Beef Cattle Production

Report
BEEF CATTLE FACTS
• The United States and Brazil are the top beef producing
countries in the world.
• In the US, Texas has the most beef cows.
• Cattle outnumber humans in 9 states: Idaho, Iowa, Kansas,
Montana, Nebraska, North Dakota, South Dakota, Oklahoma,
and Wyoming.
• A cow's gestation period is approximately 283. This is the
average number of days from the day a cow is bred to the
time she has a calf.
• The salivary glands of cattle, located beneath the tongue,
produce 15-20 gallons of saliva per day.
BEEF CATTLE FACTS
• A 1000-pound cow will produce 4 tons of manure in a year.
• Ruminate animals like cows "chew the cud", which means
they re-chew the food they've already chewed slightly and
swallowed.
• A cow spends 6 hours eating and 8 hours chewing its cud
each day.
• The average cow has more than 40,000 jaw movements per
day.
• The Chianina cattle were developed in Italy as a dual purpose
beef/draft animal when the beef industry wanted extremely
tall cattle. Though originally solid white in color, now you will
likely only find black individuals in the USA.
BEEF CATTLE FACTS
• Hamburger meat from 1 steer would equal 720 quarterpound hamburgers, enough for a family of 4 to enjoy
hamburgers each day for nearly 6 months
• More than 100 medicines, including insulin and estrogen,
come from cattle
• One cowhide can produce enough leather to make 20
footballs or 18 soccer balls or 18 volleyballs or 12
basketballs.
• Other products besides beef are made from the beef
carcass. Leather, made from the hide, is used to make a
variety of items, from clothing to basketballs. Eight pairs
of cowboy boots can be made from one cowhide.
TOP BEEF PRODUCTION
COUNTRIES
• United States
• Brazil
• European Union
• China
• Argentina
• India
• Australia
• Mexico
25%
20%
17%
12%
6%
6%
4%
4%
TOP BEEF PRODUCING
STATES
•Texas
•Kansas
•Nebraska
•Iowa
•Colorado
TOP BEEF EXPORT
MARKETS
• Mexico
• Canada
• Japan
• Hong Kong
• Taiwan
STAGES OF BEEF
PRODUCTION
• Raising cattle involves
numerous farms and
operations, each serving a
unique role in the process
COW-CALF
OPERATION
• Beef production begins with ranchers who
maintain a breeding herd of cows that
nurture calves every year
• When a calf is born, it weighs 60 to 100
pounds
• Over the next few months, each calf will live
off its mother’s milk and graze grass in
pasture
• Sell calves to Brokers/Stockers
BROKERS/ STOCKERS
• Raise calves after they have
been weaned
• Generally sell to feedlots
FEEDLOTS
• Typically spend four to six months,
during which time they have constant
access to water, room to move
around, and are free to graze at feed
bunks containing a carefully balanced
diet
• Veterinarians, nutritionists and
cattlemen work together to look after
each animal
MARKET READY
• Calves are market ready at
approximately 1200-1400
pounds
• Generally 18-22months old
FEED CONVERSIONS
• Feed conversion ratios are a measure of an
animal’s efficiency in converting feed mass
into body mass
• Average FCR for cattle is 6 pounds of feed
for every 1 pound of weight gain … 6:1
•Practice on your own!!!!
FILL IN YOUR CHART!!!
CATTLE BREEDS
ANGUS
Origin: Scotland
Colors: Black, Red
Polled
Characteristics: fast weight gain, highly marbled
meat, and outstanding maternal qualities
(protective mothers that produce lots of milk for
their calves)
• Resistant to harsh weather, adaptable, good
natured, mature extremely early and have a high
carcass yield with nicely marbled meat.
•
•
•
•
ANGUS
CHAROLAIS
• Origin: France
• Color: White to cream
• Medium to large framed , very deep and
broad body
• Characteristics: superior growth ability,
efficient feedlot gains and in carcass cut-out
values, excellent meat conformation, late
maturing so have high finishing weight
CHAROLAIS
BRAHMAN
Origin: India, from Bos indicus
Horned
Colors: most common- Solid Gray or Solid Red
Easily identified by the hump on their back and long
floppy ears
• Have loose saggy skin with sweat glands and the
ability to sweat freely contributes to their heat
tolerance
• Can walk long distances to water
• These are the "sacred cattle of India”
•
•
•
•
BRAHMAN
CHIANINA
• Origin: Italy
• Horned
• Color: White to Steel Gray, black
pigmented skin
• Characteristics: BIG! well-defined
muscling
CHIANINA
DEXTER
• Origin: Ireland
• Smallest breed in US
• Characteristics: small cattle with a
broad, deep torso, short legs with
heavily muscled hind quarters.
• Dexters are a hardy breed. They
perform well in a variety of
climates.
DEXTER
GELBVIEH (GELP-FEE)
• Origin: Germany
• Horned
• Colors: yellow, red, black
• Characteristics: excellence in growth,
feedlot efficiency, muscling and
marketability, while females are
known for milking ability, fertility and
quiet temperament
GELBVIEH
HEREFORD
• Origin: England
• Color: Red with white head, neck,
brisket
• Horned
• Characteristics: generally docile and
fast growing cattle with good beef
quality
HEREFORD
LIMOUSIN
• Origin: France
• Color: red, golden
• Characteristics: excellent feed efficiency,
adaptability and high carcass yield, good
foragers, genetically "trimmed“ (little fat)
• The meat is tender and fine fibered because
of their low fat levels.
• Poor temperment!
LIMOUSIN
MAINE-ANJOU
• Origin: France
• Color: dark red with white on head,
belly and rear legs
• Characteristics: Very large breed, feed
efficient, high cutability and marbling
qualities
MAINE-ANJOU
SANTA GERTRUDIS
• Origin: US
• 5/8th Shorthorn, 3/8th Brahman
• Color: deep cherry red
• Characteristics: high heat and tick
resistance, exceptional maternal traits,
develop muscle well but with no fat
SANTA GERTRUDIS
SHORTHORN
• Origin: England
• Color: Red, Roan
• Characteristics: early maturity,
adaptability, mothering ability,
reproductive performance,
hardiness, good disposition,
feed conversion, and longevity
SHORTHORN
SIMMENTAL
• Origin: Switzerland
• Color: pale gold to dark reddish brown,
white head
• Characteristics: docile and easy to manage
breeds, deeply muscled back and loin,
excellent feed conversion with about a 63%
carcass yield.
SIMMENTAL
BEEFMASTER
• 25% Herford, 25% Shorthorn, 50% Brahman
• Color: Brownish-red is most common, no
color standards
• Purpose: develop cattle that would be more
productive than existing breeds in the harsh
environment of South Texas
• Six Essentials - Weight, Conformation,
Milking Ability, Fertility, Hardiness and
Disposition
BEEFMASTER
BEEFALO
• Cross between Buffalo and domestic cattle
(any breed)
• Characteristics: Superior hardiness, foraging
ability, calving ease, and meat quality of the
Bison with the fertility, milking ability, and
ease of handling from the bovine
BEEFALO
GRADING SCALE
• All beef is inspected for
wholesomeness by the U.S.
Department of Agriculture (USDA)
• Graded for quality and
consistency
• Prime, Choice and Select grades
• Marbling plays a big role in quality
grades
MARBLING
• Marbling (intramuscular fat) or
the little white flecks in beef, is
key to flavor
• The higher the amount of
marbling, the higher the quality
of beef.
PRIME
• Less than 1.5% of all beef earns
the Certified Angus Beef ®
brand Prime label
BEEF CUTS DIAGRAM
CHUCK
•
•
•
•
•
Pot roast
Short ribs
Blade steak/roast
7 bone pot roast
Shoulder pot roast
BRISKET/ SHANK
• Brisket
• Flat half
• Corned brisket
• point half
• Shank Cross cut
RIB
•
•
•
•
Rib roast
Rib steak
Rib eye steak/roast
Back ribs
SHORT LOIN
•
•
•
•
Top Loin steak
T-bone Steak
Porterhouse steak
Tenderloin Roast/Steak
SIRLOIN
•
•
•
•
Top Sirloin Steak
Sirloin Steak
Tenderloin Roast/ Steak
Beef Tri- Tip
• Tri-Tip is a boneless cut
from the bottom sirloin
ROUND
•
•
•
•
•
•
Round Steak
Top Round Roast/ Steak
Bottom Round roast
Tip Roast/ Steak
Eye Round Roast
Boneless Rump Roast
PLATE
• Skirt Steak
FLANK
• Flank Steak
• Flank steak rolls

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