Aflatoxin and Mycotoxin Risks - University of Illinois Extension

Report
Aflatoxin and
Mycotoxin Risks
• Dr. Mike Hutjens
Dairy Extension Specialist
Jim Baltz
Instructional Design Specialist
University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
Drought-Stress Corn Risks
• Lower quality feed
• Nitrate levels
• Aflatoxin risks
University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
What is Aflatoxin
• A fungi (Aspergillus) produces aflatoxin
• Aflatoxin is a cancer-causing agent in
humans and animals
• Mold colonizes on corn kernels caused by
ear rot or ear mold
• The mold is olive-green colored mold
University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
Why is Aflatoxin A Concern for
Lactating Cows?
• FDA has ruled any milk over 0.5 ppb (parts per
billion) cannot be used for human consumption
• Lactating cows excrete 1 to 2% of consumed
aflatoxin in milk
• Rations over 20 ppb times 2% is 0.4 ppb (cows
vary in the level of aflatoxin transferred)
University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
Scouting and Identifying the Disease
• Inspecting at least 10 ears in several
locations in a field prior to harvesting
• Peel back the husks and look for an
olive-green mold on the ears.
• Mold will appear powdery and may
disperse like dust when the husk is pulled back.
University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
Purdue Extension Diseas of Corn: Aspergillus Ear Rot BP-83-W
Maximum Levels of Aflatoxin
(In the total ration dry matter)
• Lactating dairy cattle
20 ppb
• Breeding beef, swine, and dairy
100 ppb
• Swine
200 ppb
• Beef steers
300 ppb
University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
Mycotoxin Levels for Dairy Cattle
• Aflatoxin
< 20 ppb (parts per billion)
• DON (vomitoxin) < 6.0 ppm (parts per million)
• T-2 toxin
< 100 ppb
• Zearalenone
< 300 ppb
University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
Signs of Mycotoxin
• Immune suppression
(cattle do not respond to disease challenges)
• Rumen disorders
• Loose fecal discharges
• Reduced dry matter intake (over 2 pounds per cow)
• Hormonal-like changes
(udder development and reduced fertility)
University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
Strategies If Milk Is High in Aflatoxin
• Test your feeds to determine which feed(s)
(corn, corn silage, fuzzy cottonseed, and/or
corn by-product feed is an at-risk feed)
• Remove any at-risk feed immediately, milk
can clear in 48 hours (varies by cow)
• Have your milk coop monitor your milk
weekly to be sure it is safe
University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
Strategies With AflatoxinContaminated Corn Grain or Silage
• Dilute down with wholesome forages and
grains
• Add an additive (flow agent)
• Ammoniate the corn grain
• Be aware of corn by-product risks
University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
Mycotoxin Binders
• Clay-based compounds such as bentonite,
zeolite, and calcium aluminosilicate (50 to 225
gram / cow / day) when dealing with aflatoxin
• Yeast cell wall extracts (also call MOS and
glucomannans) and enzymatic products can be
effective when dealing with T-2 toxins, DON, and
zearalenone (10 g / cow / day)
University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
Ammoniation of Aflatoxin-Contaminated
Corn Grain
• Ammonia breaks the ring structure of aflatoxin
• Treat grain above 13% moisture and 60 degrees F in a
sealed containment bag / bin
• Ammonia gas (0.5% to 1.5%) or aqua-ammonia 2.6 lb of
26 to 28% ammonia liquid
• Corn will darken in color (caramelize sugar)
• Can not be sold across state lines (FDA) and handling
risks must be considered with ammonia
University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
By-Product Feeds
• Corn distillers grain will be three times higher
than the original corn in aflatoxin
• Corn gluten feed can be high
• Hominy can be high
• Fuzzy cottonseed can contain aflatoxin
University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
Management Considerations
• Testing feed is difficult due to sampling error
• Do not store wet corn with aflatoxin as high moisture
corn; dry it down to < 14% moisture
• Wet corn (rain or maturity) and warm weather favor
aflatoxin development
• Screen out fines and broken kernels
• Clean equipment after harvest
University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
Protect Yourself
• Wear a respirator capable of filtering fine dust particles
(N95 or better).
• Change your clothes after handling grain.
• See a doctor if you get sick after handling grain and make
your physician aware of your activities.
• Handle out-of-condition grain carefully. Be alert for blocked
flow, cavities, crusting, and grain avalanches. Out-ofcondition corn is the leading cause of suffocation in grain
bins.
University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
Purdue Extension Managing Aspergillus Ear Rot and Aflatoxin
Take Home Messages
• Monitor milk aflatoxin levels to protect
your milk supply and consumer
confidence
• Test feeds to determine risk
• Consider strategies to reduce levels in
milk
University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
Check out our online dairy courses at
http://online.ansci.illinois.edu/
and Illini DairyNET at
http://www.livestocktrail.illinois.edu/dairynet/
Dr. Mike Hutjens
Jim Baltz
Dairy Extension Specialist Instructional Design Specialist
University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

similar documents