Animal Nutrition 5 Basic Classes of Nutrients • • • • • Water Energy Nutrients Proteins Minerals Vitamins Water • Most Important Nutrient • Needed in largest amounts of all nutrients – 65%-85% of body weight at birth – 45% to 60% of body weight at maturity – 90%-95% of blood is water Functions of Water • Transportation of other nutrients and waste products • Temperature regulation • Maintains shape of cells • Lubricates joints and organs in the body Sources of Water 1. Drinking Water 2. Water within the feed 3. Metabolic water 1. Drinking Water Things That Affect Drinking Water Consumption • Heat • Dry Matter Consumption • Dietary Factors – Feeds high in water reduces drinking – Feeds high in fiber, salt, and proteins increase drinking • Access to water – Location, length of water trough, competition with other animals 1. Drinking Water Things That Affect Drinking Water Consumption • Function of the animal (lactating cow vs. dry cow) – Dairy Cow 4-5 lbs of water= 1 lb of milk – Dairy Cows allowed water twice a day milk production reduced by 15% 1. Drinking Water How much water do mature, non-stressed animals need? Swine= 2-5 gal/hd/day Sheep= 1-4 gal/hd/day Cattle= 8-16 gal/hd/day Horses= 10-14 gal/hd/day 2. Water Within The Feed • Grains can range from 8% to 30% water • Forages can range from 5% in a dry hay to more than 90% water in lush young grass 3. Metabolic Water • Water produced by the body during chemical reactions • 5-10% of total water intake Water Loss How is water lost from the animals body? 1. Urine 2. Feces 3. Sweat 4. Milk production Water Deficiencies What happens if animals are deprived of water? 1. Reduced feed consumption – – – Reduces amount of feed eaten by 27% Reduces feed efficiency by 33% Reduces weight gain by 50% 2. Weight Loss 3. Water Intoxication – 4-5 days without water animal will drink up to 50% of body weight in ½ hour 4. Death All of these lead to a loss of what?___________________ 5 Basic Classes of Nutrients • • • • • Water Energy Nutrients Proteins Minerals Vitamins Energy Nutrients There are 3 types of energy nutrients, what are they? 1. Carbohydrates 2. Fats 3. Oils Energy Nutrients Where do animals get energy nutrients? • Grains – Corn, Oats, Wheat, Barley, Rye • Forages – Corn Silage, Straw, Pasture Grasses • Animal Fats • Molasses Energy Nutrients What are the functions of energy nutrients? 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Provide Energy Maintain body temperature Muscle development Growth Development of fetus Energy Nutrients • • • • • What happens if animals don’t get enough energy nutrients? Slow growth Delayed puberty Decreased milk production Weight Loss Less resistance to diseases and parasites Energy Nutrients Animals need more energy nutrients when they are doing what? 1. Producing Milk – Energy needs double 2. Pregnant – Energy needed for baby 3. Working Energy Nutrients What is the most important energy nutrient? Carbohydrates Energy Nutrients -Carbs What are the 4 things carbohydrates are made up of? 1. Sugars 2. Starches 3. Cellulose 4. Lignin Energy Nutrients- Carbs What are the functions of carbohydrates? 1. Provide energy for the cells – Chemical reaction very much like burning 2. Provides energy for muscle movement – Heartbeat, Walking, Breathing 3. Produce heat to keep animal warm 4. Extra carbs are stored as fats Energy Nutrients- Carbs There are 2 types of carbohydrates, what are they? 1. Simple Carbs – Nitrogen Free Extract (NFE’s) – Consist of sugars and starches – Supply immediate energy – Come from cereal grains Energy Nutrients- Carbs There are 2 types of carbohydrates, what are they? 2. Complex Carbs – – – – Known as fiber Consist of cellulose and lignin More difficult to digest than simple CHO’s Fiber is found primarily and roughages such as hay and pasture plants. – Examples are alfalfa, brome grass, orchard grass, and bluegrass. Energy Nutrients- Carbs Fiber Content • Dry weight- weight of a feed with the moisture content removed • The dry weight of most grains and roughages ranges from 65-80% CHO • Mature roughages contain more fiber when harvested than those that are less mature • The mature plant is not easily digested • Ruminants can digest large amounts of fiber Energy Nutrients Carbohydrates are the most important energy nutrient what are the other 2 energy nutrients? Fats and Oils Energy Nutrients- Fats and Oils • Contain more carbon and hydrogen than do CHO’s • Fats have 2.25 times the energy value of CHO’s • Fats are solid at room temperature, oils are liquid • Easily digested by animals Energy Nutrients How do we measure the amount of energy nutrients in a animal feed? Calories Energy Nutrients What is a calorie? • Unit of energy required to raise the temperature of 1 gram of water 1 degree centigrade – From 14.5 to 15.5 degrees centigrade • Energy in feeds is expressed in the unit of measurement of the calorie. • Kilocalorie (1,000 cal) states the heat content of feed. Energy Nutrients Review 1. 2. 3. 4. What are the three types of energy nutrients? Name 2 sources of energy nutrients Name 2 functions of energy nutrients What are 3 things that can happen if an animal doesn’t get enough energy nutrients? 5. What is the difference between complex carbs and simple carbs? 6. Why can cows digest fiber better than pigs? 7. Explain what a calorie measures 5 Basic Classes of Nutrients • • • • • Water Energy Nutrients Proteins Minerals Vitamins Proteins What are proteins? • Organic compounds that are made up of amino acids • Amino acids are the building blocks of proteins • Most expensive part of animal ration Proteins What are the functions of proteins? 1. Build and repair body organs and tissues – Ligaments, Hair, Hooves, Horns, Skin, Muscles 2. Production of milk, eggs, and wool 3. Fetus development Proteins When do animals need the greatest amounts of protein? 1. Young and Growing 2. Pregnant 3. Lactating (producing milk) Proteins What are the 2 types of amino acids? 1. Non-Essential Amino Acids – Needed by animals – Are synthesized by the body from other A.A.’s and do not have to be provided Proteins What are the 2 types of amino acids? 2. Essential Amino Acids – Cannot be made from other A.A.’s – Must be provided in the diet – Nonruminants need most of their A.A.’s provided Proteins What are the 2 sources of proteins? 1. Animal Proteins – Meat and Bone Scraps – Blood Meal – Fish Meal 2. Vegetable Proteins – – – – Soybeans Peanut Meal Hay Pastures Proteins Animal Proteins Source vs. Vegetable/Plant Protein Source Which is a better source? Animal Proteins Why? They contain a good balance of the essential amino acids Proteins • Simple stomached animals need a balance of the essential A.A.’s • Cereal grains combined in the right amounts, can provide a balanced ration • Urea- synthetic nitrogen source that is mixed in a ration to provide nitrogen for making AA’s in the ruminants body Proteins What is crude protein? • The amount of ammonical nitrogen in the feed (ammonia) multiplied by 6.25 • It may contain materials that are not true protein Proteins What is digestible protein? • The true protein in a feed • Not all protein is digestible • 60% of the crude protein(CP) in a roughage diet is digestible • 75% of the CP in a high concentrate ration is digestible Protein Review 1. What are proteins and what are the functions of proteins? 2. Explain what crude protein is. 3. Name two sources of proteins and an example of each. 4. Why do young animal require more protein that older animals? 5. What is the difference between essential and nonessential amino acids? 6. What is digestible protein? 5 Basic Classes of Nutrients • • • • • Water Energy Nutrients Proteins Minerals Vitamins Minerals What are minerals? • Inorganic substances that animals need in small amounts • Minerals contain no carbon Minerals What are some functions of minerals? 1. Provide material for growth of: – Bones, Teeth, and Tissue 2. Help with muscular activities 3. Reproduction 4. Digestion of feed Minerals Minerals are divided into 2 groups, what are they? 1. Major (macro) Minerals 2. Trace (micro) Minerals Minerals- Major • Needed in large amounts • 7 Macro Minerals – Calcium – Phosphorus – Sodium – Chlorine – Potassium – Sulfur – Magnesium Minerals- Major What are the most common major minerals animal rations lack? • Sodium • Calcium • Phosphorous Minerals- Major Sodium • Functions: – Maintain osmotic pressure in cells – Muscle and nerve activity • Deficiencies: – – – – Reduced appetite Rough hair coat Cannibalism in chickens Dirt eating Minerals- Major Calcium • Functions: – Bone development – Nerve and muscle function • Deficiencies: – Rickets- in young animals bones are soft, bend easily, and are malformed Minerals- Major Phosphorus • Functions: – Bone and Teeth Development – Appetite • Deficiencies: – Rickets – Stiffness in joints – Loss of appetite Minerals- Trace • Needed in small amounts – – – – – – – – – – – – Sulfur Magnesium Iron Iodine Copper Cobalt Zinc Manganese Boron Molybdenum Fluorine Selenium Mineral Review 1. What are minerals? 2. What are minerals important? 3. What are 3 major minerals that animal feeds commonly lack? Name one deficiency of each. 4. What is the difference between major minerals and trace minerals. 5 Basic Classes of Nutrients • • • • • Water Energy Nutrients Proteins Minerals Vitamins Vitamins What are vitamins? • Trace organic compounds needed in small amounts by animals • Needed for development of normal tissues and for health, growth and maintenance Vitamins Vitamins are divided into 2 groups, what are they? • Fat-Soluble Vitamins (A,D,E,K) – Dissolved in fat • Water-Soluble Vitamins (C, B-Complex) – Dissolved in water Vitamin A • Function: – Vision – Conception Rates – Disease Resistance • Deficiencies: – Night Blindness – Blindness in calves – Reproductive problems Vitamin D • Function: – Bone Development – Growth • Deficiencies: – Rickets (young animals) – Osteomalacia (older animals) Vitamin E • Function: – Reproduction – Muscle Development – E and Selenium together help immune system • Deficiencies: – Reproduction failure – Muscular dystrophy Vitamin K • Function: – Blood Clotting • Deficiencies: – Blood doesn’t clot fast Vitamins What are some sources of Vitamin A,D,E,K? • Green Leafy Hay • Yellow Corn • Cod Liver • Fish Oils Vitamin C • Function: – Formation of teeth and bones – Prevents infections B- Complex • Function: – Appetite – Growth – Reproduction Vitamins What are some sources of water-soluble vitamins? • Green Pastures and Hay • Cereal Grains • Milk Vitamin Review 1. What are vitamins and why are they needed? 2. List the fat-soluble vitamins and their functions as well as deficiencies. 3. What are the sources of fat-soluble vitamins? 4. What is the function of Vitamin C? 5. What the sources of the water-soluble vitamins?