SQ Sec 3 Part 3

Report
TACTICS OF RULE
Indian Voices from the 1857
Rebellion
Section III
Part 3
Coohill’s Article
• The Indian Rebellion of 1857 was a vastly important
event in the history of the British Empire.
• Because history is written by the victors, few
______________ accounts of the rebellion are extant.
• To gain insight into the Indian consciousness during the
rebellion, ____________________dives into the
writings of
– Sita Ram,
– Vishnubhat Godse, and
– Pandurang Mahipat Belsare
JOSEPH COOHILL
• Assistant Professor of History at Duquesne
University
• co-editor of India, Britain and the Rebellion of
1857
– _______________worked as the other co-editor
of this forthcoming work
– Sumit Guha translated the extracts from
Vishnubhat Godse and Pandurang Mahipat
Belsare in this article
The Indian Rebellion
• The Indian Rebellion constitutes one of the
most important events in the history of the
British Empire
– also called the Indian____________
– Indian soldiers in the East India Company’s
___________army
• revolted against their officers
• captured and killed civilians, almost overthrowing
British rule in_____________India in the process
Indian Voices
• PERSPECTIVES
– Indian ….few and far between
– Perspectives from Britons and Europeans abound
– As the adage goes, history is written by the victors
• The Indian accounts that do survive give great perspective on the
rebellion
– reveal the _____________ of rebels’ armies as well as their fighting
________________
– Many Indians experienced great personal difficulties in remaining
_____________ to the British
– reveal the importance of ____________ communication and rumor
throughout the Indian Rebellion
– Surviving accounts are incredibly personal, detailing narrators’
personal experiences
• Very few comments regarding the wider rebellion and its legacy exist in
these accounts
• Some native conceptions of British rule in India do seep through
• A couple accounts state the involvement of the British government and
Parliament in creating the conditions that led to rebellion
THE RISING
MANGAL PANDEY
TIMELINE
Causes of the rebellion
• One often-cited cause of the Indian Rebellion is the
implementation of new ___________________
– Many sepoys believed that ______________________greased
these new cartridges
– Sepoys needed to bite open these cartridges
• They would thus come into direct contact with pig and cow grease
• Muslims and Hindus, respectively, found this action offensive
– The rifle cartridges merely served as a _________________ for
grievances that lay just under the surface
• The Indian infantrymen of the East India Company saw
their ______and _________ decline in the years before the
Indian Rebellion
– British officers in the 1840s in the Company army did not grant
the ______________and sympathy that previous generations
had done
Lord ________ introduced the Doctrine
of ________ to the East India Company
• Governor General of India from 18____ to 18____
• The doctrine allowed the East India Company to extend its
control if a native ruler died without a _____________heir
– The company determined the legitimacy of heirs
• Indian tradition maintained that ______________ children
maintained the same inheritance rights as birth children
– The British East India Company did not recognize adopted heirs
• The application of the Doctrine of Lapse in_______was the
straw that broke the camel’s back
– The seizure of the rich and historic Oudh constituted a cultural
________________
INDIAN DISCONTENT
• The sepoys’ grievance reflected a greater
discontent present throughout urban and
rural _________
• This dissatisfaction prompted the rapid spread
of the Indian Rebellion throughout India
Sita Ram
• Sita Ram served as a sepoy in the Bengal army
– Ram remained loyal to the British throughout 1857 and
1858
• In 18_____, the soldier wrote down his experiences
through the Indian Rebellion
– This account provides the strongest opinion about the
causes of mutiny
– Ram stated that the 18____ annexation of ______caused
widespread discontent with the British
• He argues that the greased rifle cartridges were_______the
primary cause
– Ram did acknowledge the quickness with which the
cartridge story spread
DemiTranslation
The British East India Company’s seizure of
Oudh caused the sepoys to plot the Indian
Rebellion. The unjust display of British
imperial power over a traditional northern
Indian kingdom unsettled many Indians,
especially those with social and economic ties
to the region. The rumor of greased rifle
cartridges only reached sepoys after news of
______’s seizure had already enraged them.
DemiTranslation
The Sirkar coincidentally sent groups of men from each
regiment into different garrisons for instructions on how
to use the new rifle. These men performed this drill until a
report surfaced that the new rifle cartridges used cow and
pig fat for grease. The men in our regiment wrote letters
containing these facts to the rest of us. Soon, every
regiment had heard about the news. Men pointed out
that the Sirkar had never insulted our religion in forty
years. The sepoys, however, still had the seizure of Oudh
on their minds.
Some soldiers pointed out that the English strived to turn us
all into _________________. These men asserted that the
British instituted the greased cartridge in order to make
this conversion happen. Both Muslims and Hindus
experienced ______________ by using the new rifle
cartridges.
Vishnubhat Godse
• Vishnubhat Godse travelled throughout northern India in 18_____
• This young ____________ priest observed many important events
and held discussions with countless people including native soldiers
– Godse met two soldiers near ____ in late February or early March
1857
• Mau is located in modern-day __________________
• Godse’s 18____recounting of this event grants scholars insight into
the early turnouts of a rebellion
– The rifle cartridge rumors only inflamed tensions followed the seizure
of Oudh
– These soldiers remained convinced that ____________________ itself
sanctioned the greased cartridges
– Parliamentary debate did not actually exist on the greased rifle
cartridges prior to the Indian Rebellion
• The belief of a British-conceived forced conversion perpetuated itself in the
army
DemiTranslation
We stopped to eat and rest for the night at a
settlement just three marches from a camp at
Mau. No travelers were present at the
settlement, but two soldiers were. These men
were returning home via ________ (Bombay). A
few of us went to sit by the soldiers and chew
betel. We talked about all kinds of topics, and the
soldiers became quite friendly. The soldiers
eventually told us that a revolution would occur in
just three days. Killing and looting would
inevitably result from the revolution. The soldiers
warned us to return home, and we asked them to
tell us exactly the news they had received.
DemiTranslation
The older of the two soldiers began to explain the events to us. He said,
‘‘The British have previously governed well, but they have recently
become ______________.’’ Four or five months ago they sent us
wonderful English guns. These guns pleased soldiers, for they used
bullets the size of ___________ fruit and the balls flew 200 more paces
than the old muskets. New guns and ammunition were distributed
through Hindusthan. New cartridges, however, had to be bitten open.
An ammunition factory has been opened at _____________(or Dum
Dum) just four kosa from Calcutta in Hindusthan. One day, a ________
was taking water from a pond when a _______________a streetsweeper) approached the priest, asking to borrow his water-jug to
drink. The Brahman soldier did not allow the Cambhar to drink, as the
Brahman stated the water would become polluted. The Cambhar then
instructed the Brahman to not talk so highly about caste superiority.
The Cambhar explained that he greased the new rifles cartridges with
cow and pig fat himself. The Cambhar asked, ‘‘What remains of your
supposed purity when you open these cartridges with your teeth? Who
needs the sham of purity in this situation?’’ The Cambhar and Brahman
then began fighting. Many people, including soldiers, gathered around
and heard all of these events. _____________soon spread that the new
cartridges went against traditional religion.
Pandurang Mahipat Belsare
• Pandurang Mahipat Belsare found himself in a difficult
position in early 1857
– Pandurang’s family lived well prior to 18______
• The British government took over the estate on which his family
had worked for generations in this year
– By 1857, the ___-year-old Pandurang realized that all
business ventures he had attempted with his brothers had
failed
– Pandurang sought adventure outside of his native _______
• His father would not grant him permission to leave
• Pandurang secretly left with a cousin from a nearby village
• Pandurang wrote a memoir in _________
– This record gives accounts of life in the Indian rebel army
Pandurang Mahipat Belsare
• Pandurang and his cousin were immediately taken before
_________
– Tope worked as a rebel leader under __________________
– Most scholars consider Tope as the genius who kept the Indian
Rebellion growing
• Pandurang and his cousin saw major action near
__________in modern-day ____________
– In his memoir, Pandurang demonstrates the____________of
battle
– Rebels often had struggles in the __________________and
effective use of their army
• Rebel armies often handily defeated troops of the East
India Company
– Tales of ___________ and disorganization often appear,
however, in Pandurang’s memoir
More tales from the Indian Rebellion
• _____________echoes the sentiments of Pandurang
– Ram was captured by rebel forces and witnessed many of their
battles
• Rebels had to endure strenuous conditions during long
campaigns
– This loss of ____________partially contributed to the victory of
the British East India Company
– After only a brief stint in Tope’s army, Pandurang complained to
a fellow soldier
• Living inside native fortifications did not necessarily
increase living conditions
– Vishnubhat Godse occupied the rebel fort of _________ during
the British attack in April 18_____
– Godse’s story only refers to the Jhansi attack
• Many Indians experienced similar fears of the most likely vengeful
British army
____________’s Is the Only Account of a
Sepoy Who Remained Loyal to the British
• Only the personal narrative of Sita Ram gives
an account of a sepoy who remained loyal to
the British
– Ram reported the discontent in the Company’s
forces to his commander in early 1857
Sita Ram’s Is the Only Account of a Sepoy
Who Remained Loyal to the British
• Sita Ram felt like he was being watched after this
incident
– Fellow sepoys believed that Ram was betraying them
because he had discussed their emotions with British
officers
– Indian rebels captured Ram during the uprising
• These sepoys tested Ram’s resolve in remaining loyal to British
troops
• They ___________ to and _______________ him as he was kept in
chains
– Ram believed these actions were either to force British
intelligence from him or to convert him to the rebel side of
the Indian Rebellion
– The most effective strategy was to show him the famous
proclamation from the King of __________ from May ____
• This method almost converted Sita Ram
Sita Ram’s Loyalty
• Ram remained loyal throughout his captivity
– British irregular _____________ eventually
rescued Sita Ram
– Ram’s rescue may have increased his desire to
___________ traitorous sepoys
– The writings of Sita Ram mention a
_____________felt when fighting among the
irregulars
A Test of Loyalty
• Ram experienced a severe test to that loyalty
near the end of the rebellion
– He found himself in charge of the _______________
of rebellious sepoys in early 1858
• One day, Ram realized that one of the prisoners was his
_________
• The two had not seen each other for many years
• Ram pleaded with his superiors to not have to kill his own
son
• Ram was _____________of the duty of execution after his
son was questioned
• Nevertheless, his son was shot along with the rest of the
prisoners
THE PASSAGE
• The following passage ends the mutiny portion
of Ram’s memoir
• This passage symbolizes both
– the personal _____________ of sepoys as the
rebellion ended and also
– the way in which first-hand accounts of the rebellion
have survived
• Much more Indian evidence would likely be present if the
Indians had succeeded in the Indian Rebellion
• Defeated sepoys feared ________________ from the British
– These men were most likely hesitant to tell their side of the story
• The accounts presented in this article survive
– The rest have been scattered throughout history
DemiTranslation
The kind Major allowed me to perform
___________________ over my misguided
son. He was the only
prisoner to receive such rites, as the rest were
thrown to the jackals and the vultures.
WORKBOOK
• Nothing unites like a common enemy. Circle
the choice that best completes the sentences
here about the Indian Rebellion of 1857.
3.24 EITHER/OR (p. 95)
• 1. Most of the accounts of the Indian
Rebellion or Mutiny of 1857 are told from
British or (INDIAN, EUROPEAN) perspectives.
Since history is written by the (WINNERS,
LOSERS), very few accounts—except a few
(DENIALS, PROCLAMATIONS) from the leaders
themselves—tell the (BRITISH, INDIAN)
perspective on the events of this important
event in the history of the British empire.
3.24 EITHER/OR (p. 95)
• 2. The few Indian narratives which survive tell
about four things: (1) the condition of the
rebels’ armies and (ENCAMPMENTS,
MORALE), (2) the nature of (INDIAN, BRITISH)
fighting techniques, (3) the extent and
importance of (WRITTEN, ORAL)
communication and rumor during the
rebellion, and (4) the great (PERSONAL,
COLLECTIVE) difficulties of remaining loyal to
the British.
3.24 EITHER/OR (p. 95)
• 3. The Indian accounts were highly personal
with (MUCH, LITTLE) comment about the
rebellion as a whole. They do, however,
explain the native point of view of British rule
in India and the part the (GOVERNMENT,
MILITARY) played in provoking the rebellion.
3.24 EITHER/OR (p. 95)
• 4. The catalyst to the revolt was the
introduction of rifle cartridges greased by cow
and pig fat. Since the Indian soldiers, called
sepoys, were to (BITE, TEAR) open the
cartridges this was offensive to both the
(HINDUS, MUSLIMS) who don’t believe in
eating pig products and (HINDUS, MUSLIMS)
who don’t eat beef.
3.24 EITHER/OR (p. 95)
• 5. Sepoys were also angry about other things
too, including a (DECLINE, INCREASE) in salary,
(BENEFITS, STATUS), and respect from their
company (OFFICERS, PEERS).
3.24 EITHER/OR (p. 95)
• 6. Another policy, one of taking over
territories where a native ruler died
(WITHOUT, WITH) a legitimate heir, called the
Doctrine of (LAPSE, CONTROL) greatly angered
the sepoys. Some, including Sita Ram, a
(PRIEST, SEPOY) in the (BENGAL, BOMBAY)
army, even argued that the application of the
Doctrine of Lapse in Oudh was actually the
(SECONDARY, MAIN) cause of the rebellion.
3.24 EITHER/OR (p. 95)
• 7. When the British claimed Oudh through the
Doctrine of Lapse they greatly (ANGERED,
EMPOWERED) the Indians because Oudh was
a (POOR, RICH) (HISTORIC, NEWLY ADDED)
part of India. The British seizure of such an
area was seen as a clear (CULTURAL,
RELIGIOUS) insult.
3.25 SHORT ANSWER (pp. 95-97)
Rebel yell. Answer the questions in short answer form.
1. Who was Vishnubhat Godse and how was he
related to the rebellion of 1857?
• He was a young Brahman priest from a village
north of Bombay who travelled extensively
talking with native soldiers and others
including two soldiers near Mau who told him
of the coming rebellion.
3.25 SHORT ANSWER (pp. 95-97)
Rebel yell. Answer the questions in short answer form.
2. What do the young soldiers say about the
new guns and bullets sent to them by the
English?
• The soldiers were pleased with the new
equipment because it carried further—then
the soldiers found out the cartridges were
greased in cow and pig fat.
3.25 SHORT ANSWER (pp. 95-97)
Rebel yell. Answer the questions in short answer form.
3. How did the soldiers find out about the fact that the
cartridge packets were made with cow and pig fat?
• One day a street sweeper, a Cambhar, came upon a
Brahman who was taking water from a pond. The
Cambhar asked the man to lend him a water-jug so
that he could drink. The Brahman wouldn’t, replying
that the water would be polluted if he did. The
Cambhar told him not to talk about being so much
better since the cartridges the Brahman was tearing
open with his own teeth were greased with cow and
pig fat.
3.25 SHORT ANSWER (pp. 95-97)
Rebel yell. Answer the questions in short answer form.
4. How did the soldiers in Godse’s story believe the
British Parliament responded to the cartridge
controversy? Was this accurate?
• They believed that parliament planned the use of
the cartridges. They believed that a saheb1
vowed before Parliament to force the sepoys to
accept the cartridges. The truth was that no
military debate about the cartridges came up
before Parliament prior to May 1857.
3.26 CAUSE/EFFECT (p.97)
3.26 CAUSE/EFFECT (p.97)
They are sentenced to 10 years hard
labor, stripped of their uniforms, and
humiliated.
The siege of Delhi ends with the British
capture of the city, and the military tide
turns against the rebels
Nana Sahib issues proclamation for all Indians
to join the rebellion
3.27 JEOPARDY (pp. 98-100)
• 1. This twenty-one year old Indian left his
home in Pathardi seeking adventure in 1857.
• Who was Pandurang Mahipat Belsare?
3.27 JEOPARDY (pp. 98-100)
• 2. This man was a great rebel leader under the
command of Nana Sahib.
• Who was Tatya Tope?
3.27 JEOPARDY (pp. 98-100)
• 3. Pandurang and his cousin were employed
as a part of the rebel army after they were
proven to not be working as this.
• What are spies?
3.27 JEOPARDY (pp. 98-100)
• 4. In Pandurang’s account of a battle near
Khajuri, he describes the struggles that the
Indian army had with this aspect of battle.
• What is organization?
3.27 JEOPARDY (pp. 98-100)
• 5. Pandurang’s stories about the rebel armies
often involve these two themes.
• What are disorganization and flight?
3.27 JEOPARDY (pp. 98-100)
• 6. This man also wrote of the weak fighting of
the sepoys who had the English greatly
outnumbered at Delhi and yet lost.
• Who was Sita Ram?
3.27 JEOPARDY (pp. 98-100)
• 7. Vishnubhat Godse also wrote of the
conditions within the rebel armies,
particularly the attack here.
• Where is Jhansi?
3.27 JEOPARDY (pp. 98-100)
• 8. Of all the personal narratives that survive,
only Sita Ram’s gives us an account of this
phenomenon.
• What is an Indian soldiers who remained loyal
to the British?
3.27 JEOPARDY (pp. 98-100)
• 9. Sita Ram almost turned against the British
when he was shown this.
• What is the proclamation of May 11th from
the King of Delhi?
3.27 JEOPARDY (pp. 98-100)
• 10. Sita Ram remained loyal to the British and
was given this task by the British in the early
1858.
• What is the execution of rebellious sepoys?
3.27 JEOPARDY (pp. 98-100)
• 11. In the most troubling account of the
rebellion, Sita Ram wrote of being asked to
execute this man.
• Who was his son?
3.27 JEOPARDY (pp. 98-100)
• 12. According to Ram’s accounts, this was the
fate of the bodies of the rebel soldiers.
• What is that they were left out in the open,
thrown to the jackals and vultures—except for
Ram’s son who was allowed to receive proper
funeral rites?
3.28 QUOTING (pp. 95-100)
Sita Ram
Vishnubhat
Godse
The seizure of Oudh
using the British policy
of Doctrine of Lapse
The account he
received from two
soldiers he met near
Mau.
3.28 QUOTING (pp. 95-100)
Sita Ram
Vishnubhat
Godse
The speed with which objections to the
new cartridges spread amongst the sepoys.
The Indian belief that the British Parliament
had sanctioned the use
of the cartridges.
3.28 QUOTING (pp. 95-100)
Pandurang
Mahipat
Belsare
Pandurang
Mahipat
Belsare
Sita Ram
The encounter Pandurang and his cousin
had with rebel leader Tatya Tope who at
first believed the men to be spies.
The conditions of the rebel army—their
confusion, disorganization,
and inefficiency.
The poor organization and fighting
inefficiency of the Indian rebel
army, who lost even battles where they
seemingly had the advantage
3.28 QUOTING (pp. 95-100)
Pandurang
Mahipat
Belsare
Vishnubhat
Godse
The decision he made to join Tope’s rebel
army where there was suffering (not enough
food, clothing, adequate shelter, etc.)
The British siege of Jhansi in April 1858 where
a brutal massacre
took place
3.28 QUOTING (pp. 95-100)
Sita Ram
Ram’s decision to stay loyal to the British
government
Sita Ram
Ram’s burial of his son’s body after his son
was executed for rebelling against the British
government.

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