العرض التقديمي للمحاضرة

Report
TQM Tools applications
in Engineering
‫أهال وسهال بكم ‪Welcome‬‬
‫نرحب بكم في هذا اللقاء العلمي‬
‫ندوة‬
‫تطبيقات أدوات الجودة الشاملة في الهندسة‬
‫سمير سعيدان‬
[email protected]
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪Samir‬‬
‫‪Seadan‬‬
‫‪www.exploreHR.org‬‬
‫محاور الندوة‬
ISO 9001 9001 ‫ االيزو‬-1
Six Sigma ‫ سيجما ستة‬-2
EFQM Model ‫ نموذج التميز االوروبي‬-3
Balanced Score Cards
Samir
Seadan
www.exploreHR.org
‫ بطاقات االداء المتوازن‬-4
Kaizen ‫ كايزن‬-5
3
‫الجودة‪:‬‬
‫الجودة‪Quality:‬‬
‫هي تحقيق المتطلبات والتوقعات المتفق عليها‪ ،‬فيما بيننا و بين "عمالئنا"‬
‫إدارة الجودة الشاملة ‪TQM :‬‬
‫هي التي تؤكد أننا نخطط و ننظم "ضمن الشركة" لتحقيق هذه المتطلبات و التوقعات المتفق عليها‪.‬‬
‫توكيد الجودة ‪Quality Assurance‬‬
‫مراقبة الجودة ‪Quality Control:‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪Samir‬‬
‫‪Seadan‬‬
‫‪www.exploreHR.org‬‬
‫ما هي االيـزو (‪)ISO 9000‬‬
‫) ‪International Organization for Standardization ( ISO‬‬
‫‪…….ISO ….IOS … Why‬‬
‫منظمة القياس الدولية ‪ /‬جنيف‬
‫تتبناه حاليا ً ‪ 148‬دولة‪.‬‬
‫وهي تهدف في المحصلة إضافة إلى رفع الكفاءة ضمن الشركات إلى تسهيل التجارة الدولية‬
‫بواسطة التزويد بمجموعة موحدة من المقاييس المعترف بها و المحترمة من قبل الجميع‬
‫وفي كل مكان على مستوى العالم‪.‬‬
‫قامت بإصدار اكثر من ‪ 14000‬مواصفة قياسية حتى االن‪.‬‬
‫‪5‬‬
‫‪Samir‬‬
‫‪Seadan‬‬
‫‪www.exploreHR.org‬‬
• Quality Management Standards
ISO 9000 series
•
ISO 9000
Quality Management and Quality assurance standards.
•
ISO 9000-1: 94 Guidelines for selection and use
•
ISO 9000-2: 93 Generic guidelines for the application of ISO 9001, SO 9002, ISO 9003
•
ISO 9000-3: 91 Guidelines for the application of ISO 9001 to the development, supply and
maintenance of software.
•
ISO 9000-4: 93 Guide to dependability program management.
•
ISO 9001: 94
Quality Systems
•
ISO 9002: 94
Quality Systems
ISO 9003: 94
Quality Systems
•
•
•
•
Model for quality assurance in design, development production, installation, and servicing
Model for quality assurance in production, installation, and servicing
Model for quality assurance in final inspection and test
•
ISO 9004
•
ISO 9004-1: 94
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Guide to quality management system elements
ISO
ISO
ISO
ISO
ISO
ISO
9004-2:
9004-3:
9004-4:
9004-5:
9004-6:
9004-7:
91
93
93
93
93
93
General guidelines.
Guidelines
Guidelines
Guidelines
Guidelines
Guidelines
Guidelines
for services.
for processed materials
for Quality improvement
for the use of quality plans
to Quality Assurance for project management
for configuration management
ISO 9001:2000 the new ISO Model for quality assurance in design,
development production, installation, and servicing
Samir
Seadan
• ISO 9001:2008 : Rephrasing
www.exploreHR.org
6
‫تقوم فكرة االيزو ‪ 9001:2008‬على ثمانية مبادئ ادارية اساسية‪،‬‬
‫تم اختيار هذه المبادئ لتحسين اداء الشركات‬
‫المبادئ الثمانية‬
‫التركيز على العمالء( جعل العمالء مركز اهتمام الشركة) ‪Customer Focus‬‬
‫القيادة ‪Leadership‬‬
‫اشراك الجميع ‪Involvement of people‬‬
‫استخدام مفهوم العمليات (بدل مفهوم االدارات) ‪Process Approach‬‬
‫مفهوم المنظومة للعمليات ‪System Approach to Management‬‬
‫التطوير المستمر ‪Continual Improvement‬‬
‫اتخاذ القرارات بناء على حقائق ‪Factual Approach to Decision Making‬‬
‫توطيد العالقة مع الموردين ‪Mutually Beneficial Supplier‬‬
‫‪Relationships‬‬
‫‪7‬‬
‫‪Samir‬‬
‫‪Seadan‬‬
‫‪www.exploreHR.org‬‬
‫التركيز على العمالء( جعل العمالء مركز اهتمام الشركة)‬
‫‪Customer Focus‬‬
‫ان وجود و تقدم و ربحية الشركات تعتمد على درجة رضى ووالء العمالء‪ ،‬لذلك‬
‫على الشركات‪:‬‬
‫‪.1‬‬
‫‪.2‬‬
‫‪.3‬‬
‫‪.4‬‬
‫‪.5‬‬
‫‪8‬‬
‫تفهم احتياجات و توقعات العمالء‪.‬‬
‫تحقيق احتياجات العمالء‪.‬‬
‫تحقيق توقعات العمالء بل تجاوز هذه التوقعات‪.‬‬
‫التعامل بكفاءة و فعالية مع شكاوى العمالء‬
‫قياس درجة رضاء العمالء‬
‫‪Samir‬‬
‫‪Seadan‬‬
‫‪www.exploreHR.org‬‬
‫القيادة ‪Leadership‬‬
‫القيادة في الشركة تقوم بتحفيز العاملين لتحقيق اهداف و غايات الشركة و لتسهيل االتصال‬
‫‪ Communications‬ضمن الشركة لذلك‪:‬‬
‫‪.1‬‬
‫‪.2‬‬
‫‪.3‬‬
‫‪9‬‬
‫على قيادة الشركة تحديد هدف ‪ /‬اهداف الشركة و توجيه موارد الشركة لتحقيق هذه‬
‫االهداف‪.‬‬
‫على االدارة العليا في الشركة خلق اجواء عمل تشجع منتسبيها على تحقيق االهداف‬
‫المخططة‪.‬‬
‫هذه االهداف يجب ان تكون ‪SMART Objectives‬‬
‫‪Samir‬‬
‫‪Seadan‬‬
‫‪www.exploreHR.org‬‬
‫اشراك الموظفين‬
‫‪Involvement of people‬‬
‫ان تحفيز والتزام واشراك جميع العاملين ضمن الشركة يقود الى‬
‫التطوير و بالتالي على الشركات‪:‬‬
‫‪ .1‬اشراك موظفيها بعملية التطوير و اتخاذ القرار والمبادرات‪.‬‬
‫‪ .2‬مساعدة الموظفين لتطوير قدراتهم و تشجيعهم على استخدام‬
‫هذه القدرات‪.‬‬
‫‪10‬‬
‫‪Samir‬‬
‫‪Seadan‬‬
‫‪www.exploreHR.org‬‬
‫استخدام مفهوم العمليات (بدل مفهوم االدارات)‬
‫‪Process Approach‬‬
‫الشركات تقوم بعمليات تشترك بها اكثر من ادارة و بالتالي يجب النظر الى‬
‫العملية ككل بغض النظر عن االدارة او مجموعة االدارات التي تساهم في‬
‫اتمام العملية‪ ،‬ان هذا المفهوم يدفع باتجاه مسئولية الجميع عن نجاح عملية‬
‫ما بعكس نظرية االدارات التي يقوم خاللها كل ادارة بأداء عملها من وجهة‬
‫نظرها دون االخذ باالعتبار تأثير ذلك على الغير‪.‬‬
‫‪11‬‬
‫‪Samir‬‬
‫‪Seadan‬‬
‫‪www.exploreHR.org‬‬
‫مفهوم العمليات‬
Process approach
Plan
ACT
Do
Verify/Check
(Correct)
Samir
Seadan
www.exploreHR.org
12
‫مفهوم المنظومة للعمليات‬
‫‪System Approach to Management‬‬
‫على الشركة ان تقوم بتحديد الروابط و العالقات الداخلية ما بين العمليات‬
‫المختلفة ومعاملتها كمنظومة‪.‬‬
‫‪13‬‬
‫‪Samir‬‬
‫‪Seadan‬‬
‫‪www.exploreHR.org‬‬
‫التطوير المستمر ‪Continual‬‬
‫‪Improvement‬‬
‫إن أحد أهم مبادئ االيزو ‪ 9001:2008‬هي‬
‫التطوير المستمر و بالتالي على الشركة‬
‫وباستمرار تطوير أساليب عملها وإجراءاتها‬
‫وخدماتها وبالتالي أدائها لتستمر باالحتفاظ‬
‫بحصتها من السوق وبرضى ووالء العمالء‪.‬‬
‫‪ISO 9000:2000‬‬
‫‪14‬‬
‫‪Samir‬‬
‫‪Seadan‬‬
‫‪www.exploreHR.org‬‬
‫اتخاذ القرارات بناء على حقائق‬
‫‪Factual Approach to Decision Making‬‬
‫اتخاذ القرار ( أي قرار) هي عملية موازنة بين مختلف الخيارات وبالتالي فان‬
‫الحصول على الحقائق الموضوعية قبل اتخاذ القرار وتحليل هذه المعطيات‬
‫احصائيا ً هي مقدمة اتخاذ أي قرار اداري سليم‪.‬‬
‫‪15‬‬
‫‪Samir‬‬
‫‪Seadan‬‬
‫‪www.exploreHR.org‬‬
‫توطيد العالقة مع الموردين‬
‫‪Mutually Beneficial Supplier Relationships‬‬
‫الشركات تعتمد في تقديم خدماتها لعمالئها على الخدمات و السلع المقدمة‬
‫لها من مورديها و بالتالي علينا اقامة عالقة مفتوحة واالستفادة من‬
‫موارد و خبرات و تقنيات الموردين‪.‬‬
‫‪16‬‬
‫‪Samir‬‬
‫‪Seadan‬‬
‫‪www.exploreHR.org‬‬
System Requirements / Structure of the Standard
4 Quality
Management
System
5 Management
Responsibility
General
requirements
Documentation
Requirements
Management
Commitment
Customer
focus
6 Resource
Management
Provision of
resources
Human
resources
7 Product
Realization
Planning
General
Customer
related
processes
Monitoring &
measurement
Design &
development
Control of NCP
Quality policy
Infrastructures
Planning
Responsibility,
authority &
communication
Work
environmen
t
8
Measurement
Analysis &
improvement
Analysis of data
Purchasing
Improvements
Production &
service
provision
Management
Reviews
Samir
Seadan
www.exploreHR.org
17
‫نظام إدارة الجودة‬
‫مسئولية اإلدارة‬
‫العميل‬
‫العميل‬
‫إدارة الموارد‬
‫متطلبات‬
‫‪18‬‬
‫مدخالت‬
‫القياس والتحليل‬
‫والتحسين‬
‫إدراك خصائص‬
‫المنتج‪ /‬الخدمة‬
‫المنتج‬
‫رضا العميل‬
‫مخرجات‬
‫‪Samir‬‬
‫‪Seadan‬‬
‫‪www.exploreHR.org‬‬
‫‪ 4.‬نظام إدارة الجودة‬
‫‪ 4.1‬متطلبات عامة‬
‫‪4 Quality‬‬
‫‪Management‬‬
‫‪System‬‬
‫تعريف وتحديد جميع العمليات المطلوبة‪.‬‬
‫‪ .1‬تحديد تسلسل وتداخالت العمليات‪.‬‬
‫‪ .2‬تحديد المواصفات والطرق المطلوبة للتأكد من كفاءة التشغيل‬
‫‪General‬‬
‫والتحكم في تلك العمليات‪.‬‬
‫‪requirements‬‬
‫‪ .3‬التأكد من توفير المعلومات‪ ،‬الموارد الضرورية لدعم وتشغيل‬
‫‪Documentation‬‬
‫ومراقبة تلك العمليات‪.‬‬
‫‪Requirements‬‬
‫‪ .4‬قياس ومراقبة وتحليل تلك العمليات‪.‬‬
‫‪ .5‬تطبيق اإلجراءات الضرورية لتحقيق النتائج المخططة‬
‫والتحسين المستمر‪.‬‬
‫‪19‬‬
‫‪Samir‬‬
‫‪Seadan‬‬
‫‪www.exploreHR.org‬‬
‫‪ 4.2‬متطلبات الوثائق‬
‫وثائق نظام إدارة الجودة يجب أن تشمل التالي‪:‬‬
‫‪ .1‬أهداف وسياسة جودة موثقة‬
‫‪ .2‬دليل الجودة‬
‫‪ .3‬إجراءات موثقة‬
‫‪ .4‬وثائق مطلوبة بالمؤسسة للتأكد من فعالية‬
‫التخطيط والتشغيل وضبط العمليات‬
‫‪ .5‬سجالت الجودة المطلوبة بالمواصفة العالمية‬
‫‪20‬‬
‫‪4 Quality‬‬
‫‪Management‬‬
‫‪System‬‬
‫‪General‬‬
‫‪requirements‬‬
‫‪Documentation‬‬
‫‪Requirements‬‬
‫‪Samir‬‬
‫‪Seadan‬‬
‫‪www.exploreHR.org‬‬
‫‪ 5‬مسؤولية االدارة‬
‫‪ 5.1‬التزام اإلدارة‬
‫‪5 Management‬‬
‫‪Responsibility‬‬
‫قيام اإلدارة العليا بتقديم أدلة على التزامها بالتطوير والتحسين‬
‫المستمر لنظام الجودة من خالل‬
‫تفهم المؤسسة (العاملين) ألهمية التوافق مع المتطلبات كل‬
‫‪.1‬‬
‫من العمالء والقوانين المنظمة‬
‫إنشاء سياسة الجودة‬
‫‪.2‬‬
‫ضمان تحديد أهداف الجودة‬
‫‪.3‬‬
‫القيام بمراجعات اإلدارة‬
‫‪.4‬‬
‫ضمان توفير الموارد‬
‫‪.5‬‬
‫‪Management‬‬
‫‪Commitment‬‬
‫‪Customer‬‬
‫‪focus‬‬
‫‪Quality policy‬‬
‫‪Planning‬‬
‫‪Responsibility,‬‬
‫& ‪authority‬‬
‫‪communication‬‬
‫‪Management‬‬
‫‪Reviews‬‬
‫‪21‬‬
‫‪Samir‬‬
‫‪Seadan‬‬
‫‪www.exploreHR.org‬‬
‫‪ 5.2‬وضع العميل في بؤرة االهتمام‬
‫‪5 Management‬‬
‫‪Responsibility‬‬
‫‪.1‬‬
‫‪.2‬‬
‫‪.3‬‬
‫‪.4‬‬
‫معرفة وتحديد احتياجات وتوقعات العمالء‬
‫الخطوات المتخذة للتحقق من مدى تحقيق هذه التوقعات‬
‫واالحتياجات‬
‫الطرق المتبعة للتعرف على مدى إشباع رغبات العمالء‬
‫كيفية معرفة رضى العمالء‬
‫‪Management‬‬
‫‪Commitment‬‬
‫‪Customer‬‬
‫‪focus‬‬
‫‪Quality policy‬‬
‫‪Planning‬‬
‫‪Responsibility,‬‬
‫& ‪authority‬‬
‫‪communication‬‬
‫‪Management‬‬
‫‪22‬‬
‫‪Samir‬‬
‫‪Seadan‬‬
‫‪Reviews‬‬
‫‪www.exploreHR.org‬‬
‫‪ 5.3‬سياسة الجودة‬
‫التوجه العام ألي مؤسسة تجاه الجودة كما تحدده اإلدارة العليا‬
‫يجب أن تتميز سياسة الجودة باألتي‪:‬‬
‫‪.1‬‬
‫‪.2‬‬
‫‪.3‬‬
‫‪.4‬‬
‫‪.5‬‬
‫‪.6‬‬
‫‪23‬‬
‫‪5 Management‬‬
‫‪Responsibility‬‬
‫‪Management‬‬
‫‪Commitment‬‬
‫مناسبة لطبيعة ونشاط المؤسسة‬
‫‪Customer‬‬
‫تتضمن االلتزام بالتوافق مع متطلبات المواصفة الدولية‬
‫‪focus‬‬
‫تتضمن االلتزام بالتحسين والتطوير المستمر‬
‫‪Quality policy‬‬
‫توضح اإلطار العام لبناء أهداف الجودة ومراجعتها‬
‫‪Planning‬‬
‫يتم توصيلها وتفهمها على جميع المستويات داخل‬
‫المؤسسة‬
‫‪Responsibility,‬‬
‫& ‪authority‬‬
‫يتم مراجعتها للتأكد من استمرار مالءمتها‬
‫‪communication‬‬
‫‪Management‬‬
‫‪Reviews‬‬
‫‪Samir‬‬
‫‪Seadan‬‬
‫‪www.exploreHR.org‬‬
‫‪ 5.4‬التخطيط‬
‫‪5 Management‬‬
‫‪Responsibility‬‬
‫‪ 5.4.1‬أهداف الجودة‬
‫‪ .1‬تالئم جميع الوظائف والمستويات‬
‫‪SMART .2‬‬
‫‪ .3‬متطابقة مع سياسة الجودة‬
‫•‬
‫•‬
‫‪Customer‬‬
‫‪focus‬‬
‫تخطيط اية امور تتعلق بالجودة‬
‫ضمان أن التخطيط والتغيير يتم بطريقة مضبوطة وأن‬
‫نظام الجودة ككل يتم المحافظة عليه أثناء التغيير‪.‬‬
‫‪24‬‬
‫‪Management‬‬
‫‪Commitment‬‬
‫‪Quality policy‬‬
‫‪Planning‬‬
‫‪Responsibility,‬‬
‫& ‪authority‬‬
‫‪communication‬‬
‫‪Management‬‬
‫‪Reviews‬‬
‫‪Samir‬‬
‫‪Seadan‬‬
‫‪www.exploreHR.org‬‬
‫‪ 5.5‬المسئوليات‪ ،‬الصالحيات‪ ،‬االتصاالت‬
‫‪5 Management‬‬
‫‪Responsibility‬‬
‫المسئوليات والصالحيات والعالقات البينية (التداخالت) قد تم تعريفها وتوصيلها إلى‬
‫‪Management‬‬
‫جميع المستويات‪.‬‬
‫‪Commitment‬‬
‫تعيين ممثل اإلدارة‪.‬‬
‫•‬
‫‪Customer‬‬
‫‪focus‬‬
‫أعضاء اإلدارة‬
‫•‬
‫‪Quality policy‬‬
‫ضمان أن عمليات نظام الجودة مطبقة ومحافظ عليها‪.‬‬
‫•‬
‫•‬
‫تقديم تقارير لإلدارة العليا عن نظام الجودة تشمل االحتياجات والتحسين‪Planning .‬‬
‫التأكد من تفهم والوعي بمتطلبات العمالء‪.‬‬
‫•‬
‫‪Responsibility,‬‬
‫& ‪authority‬‬
‫‪communication‬‬
‫‪Management‬‬
‫‪Reviews‬‬
‫‪25‬‬
‫‪Samir‬‬
‫‪Seadan‬‬
‫‪www.exploreHR.org‬‬
‫ مراجعات اإلدارة‬5.6
5 Management
Responsibility
Management
Commitment
Customer
focus
Quality policy
Planning
Responsibility,
authority &
communication
Management
Reviews
Samir
Seadan
www.exploreHR.org
‫مخططة بصورة دورية‬
‫فرص التحسين والتطوير‬
‫سياسة وأهداف الجودة‬
‫مدخالت المراجعة‬
‫مخرجات المراجعة‬
.1
.2
.3
.4
.5
26
‫ إدارة الموارد‬6.0
6 Resource
Management
Provision of
resources
Human
resources
Infrastructures
Work environment
Samir
Seadan
www.exploreHR.org
‫ توفير الموارد‬6.1
‫ الموارد البشرية‬6.2
‫ البنية األساسية‬6.3
‫ بيئة العمل‬6.4
27
7 Product
Realization
Planning
Customer related
processes
Design &
development
Purchasing
‫ المنتج‬.7
‫ التخطيط‬-1.7
‫ العمليات المتعلقة بالعمالء‬-2.7
‫ التصميم والتطوير‬-3.7
‫ المشتريات‬-4.7
‫ االنتاج وتزويد الخدمة‬-5.7
‫ مراقبة ومعاييره االجهزة‬-6.7
Production &
service provision
Monitoring of
Devices
Samir
Seadan
www.exploreHR.org
28
‫• اإلستثناءات‬
‫محدودة من خالل البند رقم ‪ 7‬لمتطلبات المواصفة الدولية‬
‫هذه اإلستثناءات ال تؤثر على قدرة المؤسسة أو‬
‫مسئوليتها‬
‫على تقديم منتج ‪ /‬خدمة ذو قدرة على إرضاء العميل‬
‫ويتوافر به جميع المتطلبات المنظمة‪.‬‬
‫‪29‬‬
‫‪Samir‬‬
‫‪Seadan‬‬
‫‪www.exploreHR.org‬‬
‫ التحسين‬،‫ التحليل‬،‫ القياس‬. 8
8 Measurement
Analysis &
improvement
General
Monitoring &
measurement
Control of NCP
Analysis of data
Improvements
Samir
Seadan
www.exploreHR.org
‫ عام‬8.1
‫ الرقابة والقياس‬8.2
‫ ضبط حاالت عدم المطابقة‬8.3
‫ تحليل البيانات‬8.4
‫ التطوير والتحسين‬8.5
30
Six Sigma
What is Sigma ?
Sigma
Samir
Seadan
www.exploreHR.org
A term used in statistics to represent
standard deviation, an indicator of the
degree of variation in a set of a process
32
What is Six Sigma?
Six
Sigma
A statistical concept that measures a
process in terms of defects – at the six
sigma level, there 3.4 defects per
million opportunities
A philosophy and a goal : as perfect as
practically possible
A methodology and a symbol of quality
Samir
Seadan
www.exploreHR.org
33
Sigma Level
Sigma Level
(Process Capability)
Defects per Million
Opportunities
2
3
4
5
6
308,537
66,807
6,210
233
3.4
Samir
Seadan
www.exploreHR.org
34
Sigma Level
Six Sigma =
99,9997%
Samir
Seadan
www.exploreHR.org
35
Sigma Level
Why not 4 Sigma
or 99.379% ?
Samir
Seadan
www.exploreHR.org
• Every hour the postal service
would lose 20,000 pieces of mail
• Every day our drinking water
would be unsafe for almost 15
minutes
• Every week there would be 5,000
surgical operations that go wrong
in some way
• Every month we would be without
electricity for almost 7 hours
36
Why Six Sigma?
Money
Samir
Seadan
www.exploreHR.org
Quality
Customer
Satisfaction
Competitive
Advantage
Growth
Employee Pride
37
Why Six Sigma?
• At GE, Six Sigma added more than $ 2 billion to the
bottom line in 1999 alone
• Motorola saved more than $ 15 billion in the first 10
years of its Six Sigma effort
• AlliedSignal reports saving $ 1,5 billion through Six
Sigma.
Samir
Seadan
www.exploreHR.org
38
Why Six Sigma?
Six Sigma is about practices that help you
eliminate defects and always deliver
products and services that meet customer
specifications
Samir
Seadan
www.exploreHR.org
39
Cost of Poor Quality
What is cost of waste?
What is cost of rework?
What is cost of excessive cycle times and
delays?
Samir
Seadan
www.exploreHR.org
40
Cost of Poor Quality
What is cost of business lost because
customers are dissatisfied with your
products or services?
What is cost of opportunities lost because
you didn’t have time or the resources to take
advantage of them?
Samir
Seadan
www.exploreHR.org
41
Voice of Customer- VOC.
Customer Centricity – The
Cornerstone of 6-Sigma
Customer
How would my
customer like
for our process
to perform?
What does my
customer need
from our
process?
What can we
do better?
How is our
process
performance
from the
customer
perspective?
Samir
Seadan
www.exploreHR.org
How does my
customer
measure my
process?
How does my
customer view
my process?
42
Critical-to-Quality (CTQ)
Elements of a process that significantly affect
the output of that process. Identifying these
elements is figuring out how to make
improvements that can dramatically reduce
costs and enhance quality.
Samir
Seadan
www.exploreHR.org
43
Six Sigma Phases
Samir
Seadan
www.exploreHR.org
44
Six Sigma Phases
Define
Measure Analyze
Improve
DMAIC
Samir
Seadan
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Control
45
Six Sigma Phases
Define
Define the project goals and customer
(internal and external) deliverables
Measure
Measure the process to determine current
performance
Analyze
Analyze and determine the root cause(s)
of the defects
Samir
Seadan
www.exploreHR.org
46
Six Sigma Phases
Improve
Improve the process by eliminating defects
Control
Control future process performance
Samir
Seadan
www.exploreHR.org
47
Six Sigma Phases
• Define Customers and Requirements (CTQs)
Define
• Develop Problem Statement, Goals and
Benefits
• Identify Champion, Process Owner and Team
• Define Resources
• Evaluate Key Organizational Support
• Develop Project Plan and Milestones
• Develop High Level Process Map
Samir
Seadan
www.exploreHR.org
48
Six Sigma Phases
• Define Defect, Opportunity, Unit and Metrics
Measure
• Detailed Process Map of Appropriate Areas
• Develop Data Collection Plan
• Validate the Measurement System
• Collect the Data
• Begin Developing Y=f(x) Relationship
• Determine Process Capability and Sigma
Baseline
Samir
Seadan
www.exploreHR.org
49
Six Sigma Phases
• Define Performance Objectives
Analyze
• Identify Value/Non-Value Added Process
Steps
• Identify Sources of Variation
• Determine Root Cause(s)
• Determine Vital Few x's, Y=f(x)
Relationship
Samir
Seadan
www.exploreHR.org
50
Six Sigma Phases
• Perform Design of Experiments
Improve
• Develop Potential Solutions
• Define Operating Tolerances of Potential
System
• Assess Failure Modes of Potential
Solutions
• Validate Potential Improvement by Pilot
Studies
• Correct/Re-Evaluate Potential Solution
Samir
Seadan
www.exploreHR.org
51
Six Sigma Phases
Control
• Define and Validate Monitoring and Control
System
• Develop Standards and Procedures
• Implement Statistical Process Control
• Determine Process Capability
• Develop Transfer Plan, Handoff to Process Owner
• Verify Benefits, Cost Savings/Avoidance, Profit
Growth
• Close Project, Finalize Documentation
• Communicate to Business, Celebrate
Samir
Seadan
www.exploreHR.org
52
Tools and Roles for
Six Sigma
Samir
Seadan
www.exploreHR.org
53
Tools for Six Sigma
• Creating flowcharts of the step in a
process – operations, decision points,
delays, movements, handoffs, rework,
loops, and controls or inspections.
• A process map is illustrated description of
how a process work.
Samir
Seadan
www.exploreHR.org
Process
Mapping
54
Tools for Six Sigma
• DOE is a structured, organized method for
determining the relationship between
factors (Xs) affecting a process and the
output of that process (Y).
Samir
Seadan
www.exploreHR.org
Design of
Experiments
or DOE
55
Tools for Six Sigma
• A group of rows and columns, with one set
of increments marked along the X
(horizontal) axis and another set of
increments marked along the Y (vertical)
axis.
• The purpose of using XY matrix is to study
and understand the relationship between
what you are putting into a process and
what your customer is getting out of it.
• The XY matrix allows the team to identify
gaps, areas for improvement.
www.exploreHR.org
Samir Seadan
XY Matrix
56
Tools for Six Sigma
• Process capability tool is the measure of a
process being able to meet specification
requirements and fulfill customer CTQ
needs on a long term basis.
Samir
Seadan
www.exploreHR.org
Process
Capability
Tool
57
Tools for Six Sigma
• Investigating a theory about the suspected
cause (s) of a particular effect in a process
to determine if it is correct.
• It’s a compass that points you directly to
the vital few factors that are most affecting
your process.
Samir
Seadan
www.exploreHR.org
Hypothesis
Testing
58
Tools for Six Sigma
• The manner in which a part or process can
fail to meet a specification, creating a
defect or non-conformance, and the impact
on the customer if that failure mode is not
prevented or corrected.
Samir
Seadan
www.exploreHR.org
Failure
Mode Effect
Analysis
59
Tools for Six Sigma
• A detailed assessment and guide for
maintaining all the positive changes you,
your black belt, and the project team have
made.
• It ensures that all your analysis and efforts
stay in effect and that you have information
at your disposal to prevent backsliding or a
return to less than optimal performance
standard.
Samir
Seadan
www.exploreHR.org
Control
Plan
60
Key Roles for Six Sigma
Executive
Leadership
Includes CEO and other key top management
team members. They are responsible for setting
up a vision for Six Sigma implementation.
Champions
Are responsible for the Six Sigma
implementation across the organization in an
integrated manner. Champions also act as
mentor to Black Belts.
Samir
Seadan
www.exploreHR.org
61
Key Roles for Six Sigma
Master
Black Belts
Identified by champions, act as in-house expert
coach for the organization on Six Sigma. They
devote 100% of their time to Six Sigma.
Black Belts
Operate under Master Black Belts to apply Six
Sigma methodology to specific projects. They
primarily focus on Six Sigma project execution.
Samir
Seadan
www.exploreHR.org
62
Key Roles for Six Sigma
Green Belts
Samir
Seadan
www.exploreHR.org
Are the employees who take up Six Sigma
implementation along with their other job
responsibilities. They operate under the guidance
of Black Belts and support them in achieving the
overall results.
63
Excellence Model -EFQM
RESULTS
ENABLERS
Partnerships
& Resources
Processes
Leadership
Policy &
Strategy
Customer
Results
Society
Results
Key
Performance
Results
People
Results
People
INNOVATION AND LEARNING
www.exploreHR.org
65
RESULTS
ENABLERS
Leadership
Policy &
Strategy
90
80
Partnerships
& Resources
90
140
People
Results
90
Customer
Results
200
Society
Results
150
Key
Performance
Results
People
Processes
100
60
INNOVATION AND LEARNING
www.exploreHR.org
66
Leadership : 100
1- Purpose and Direction
2- Vision , Mission & Values
3- Company Identity
4- Motivation
People : 90
1- Competencies
2-Loyality & Motivated
3- Intellectual Capital
Samir
Seadan
www.exploreHR.org
Policy & Strategy :80
1- Defined Policies and
strategies
2- known to all
Partnership and Resources: 90
1- sharing risk and cost
2- improving competitiveness
67
Processes : 140
1- Efficient and Effective
2- Enhanced confidence of
stakeholders
People Results: 90
1- employee satisfaction
2- People retention
Customer Results : 200
Society Results : 60
1- Customers satisfaction
1- unemployment's issues
2- Customers Complaints
2- Environment
3- Customers Loyalty
Key performance Results: 150
1- Profit
2- Market share
3- Costs
Samir
Seadan
www.exploreHR.org
68
EFQM Levels of Excellence:
1- European Quality Award - EQA
2- Recognized for Excellence
3- Committed to Excellence
Samir
Seadan
www.exploreHR.org
69
Balanced Score Cards
What - is the Balanced Scorecard ?
• A business measurement tool
•
• Used for both planning and performance
reporting
• Key factor being to agree the correct set
of measures / targets
 relevant to a particular business vision
and strategy
 which may be combined to produce an
overall business performance “score”
Samir
Seadan
www.exploreHR.org
71
What is the Balanced Scorecard..?
• In its generic format it brings together 4 aspects of business
which are necessary for sustained future business success
–
–
–
–
People and learning
Internal Processes
Customer
Financial
A proven feature of the Scorecard concept is its
adaptability to fit a wide variety of business situations
Commercial, state or privately owned
Profit and non-profit organisations
All industry sectors
Large and small organisations
Samir
Seadan
www.exploreHR.org
72
Key principles of the BSC ...
• Alignment of management focus and resource allocation
to the achievement of goals / strategic objectives:
…. “the strategy focused organisation”
…. “translating Vision into reality”
•
Business performance measurement ( and targeting ) of
the key drivers of success
•
Feedback and learning : is the strategy working - are we on
track to reach our goals ..?
Samir
Seadan
www.exploreHR.org
73
Illustrative - Overall Scorecard Summary…
C1
C2
C3
C4
C5
C6
C7
F1
F2
F3
F4
IP1
IP2
IP3
IP4
P1
P2
P3
Note 1
Note 2
Customer satisfaction
Customer acquisition/growth
Customer relationship / cross-sell
Market Analysts
Effectiveness of brand
Customer retention
Market share
CUSTOMER
ROE
Cost income ratio
Asset quality
Market capitalisation
FINANCE
Risk Management
Process efficiency
SLA achievement
Project Management
INTERNAL PROCESSES
Staff skills
Staff morale
Corporate culture index
PEOPLE
5
10
5
5
5
5
5
40%
10
5
5
5
25%
5
5
5
5
20%
5
5
5
15%
60.0%
10.0%
220.0%
NA
70.0%
8.0%
5.2%
64.0%
12.5%
228.0%
55.0%
73.0%
8.1%
4.5%
70.0%
12.0%
240.0%
NA
75.0%
8.0%
5.1%
65.0%
12.5%
240.0%
50.0%
74.0%
7.9%
4.4%
n/a
n/a
Trigger points for Red / Amber / Green need to be established for every individual measure
If underlying measure data has been updated since previous report, superimpose arrow to indicate movement
( I.e. arrow up = better result : down = worse : horizontal = no change )
Samir
Seadan
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74
In simple language ...
•
Understanding where is your destination
•
Understanding the route you are proposing
to take
•
Then - reading the signposts to check if
you are correctly en-route
It may sound simple, BUT …
many organisations do not have answers to these points
Samir
Seadan
www.exploreHR.org
75
Alignment across the organisation…
a mixture of shared and unique measures
CORPORATE CORPORATE
Samir
Seadan
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DIVISION
DIVISION
DEPT
DEPT
DEPT
76
Aligning people …
( “Before and After” a successful Scorecard application )
Samir
Seadan
www.exploreHR.org
77
People and Learning Perspective :
to achieve our vision how will we sustain our ability to change and improve..?
– People / HR
•
•
•
•
morale ( including confidence in leadership )
skills / competencies ( and resultant skills gap)
attendance / absenteeism
applications per vacancy
– Learning / Change / Capabilities
• effectiveness of training
• overall change management / ability to change
• innovation / creativity
– R&D investment ratio
– income from new ideas / products
• living the corporate values
Samir
Seadan
www.exploreHR.org
78
Internal Process Perspective :
to satisfy our shareholders and customers what internal processes must we e
at..?
• Overall Focus on Quality, Time and Efficiency
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
quality / error rate / warranty claim rate
on - time delivery
unit cost
IT availability / response times
effectiveness of communications
environmental impact
project management
development time to market
overhead cost ratio
supplier management
average stock level
Samir
Seadan
www.exploreHR.org
79
Customer perspective :
to achieve our vision how should we appear to our customers..?
– who is the customer ?
• intermediaries / brokers
• direct customer
• community / regulator
– customer results
•
•
•
•
•
market share / competitor position
new customers / retention / attrition
recovery
relationship
satisfaction
– what are drivers of customer success ?
• service recovery
• image
• sales conversion rate
Samir
Seadan
www.exploreHR.org
80
Financial perspective :
to succeed financially how should we appear to our shareholders..?
• Focus on established measures of financial
performance - the delayed consequence of
performance in the 3 other Scorecard quadrants.
• Typical measures :
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
ROE / ROI /
Business volume growth
Share price / Market capitalisation
Investor confidence
Overall efficiency / Cost: income ratio
Risk management / Loss: asset ratio
Cash flow
Value add per employee
Samir
Seadan
www.exploreHR.org
81
Kaizen
•
Masaaki Imai
Founder and Chairman
1984
KAIZEN
The Key to
Japanese
Competitive
Success
Samir
Seadan
www.exploreHR.org
1987
‘GEMBA KAIZEN’
The Commonsense
Approach
to
Management
Two path breaking books,
that offered true insights into Japanese
Management
83
Kaizen Institute, Ltd.
Parent Company
(Switzerland)
Kaizen Institute
America
1985
Kaizen Institute
Europe
1990
Kaizen Institute
Japan
1990
Reconstituted as
Kaizen Institute
Africa Asia Pacific
Year 2000
Samir
Seadan
www.exploreHR.org
84
KAIZEN
•
KAI …..
CHANGE
Gemba
Japanese for
the Real Place,
the place where value is added,
Also means workplace/shop floor
ZEN ….
GOOD
(FOR THE BETTER)
Samir
Seadan
www.exploreHR.org
KAIZEN…..
CONTINUAL IMPROVEMENT
85
KAIZEN Management Paradigm
TOP
MANAGEMENT
MIDDLE
MANAGEMENT
SUPERVISORS
Innovation
Development
KAIZEN
Maintenance
(Current Status)
WORKERS
Samir
Seadan
www.exploreHR.org
86
KAIZEN is: Focused Improvement.
Improvement
Focused Improvement
KAIZEN
Paper does not
burn in sunlight
Improvement is like sunlight:
• Lot of energy, but dispersed (wasted)
• Small improvements
• Slow progress.
Samir
Seadan
www.exploreHR.org
Paper does not
Paper
burn
in burns
sunlight
Focused improvement concentrates the energy:
• Little energy, but concentrated and aligned
• Enables significant (large) improvements
• Small time required
• Rapid progress
87
What really is KAIZEN®
Eliminating waste from processes is Kaizen.
Kaizen is process improvements
• which are s ignificant (large)
• Focused on s trategically important areas
• Achieved
• and are
Samir
Seadan
www.exploreHR.org
s peedily
s ustainable
88
Muda Definition
Activity
= Useful Work + Wasteful Work
= Added Value + Non Added Value
Expenditure =
Cost
+ Waste (Muda)
MUDA is
Japanese for
wasteful work
(non value
adding work)
Cost is due to useful work
Waste comes from MUDA
KAIZEN
attacks MUDA
first
Samir
Seadan
www.exploreHR.org
89
Types of MUDA
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Muda of over-production
Muda of waiting
Muda of transport
Muda of processing
Muda of inventory
Muda of motion
Muda of repair/rejects
Samir
Seadan
www.exploreHR.org
90
Types of MUDA
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Muda of Untapped Human Potential
Muda of Inappropriate Systems
Muda of Resources – Energy, water
Muda of Materials
Muda in Service and Offices
Muda of Customer Time
Muda of Defecting Customers
Samir
Seadan
www.exploreHR.org
91
How can we determine Muda?
What does customer want from this
process?
Is he willing to pay for it?
Samir
Seadan
www.exploreHR.org
92
Gemba Kaizen also Focuses on :
Mura
•
•
•
•
Samir
Seadan
www.exploreHR.org
Mura = Inconsistencies
Happens sometimes?
Happens some places
Happens to some people
One side is ok; the other side
is not ok
All this is Mura
93
Gemba Kaizen also Focuses on :
Muri
•
•
•
•
•
Samir
Seadan
www.exploreHR.org
Muri = Physical Strain
Bend to work?
Push hard?
Lift weight?
Repeat tiring action?
Wasteful walk?
All this is Muri
94
®
KAIZEN
•Total Quality Control
•QC Circles
• 5s
•Suggestion System
•Automation
•Total Productive Maintenance
Samir
Seadan
www.exploreHR.org
•Kanban
•Just In Time
•Zero Defects
•Small-Group Activities
•Worker/Management Relations
•Productivity Improvement
95
KAIZEN Process
•
Improvement
A P
C D
A P
C D
A
S
C
D
A
S
C
D
P: Plan
D: Do
C:Check
A:Act
S: Standardize
D: Do
C:Check
A:Act
Time
Samir
Seadan
www.exploreHR.org
96
The KAIZEN Story:
1) Select a project
2) Go to Gemba to understand current situation & to set objectives
3) Collect data from Gemba & analyze to find root causes
4) Establish Solutions
5) Implement on Gemba
6) Confirm effect / result
7) Standardize
8) Review it often & work on it to improve.
Samir
Seadan
www.exploreHR.org
97
Impact of KAIZEN Implementation
Typical results of Kaizen workshops have been:
•50~70% reduction in processing time
•20~40% increase in efficiency
•20~40% savings in costs
•40%-60% reduction in errors
•50% release of space
•Significant improvement in morale
•Empowering of human resource
•Discovery of new capabilities
Samir
Seadan
www.exploreHR.org
98
Thank You
End of Material
www.exploreHR.org
99

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