Prof. Claude Oiknine Jerusalem College Of Technology 05/03/2013

Report
SOLAR ENERGY
ISRAEL TODAY..
TOMORROW?
Prof. Claude Oiknine
Jerusalem College Of Technology
05/03/2013
TABLE OF CONTENTS
1- Main Solar Energy Characteristics
2- Transforming Solar Energy in Usable Energy
3- Efficiency and Price
4- Solar Power Installed in the World and in Israel
5- Historic of Solar Energy in Israel
6- What Future for Solar Energy in Israel
7- Conclusions
Prof. Claude Oiknine
Jerusalem College Of Technology
05/03/2013
Solar Energy Characteristics
Nature:
Size:
Geographically and Time Dependant:
Power Density( Solar Irradiance ) :
Storability:
Prof. Claude Oiknine
Jerusalem College Of Technology
05/03/2013
Solar Energy Characteristics
NATURE
Intermittent: Day-Night , Clouds
Unpredictable Weather
Complex:
- Light Has Both a Wave and Particle Nature.
- Sun Energy is Composed of a Multitude of
Having Each a Different Wavelength λ ,.
- A Photon of Wavelength , λ , has an Energy E:
E=hc/ λ (h is Planck’s constant
c is speed of light)
- The Solar Irradiance (W/m2) is the Power Density
Object due to sun illumination.
Photons
incident on an
Radiation Direct or Diffuse:
Diluted:
Prof. Claude Oiknine
Jerusalem College Of Technology
05/03/2013
Nature
Direct Radiation and Diffuse Radiation
Atmosphere
90%
10%
Prof. Claude Oiknine
Jerusalem College Of Technology
05/03/2013
Solar Energy Characteristics
Size
Energy Reaching the Surface of the Earth every hour
is greater than the energy used during one year worldwide
Prof. Claude Oiknine
Jerusalem College Of Technology
05/03/2013
Geographically Dependent
Solar Irradiance
Solar Energy Characteristics
Energy Released by One Liter of Fuel Combustion
=
Energy of Sun at Maximum Irradiation Impacting an Area of One
Meter Square During Ten Hours
Sun Energy is huge but very diluted ( 1000 W/m2 at Ground)
Prof. Claude Oiknine
Jerusalem College Of Technology
05/03/2013
Storability
Solar Energy Characteristics
Storage is One Mean of Overcoming Intermittent
Nature of Solar Energy
Existent Systems of Storage are : Batteries and
Melt Salts ;they Are Expensive and Polluting
Today Major R&D Effort to Find Better Systems
for Storage
Question: Is Storage the Optimal Solution ? Why not
Hybridization?
Prof. Claude Oiknine
Jerusalem College Of Technology
05/03/2013
Transforming Solar Energy in Usable Energy
1- Pure Calorific :
Hot Water Production
2- Photovoltaic:
Flat Panels ( CV ) without sun concentration
PV
Systems with Sun Concentration (CPV)
Low Concentration :
C< 20
Medium
:
C < 100
High
:
C > 500
3- Solar Thermal :
CPV
Trough: Medium concentration , parabolic
reflective optics , high power
Tower : High concentration , mirrors optics
4- Sterling :
Sun concentration by reflective dishes
medium to low power
SOLAR
THERMAL
SOLAR THERMAL
TROUGH
DISH WITH STERLING MOTOR
TOWER
Cheap Optics for Sun Concentration
Prof. Claude Oiknine
Jerusalem College Of Technology
05/03/2013
PV/CPV ?
Prof. Claude Oiknine
Jerusalem College Of Technology
05/03/2013
Efficiency and Price of Different
Systems
System
Efficiency
Hot
Water
PV
CPV
Trough Thermal
Thermal
Tower
50-70%
15 %
30%
15-20 %
Power
MW
Capital
Cost
($/W)
<2.25
> 40 kW hundred
one unit MW
<3
< 4.0
15-23%
10-50
MW
<4.5
LCOE
15
?
14 - 36 17 - 29
(c$/kWh)
Capital cost= all initial costs: ground preparation, hardware, installation, inverter,
Sterling
27%
>50 kW
?
?
financial and administration costs ……($/W)
LCOE (Levellized Cost Of Energy)= (Capital Cost + Maintenance Costs During Life Time)/ Total Energy
Produced during Life Time
( c$/kWh )
Prof. Claude Oiknine
Jerusalem College Of Technology
05/03/2013
Solar World Capacity
PV
Prof. Claude Oiknine
THERMAL
Jerusalem College Of Technology
05/03/2013
Solar Energy Implementation in Israel
1- Solar Power Installed in Israel is about 0.5% of Total Power Installed ; it is 6 times
less than France and 20 times less than Germany.
2- L’intention est de porter en 2020 cette puissance a :
- 1550 MW en champs solaires
- 200 MW en rooftop
Israel Goal is to Reach about 7% of Total Power When Germany aims at least 35%
3- Achieved Projects or at least Initiated:
- Arava Power 5 MW PV Achieved (Ketura) ; 68 MW PV Initiated
- Megalim ( Bright Source /Alstom) 121 MW Thermo-Solar Ashalim
Initiated
In project 250 MW for Ashalim
- Rooftop : 80 MW initiated , part achieved.
Solar Energy Implementation in Israel is today very limited
Prof. Claude Oiknine
Technology
Jerusalem College Of
05/03/2013
Historic of Solar Development in Israel
1950s :
First Solar Water Heater by Levi Yssar
1970s :
New Generation of Solar Heat Water by Harry Zvi Tabor
Chromagen
solar water heater now used in over 90% of Israeli homes
1970s-1980s
:
Solar Pond developed by ORMAT (L.Y.Brunicki)
5MW, first solar thermal plant in Israel
1983-1990
:
Trough thermo solar by Luz I ( A. Goldman)
Nine Power Solar Stations installed in California, 354 MW
1992- 2009
: SOLEL purchased most of the assets of Luz I
Major supplier of replacement collectors for California Plants
Siemens Acquired Solel for 418 M$
Solel Sun Collector
Prof. Claude Oiknine
Jerusalem College Of Technology
05/03/2013
Today Solar Development in Israel
Universities
Technion: Basic Research and PV Laboratory
Ben Gurion University: New Multi Junction Cells, Solar Systems, David Faiman
Weizman Institute: Tower (3000 kW,64 heliostats)- Furnace (7000 Sun)- Pilot Tower
with beam down optics
Tel Aviv University :Center for Renewable Energy A.Kribus
Companies
About 100 companies
Distribution and sub systems Manufacture
Water Heating, Engineering Procurement Construction(EPC)
for PV and Thermo solar.
Startup R&D and Manufacturing
3GSolar,D.I.S.P,Ener-T,LuzII(Bright source), MST, Pythagoras, Zenith,bSolar,
Aora ,Tenoga…….
Good inter relations between University and Industry
Israel is perceived worldwide as a major source of solar technology
Prof. Claude Oiknine
Jerusalem College Of Technology
05/03/2013
Israel Assets for Solar Energy
Irradiation
Israel is one of the best location for solar irradiation
Technical Knowledge
Israel is between the most advanced countries in solar
technologies
However solar energy production is today ridiculously
small!
Why?
Energy (and Water) are not strategic assets ?
We have not enough available ground?
Necessary Investment is prohibitive?
Prof. Claude Oiknine
Jerusalem College Of Technology
05/03/2013
Goals and Orders of Magnitude
1- National Consensus in Israel on Strategic Importance of Energy and Water
2- Ground Necessary for 1 GW PV:
12 km2
(less than 1/1000 of Negev area)
3- Capital Investment Necessary for 1GW PV:
Today the Capital Investment is 2,25 $ /W
So the Capital Investment for PV is 2.25Md$/GW
4- Official Goal of 1,75 GW in 2020 Will Require:
21km2 and about 4 Md$
5- In Order to be, at least Close to European Goal we Will Need :
40 km2 and Invest 8 Md$ till 2020
Prof. Claude Oiknine
Jerusalem College Of Technology
05/03/2013
Conclusions
1- Negev is One of the Best Locations for Solar Energy
2- Israel is One of the Most Advanced Countries for Solar Technology
3- The Official Goal to Reach in 2020 10 % of Renewable Energy Must Be Reached
and Increased if Possible Doubled
4- The Area Necessary to Reach this 10% Goal is only 21 km2
5- Discovery of Gas is an Unique Occasion to Finance Installation of Renewable
Energy Plants and in particular Solar Plants
The Capital Investment per Year is About 500 M$ per year
?
Who Manufacture , Who Installs?
PV Panels Are Mainly Manufactured in China and Installed in Europe
Where DNI is Two to Three Times Less than in the Sun Belt
Prof. Claude Oiknine
Jerusalem College Of Technology
05/03/2013

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