right:
• (1) Each community shall have the right to get
basic education in their mother tongue as
provided for in the law.
• (2) Every citizen shall have the right to free
education from the State up to secondary level as
provided for in the law.
• (3) Each community residing in Nepal shall
have the right to preserve and promote its
language, script, culture, cultural civility and
heritage.
National Languages Policy
Recommendation Commission (1993)
• A linguistic survey of Nepal should be done to identify and
describe the languages of Nepal
• A Proper Language Planning should be started
• Special Programme should be started to preserve
endangered languages of Nepal
• A council for national languages should be established
• The primary schools should be categorized as with 100%
mother tongue speakers to teach in mother tongues
• Department of Linguistics should be established in the
university to promote the study and research works
• Mother tongue should be allowed as an alternative to
Sanskrit in Lower middle class
National Languages Policy
Recommendation Commission (1993)
• There should be special department of language
at the Royal Nepal Academy and all the academic
organizations working with the national
languages should get recognition
• There should be a separate branch at CDC of
HMG to deal with the matters of education in the
mother tongue
• In order to make the linguistic data of CBS more
reliable, linguist should also be included as
experts
Existing Language/Educational
Activities
• The Workshop on Multilingual
Education (February 1-3, 2008)
This residential workshop conducted by Tove
Shutnabba-Kangas, an eminent author of
Linguistic Genocide in Education – or Worldwide
Diversity and Human Rights? The objective was
to prepare the concept paper on multilingual
education in Nepal.
Nepal Multilingual Education (MLE)
Symposium
• Sponsored by Ministry of Education and
Sports, Tribhuvan University , UNESCO and SIL
International(October 1-3, 2007) Kathmandu
to address the various issues of MLE:
• The MLE Symposium recommended that
multilingual education be implemented for
the sake of children and their future with the
Ministry of Education and Sports reaffirming
its commitment to MLE.
Multilingual Education
Implementation Guideline(MEIG) 2010
Levels
Basic
Levels
Medium of
instruction
Further
clarification
Pre-primary
Local mother
tongue
For all subjects
1-3
Local mother
tongue
For all subjects
except
Nepali and
English
4-5
Bilingual(Mother
tongue and
language of official
use)
For all subjects
except
Nepali and
English
6-8
Bilingual(Mother
tongue and
language of official
use or other
For all subjects
except Nepali and
English
Implementation of Mother
Tongue as Medium of Instruction
Districts
Language/s
Schools
Grades
Sunsari
Uraw and Tharu
(Eastern)
Sarada Primary
School,Simariya
1-3
Jhapa
Santhali and
Rajbansi
Rastriya Ekta
Primary
School,Kajali
1-3
Dhankuta
Athparia Rai
Deurali Lower
Secondary
School,Sangtang
1-3
Palpa
Palpa Magar
Nawa jagrit Primary 1-3
School,Dhaireni
Rasuwa
Rasuwa Tamang
1.Saraswati Primary 1-3
School,Thade
2.Bhimsen Primary
School,Thulokharka
Kanchanpur
Rana(Tharu)
Rastriya Primary
School,Dekhtabhuli
1-3
Curriculum Development Centre
(Production of textbooks )
SN
LANGUAGES
GRADES
1
Maithili, Bhojapuri, Awadhi, Tamang, Limbu, Bantawa Rai,
Chamling Rai, Sherpa, Gurung, Magar, Newar, Tharu
1-5
2
Sunuwar, Rajbanshi
1-4
3
Yakkha
1-3
4
Mugali
1-2
5
Tharu (Mid-region) and Tamang ( in Sambota script)
1
Central Department of
Linguistics/Linguistic Survey of
Nepal(2008)
• To produce a sociolinguistic profile including
language and dialect mapping;
• To produce a basic description of at least ten
languages;
• To develop and maintain a complete database of
the languages of Nepal;
• To develop a description of the use of mother
tongues in education (formal and non-formal);
• To publish the report of the major research
activities in written and electronic versions
LinSuN Progress
• The pilot survey was conducted in Jhapa in the month
of April, 2008. The research tools were revised with the
help of feedbacks of the pilot survey.
• In 2009, Nepali (spoken mid and western hilly regions),
Newar (spoken in the valley), Maithili, Chepang, KiratRai and Bote languages were surveyed and data were
entered in the database developed in the LinSuN.
• A series of workshops and training programs were
organized to build the technical capacities of the
research assistants, faculties of the department and
the cluster heads of the survey
LinSuN Progress
• In 2010, Yakkha, Bhujel, Newar (spoken in
Dolaka) and Nepali (spoken in eastern
parts)were surveyed.
• A draft report on the use of languages and
attitudes of seven languages, namely,
Bhujel,Chepang, Bote, Newar, Yakkha, Lapcha
and Maithili have been prepared.
LinSuN Progress
• 2011(Sociolinguistic Survey)
Kaike, Magar-Dhut,Jirel,Santhali,Bote
• 2011/2012 (Sociolinguistic Survey of Far-Western
Development Region)Byansi,Abadhi,Sona-Khona,Rana
Tharu,Dotyali,Acchami,Dangora
Tharu,Bajhangi,Bajureli,Raute & Raji
• 2012 (September)Mid-Western Development
Region• Bhojpuri ,Awadhi ,Magar Kham ,Kumal ,Gurung ,Chantyal
Other Institutions on language
Preservation and Development
• UNESCO, Kathmandu
• SIL International, Nepal
• NFDIN(National Foundation for Development of
Indigenous Nationalities)
• Linguistic Society of Nepal
• CERID (Research Center for Educational Innovation and
Development),TU
• CDC( Curriculum Development Center)
• NCED (National Center for Education Development)
• NFEC (Non-Formal Education Center)
• Nepal Academy
Problems
• No reliable identification of the
languages/dialects
• Heterogeneous classes with divergent sociolinguistic situation
• No clear policy and coordination
• Political instability
• Construction of the effective tools &
maintenance of database
Conclusion(suggestions/recommendati
ons)
• Linguistic Survey of Nepal should be completed
• Ethnographic documentation of all the minority
languages
• Local based textbooks and reference materials
• Transitional bi/multilingual education should be
strictly followed
• Government role and policy level implementation
• Establishment of Language Academy
References
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Bandhu,Churamani 2000 Preservation and promotion of the Linguistic Heritage of Nepal: Problems and prospects. Paper presented in the
International Conference on Linguistic Heritage of India and Asia CIIL,Mysore,India
Central Bureau of Statistics 2011 Kathmandu,CBS
Interim Constitution of Nepal 2063 Kathmandu GoN
Koul,Omkar & L Devaki (Ed.)2000 Linguistic Heritage of India and Asia.CIIL, Mysore
National Languages Policy Recommendation Commission 1994 The Report of National languages Policy Recommendation Commission,
Kathmandu,Ministry of Education and Culture
LinSuN. 2008. The proposal for the Linguistic Survey of Nepal (LinSuN) submitted to the National Planning Commission, Government of
Nepal by Central Department ofLinguistics, Tribhuvan University, 29 June, 2008
Regmi, Dan Raj. 2010. Linguistic Survey of Nepal: Progress, challenges andprospect. A paper presented at 31st Annual conferences of Linguistic
Society of Nepalheld in Kathmandu, 26-27 November, 2010
Tuladhar, Nirmal Man. 2011. ‘Multilingual Education in Nepal.’ A paper presented at the 17 Himalayan Languages Symposium held at
Kobe City University of Foreign Studies, Kobe, 6 -9 September, 2011.
Toba,Sueyoshi &Ingrid and Novel Kishore Rai 2005 Diversity and Endangerment of languages in Nepal.UNESCO Kathmandu series of Monographs and
working papers No 7
UNESCO Language Survey Report Nepal 2002 Kathmandu
Turin, Mark. 2004. ‘Minority Language Policies in Nepal and the Himalayas. Position Paper for SCALLA 2004 Working Conference on
Crossing the Digital Divide: Shaping Technologies to Meet Human Needs, 5-7 January, 2004, Kathmandu.
UNESCO, 2007. Advocacy Kit for Promoting Multilingual Education: Including the Excluded (Policy Makers Booklet). Bangkok: UNESCO
Bangkok
UNESCO, 2007. Advocacy Kit for Promoting Multilingual Education: Including
the Excluded (Policy Makers Booklet). Bangkok: UNESCO Bangkok
Yogendra Yadava and Purnaman Shakya 2009 Language issues in Contemporary Nepal and Linguistic Inclusion Paper presented in CNAS/SNV/SIRF at
a seminar on State restructuring:Linguistic Situation of Nepal and Inclusive language Policy, Kathmandu
Yogendra Yadava and Shanta Bahadur Gurung 2006 The Indigeneous languages of Nepal (ILN): Situation and Policy and
Recommendation,Kathmandu:NFDIN
th

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