iCem® Service Achieving wellbore integrity with sound, technical decision making © 2011 HALLIBURTON. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. Increasing the Probability of Wellbore Integrity Sound technical decisions rely on: – Field-proven technical solutions – Laboratory-driven empirical data And now the most robust cementing design tool available in the industry: iCem® Service Drive better decisions by collaboratively conducting iterative scenarios and evaluating alternatives for achieving successful cementing operations. © 2011 HALLIBURTON. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. iCem® Service – Wellbore Integrity Water Aquifer Increasing the probability of a successful cementing job • Restrict fluid movement between formations • Bond and support the casing Hydrocarbon Zone Hydrocarbon Zone © 2011 HALLIBURTON. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. iCem® Service – Analysis for the Life of the Well Drilling Completion Production BENEFITS OF LIFE-OF-THE-WELL CEMENTING Long-Term Zonal Isolation Help Increase Production and Minimize the Occurrence of Sustained Casing Pressure Help Minimize Remedial Costs Help Minimize Environmental Impact © 2011 HALLIBURTON. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. General Cementing Job – Process Overview Solution Development Finite Element Analysis Computational Fluid Dynamics Job Execution Density Control High-Capacity Blender Dropping the Plug Bulk Delivery and Feed Cement Sheath with optimum zonal isolation is the objective for each individual well. © 2011 HALLIBURTON. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. Results Evaluation Bump the Plug Cement Bond Log iCem® Service – Process Overview Solution Development Well Configuration Formation Properties Casing Properties Operational Loads Mud, Spacer, Cement Fluid Properties Job Execution Real-Time Data ECD (calculated) Fluid Volumes & Densities Pump Rates Planned vs Actual Job Comparison High-Level Features Fresh User Interface Dynamic Temperature PROFILE™ Wellbore Modeling with Heat Schematic with Transfer and Slurry Directional View Placement Temperature Graph 2D Hydraulics Simulator Real-time Data 3D Fluid Displacement Acquisition Simulator and Monitoring Stress Analysis Simulator © 2011 HALLIBURTON. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. Results Evaluation Future Design Optimization Analysis of ECDs, Fluid Volumes, Fluid Density, Pump Rates, etc. Legacy Discrete Software Now Consolidated OptiCem™ Software Cement Job Simulation Finite Element Analysis Displace 3D® Simulator Displacement models in 3D Computational Fluid Dynamics WellLife® Express Service Cement Sheath Stress Analysis Finite Element Analysis Data Acquisition Field data acquisition and monitoring © 2011 HALLIBURTON. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. iCem ® Service iCem® Service © 2011 HALLIBURTON. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. Two-Dimensional Hydraulic Simulation Equivalent circulating density (ECD) management Dynamic temperature affects on fluid properties Pump schedule design – With and without foam cement – Volume to achieve TOC Balanced plug Standoff Torque and drag Surge and swab Mud removal and erodibility Advanced rheological modeling Other utilities (i.e. integrated fluid-flow potential) Complex wellbore geometry designs Automatic pump rate adjustment to stay below fracture gradient © 2011 HALLIBURTON. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. Two-Dimensional Hydraulics Simulation Interactive temperature profile graph – Casing temperature – Annular temperature profiles – Bottomhole circulating temperature © 2011 HALLIBURTON. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. Two-Dimensional Hydraulics Simulation Cement stages temperature tracker © 2011 HALLIBURTON. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. Three-Dimensional Displacement Simulator Fluid interface Fluid placement over time at all depths – Drilling fluid – Spacer – Lead cement – Tail cement Helps determine spacer volume to avoid contamination of cement © 2011 HALLIBURTON. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. Three-Dimensional Displacement Simulator Conforms to highly eccentric annuli or localized washout Predict Material Volumes to – Avoid contamination – Achieve top of cement (TOC) © 2011 HALLIBURTON. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. Achieve optimum casing standoff Determine impact of pump rate Determine impact of pipe rotation and reciprocation Three-Dimensional Displacement Simulator The same data can be represented both in a graph (above) or a cross section of the well (below) Helps determine a volume of spacer for optimized displacement. 70% 10% Direct correlation of data. In this example further iterations are required to develop a design that eliminates channeling. © 2011 HALLIBURTON. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. Cement Sheath Stress Analysis Examines Effects of Planned Well Operations on Specific Cement Designs Cement hydration Shoe pressure testing Fracturing / stimulation Completion fluid change out Injection and production Evacuation / unloading Well kill © 2011 HALLIBURTON. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. Cement Sheath Stress Analysis Predicts the competence of a cement sheath Generates mechanical properties for the sheath to survive downhole stress conditions Simulator elements – Properties of the formation – Well structure – Long-term critical well conditions Operation Type Product TVD (ft) (ft) 166880 Casing Fluid Pressure (psi) Pre-Job Temperature (°F) 166880 Casing Fluid Temperature (°F) 11409.0 © 2011 HALLIBURTON. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. MD 141.0 Pore Pressure (psi) 416.0 11076.0 Cement Sheath Stress Analysis – “What If?” Reports on performance differing cement systems allowing cost analysis Enables decisions based comparisons of cementing mechanical properties – – – – – – – – Young’s Modulus Poisson’s Ratio Shrinkage Thermal expansion Compressive strength Tensile strength Thermal conductivity Specific heat © 2011 HALLIBURTON. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. Real-Time Data Acquisition and Monitoring Real-time collection and graphing of cementing operations data – Equivalent circulating densities (ECDs) – Pump pressure – Pump rate – Fluid volume – Fluid density – Scores © 2011 HALLIBURTON. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. Real-Time Data Acquisition and Monitoring Evaluation of pre-job simulations against recorded job data – During or after the job – Identification of probable causes of irregularities on the job – Enables optimization of future designs © 2011 HALLIBURTON. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. Case History – Field Application Challenge (Libya) – Poor cement bond log (CBL) results from first two production wells in a new field Solution – Three-dimensional displacement Simulation and cement sheath stress analysis • Modified mud rheology • Increased use of centralizers to achieve 70% standoff • Increased spacer volume to 60 bbl Result – Significantly improved CBLs in wells after optimized plan via iCem® service © 2011 HALLIBURTON. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. Poor CBL from previous wells Excellent CBL after simulations designed solution modifications Case History – Field Application Challenge (Shale North America) – Highly stressed formation subjecting wells to excessive washout, sloughing shales, stuck pipe, and poor cement jobs Solution – iCem® service simulation revealed risks of debonding and causes of sheath failure over time due to wellbore stresses and led to changes as follows: – Wellbore fluid conditioning – Optimized centralizer placement for proper standoff – Cement spacer properties – Resilient mechanical properties designed into the slurry to address completion and production wellbore stresses to the cement sheath Result – CBL indicated dramatic improvements in placement coverage over conventional cements used previously – Previously required remediation was avoided © 2011 HALLIBURTON. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. Case History – Field Application Challenge (HPHT) – High profile eastern-hemisphere wells for a major operator in a field where previous wells experienced • Gas migration and channeling issues • Expense and delay of remedial cementing operations Solution – Eight (8) iCem® service simulations run during a 2-hour meeting evaluating the following parameters – Spacer volume – Wiper plugs – Rotation and reciprocation during pumping operations – Pump rates – Centralization Result – Spacer volume doubled over previous well plans – Pump rates increased though still within fracture gradient limits – Centralizers changed to ones that allow pipe rotation – Cement bond logs were excellent / no remediation required © 2011 HALLIBURTON. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. Summary Job Plan Slurry Design Surge & Swab Avoidance Cement Mechanical Properties Centralizer Selection iCem® Cement Sheath Analysis Service Torque & Drag Minimization Achieve Topof-Cement ECD Management Mud Conditioning Avoid Cement Contamination © 2011 HALLIBURTON. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. Casing Placement Displacement Efficiency iCem® Service Questions? © 2011 HALLIBURTON. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.