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GO! with Computer Concepts
Chapter 1
Basic Computer Concepts
Objectives
1. Define Computer and Identify the Four Basic
Computing Functions
2. Identify the Different Types of Computers
3. Describe Hardware Devices and Their Uses
4. Identify Types of Software and Their Uses
5. Describe Networks and Define Network Terms
6. Identify Safe Computing Practices
Define Computer and Identify the
Four Basic Computing Functions
• Computer
– A programmable electronic device that can input, process, output, and store data.
Computer Fundamentals
– Components of a typical computer system
Types of Computers
Identify the Different Types of
Computers
• Mainframe computers
• Manage users through multitasking
• Supercomputers
– Large, powerful and ultrafast
– Process scientific calculations and multiscale simulations
• Mid-range computers
Identify the Different Types of
Computers
• Microcomputers
– Desktop computers
– Notebook computers
– Tablet computers
– Mobile devices
Hardware Devices and Their Uses
• Hardware
– A computer and any connected equipment
• System Unit
– Houses internal components
– Provides connection sites for peripheral
devices
• Peripheral devices provide input and output
Inside the System Unit
• System unit main components
o
o
o
o
Motherboard
CPU
Power supply
Cooling fan
o Internal speaker
o Drive bays
o Expansion slots
The System Unit
THE PHYSICAL CASE
Power supply
Processor and
cooling fan
Expansion
cards
Drive
bays
Inside the System Unit
Hardware Devices and Their Uses
• System Board or Mother Board
What’s on the Motherboard?
Drive Controller & Interfaces
CONNECTS DISK DRIVES TO THE PROCESSOR
SATA cable
EIDE cable
Sound Card
Network Card
Hardware Devices and Their Uses
• Central Processing Unit (CPU)
– The brain of the computer that executes
programs and manipulates data
– Two main parts:
• Control unit
• Arithmetic logic unit
– Many different types
Manufacturers
• Intel
– Core Duo, Quad, i3, i5, i7
– Pentium – Basic computing
• Single processor
– Celeron – entry level computing
– Centrino, Centrino 2 - mobile
• AMD
– Athlon
• XP, 64, 64 X2,
• Phenom, Phenom II, A6, A10
What’s on the Motherboard?
• System clock
o Electronic circuit that produces rapid pulses and
coordinates the computer’s internal activities.
o Clock speed—measurement of the electrical pulses
generated by the system clock, usually measured in
gigahertz (GHz)
What’s on the Motherboard?
• Multi-core processing
– Access time reduced
– Processing time improved
– Each core handles incoming streams of data or
instructions at the same time
– Two basic types:
• Dual core
• Quad core
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
20
Hardware Devices and Their Uses
• Memory
– Measured in bytes
• megabytes (MB), gigabytes (GB)
– ROM: permanent and nonvolatile
– RAM: temporary and volatile
What’s on the Motherboard?
• Memory
– Chips on the motherboard or within the CPU that
retain instructions and data
• Random access memory (RAM)
– Temporarily stores data and instructions for the CPU
– Volatile—contents erased after computer is shut off
– Allows CPU to access or store data and instructions
quickly through RAM’s memory address feature
• Identifies and locates stored data
What’s on the Motherboard?
• RAM (con’t.)
– Comes in the form of memory modules or memory
cards
– Memory modules (memory cards)—small circuit
boards that hold several RAM chips and fits into
special slots on the motherboard
– Types of RAM:
• Dual inline memory modules (DIMM)—most
common today
– 168-pin connector
– 64-bit transfer rate
• Single inline memory modules (SIMM)—older
technology
– 72-pin connector
– 32-bit transfer rate
Memory (RAM)
• Byte – character
• Kilobyte (KB) – 1024 bytes
• Megabyte (MB) – 1024 KB or 1 million
bytes
• Gigabyte (GB) – 1024 MB or 1 billion
bytes
What’s on the Motherboard?
• Read-only memory (ROM)
– Contains prerecorded instructions to start the computer
– Nonvolatile—contents stored when CPU power off
• Basic input/output system (BIOS)
– First code run when the system is powered on
• Bootstrap loader
– Program—locates and loads the operating system into RAM
• Complementary metal-oxide semiconductor
(CMOS)
– Starts the power-on self-test and verifies other system
components are operating correctly
• Power-on self-test (POST)
– Checks circuitry and RAM, marking defective locations
What’s on the Motherboard?
• ROM (con’t.)
– Programmable ROM (PROM)
o Electrically-PROM (EPROM)
– Electrically erasable PROM (EEPROM)
– Flash EPROM
What’s on the Outside of the Box?
What’s on the Outside of the Box?
Connectors on a notebook may vary
Hardware Devices and Their Uses
• Input Devices
– Used to enter data into memory (RAM).
– Two most familiar:
• Mouse
• Keyboard
Recognize Input Devices
Mobile Devices Equipped with Keyboard Options
Recognize Input Devices
• Pointing devices
Input Devices: Giving Commands
Input Devices: Giving Commands
• Keyboards
– Connect with:
• Universal Serial Bus (USB) connector
• PS/2 cable
• Infrared
• Radio frequency
• Bluetooth
Recognize Input Devices
• Optical mouse
Input Devices: Giving Commands
• Mice
– Optical—most popular pointing device
– Travel—all the capabilities of a normal mouse, half
the size
– Wheel—has a wheel for easy vertical scrolling
– Wireless—connects through an infrared or radio
signal (RF)
– Air—does not need to work on a surface, works as it
moves through the air
Input Devices: Giving Commands
• Mice alternatives
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
Trackball
Pointing stick
Touchpad (also called a trackpad)
Click wheel
Joystick
Stylus
Touch screen
Hardware Devices and Their Uses
• Output Devices: displays information
after data has been processed in a useful
format.
– Monitors
– Printers
– Speakers and multimedia projectors
Output Devices: Engaging Our Senses
• Monitors
– Display a temporary copy (soft copy) of processed
data
– Types of monitors include:
• Cathode-ray tube (CRT)—legacy technology
• Liquid crystal display (LCD)
– LCD (flat-panel) displays:
• Have a thin profile
• Are used with newer desktops and
notebooks
• Have largely replaced CRT monitors
• May accommodate high-definition video
Hardware Devices and Their Uses
Output Devices: Engaging Our Senses
• Printers
– Supply a hard copy of output displayed on a
computer’s monitor
– Types include:
• Inkjet
• Laser
• Dot-matrix
• Thermal-transfer (sometimes called dye
sublimation printers)
• Photo
• Plotters
Hardware Devices and Their Uses
• Output Devices: printers
Objective 3: Hardware Devices and
Their Uses
• Storage Devices
– Used to store data, information, and
programs for future use.
– Permanent memory
– Storage device versus storage media
• Device – hardware such as hard drives or DVD
drives
• Media – removable part that actually contains the
stored data
Storage: Holding Data for Future Use
• Memory (RAM)
– Primary memory
– Temporary holding area for items in use
– Primary storage
• Storage devices
– Required during the computer system’s start-up
operations
– Used as an output device for saving data
Objective 3: Hardware Devices and
Their Uses
– Data is stored in one of three forms:
• Magnetic
• Optical
• Flash
Methods for Storing Data
• Many types of recording media
System Unit
Hardware Devices and Their Uses
• Hard disk drive
– 200GB to 3TB
– 300GB – 500GB good range
– 5400 rpm vs. 7200 rpm
– Solid state (no moving parts)
• CD, DVD, BD (Blu-ray) drives
– CD – 700MB – 1 GB
– DVD – 4.7GB – 17GB
– BD – 25GB/50GB
Storage: Holding Data for Future Use
Hardware Devices and Their Uses
• Flash drives
– 2 GB – 64GB
• USB
– Hard drives
• Battery operated hard drive
Methods for Storing Data
• Memory cards
What’s on the Outside of the Box?
• USB (universal serial
bus) ports
– Connects up to 127 peripheral
devices
– USB 2.0 (high-speed USB)—fully
compatible with USB 1.1 products,
cables, and connectors
– Designed to replace older parallel and
serial ports
– Connects a variety of devices to the
computer, including:
• Keyboards
• Mice
• Printers
• Digital cameras
What’s on the Outside of the Box?
• USB 2.0
– Uses an external bus
– Supports data transfer rates of 480 Mbps between the
computer and the peripheral device
– Supports hot swapping—ability to connect and
disconnect devices without shutting down the computer
– Plug-and-play (PnP)—allows computers to automatically
detect the device when you plug it in
• USB hub
– Device that plugs into existing USB port
– Contains four or more additional ports
What’s on the Outside of the Box?
• FireWire (1395 ports)
– Created by Apple in 1995
– IEEE 1394 Higher Performance Serial Bus, also known
as Sony i.Link
– Offers high-speed connections for dozens of peripheral
devices (up to 63)
– Enables hot swapping and PnP
– Data transfer rates of FireWire
• FireWire 400—400 Mbps
• FireWire 800—800 Mbps
• FireWire S3200—next generation (expected to
transfer data at 3.2 Gbps)
What’s on the Outside of the Box?
• Video connectors
– VGA (video graphics array)
• 15-pin male connector—works with standard monitor
cables
• Transmits analog video signals
• Used for legacy technology cathode ray (CRT) monitors
– DVI (Digital visual Interface) port—lets LCD monitors
use digital signals
– Onboard video—video circuitry built into the motherboard
where the video connector is on the back of the system unit
case
What’s on the Outside of the Box?
• Additional connectors
– Telephone
– Network
– PC card slot
• PC card
– Sound card
– Game card
– TV/sound capture board
What’s on the Outside of the Box?
• Legacy technology
– Older technology that is being phased out
• Examples:
»
»
»
»
Serial ports
Parallel ports
PS/2 ports
SCSI (small computer system interface) ports
Ports & Connectors
CONNECT PERIPHERALS TO THE MOTHERBOARD
Audio
Ethernet
FireWire
USB
Parallel
Standard
(VGA) video
PS/2
HDMI video
Ports & Connectors
CONNECT PERIPHERALS TO THE MOTHERBOARD
USB
FireWire
USB Hub
Ethernet
Protection
• Surge protectors
• UPS
Describe Hardware Devices and Their
Uses
• Evaluating Your System
– What kind of computer do you have?
• Computer > Properties
– Which operating system?
– How much memory?
– Drives and storage space?
Identify Types of Software and Their
Uses
• System Software
– Contains two main programs:
• Operating System
– Manages hardware components
• Utility programs
– Small applications that handle tasks involved with
management and maintenance of a system.
Identify Types of Software and Their
Uses
• Operating System
– Communicates with the computer and its
peripherals
• Includes the user interface
• Graphical User Interface (GUI)
– Icons
– Menus
– Dialog boxes
– Windows
– contains the directions needed to start up the
computer (known as the boot process)
Identify Types of Software and Their
Uses
• Windows Operating System
– Windows XP
– Windows Vista
– Windows 7
• Linux
• Mac
Identify Types of Software and Their
Uses
• Utility Programs
– Small applications
that handle
important tasks
involved with
computer
management and
maintenance
Identify Types of Software and Their
Uses
• Utility Programs
– Can be used to:
• Back up important files
• Remove unwanted files or programs
• Schedule various computer maintenance tasks
Identify Types of Software and Their
Uses
• Application Software
– Programs created to perform a specific task
or solve a specific need
– Fall into one of several categories
•
•
•
•
•
•
Financial and business
Graphics and multimedia
Educational and reference
Entertainment
Communication
Productivity software
Identify Types of Software and Their
Uses
– Productivity software
• Word processing
• Spreadsheet
• Database
• Presentation
• Communication
Describe Networks and Define
Network Terms
• Networks
– Consist of two or more connected computers
plus peripheral devices
– Allow users to share data, software, and
resources
– Each object connected to a network is a node
– Topology
– Servers
Describe Networks and Define
Network Terms
• LAN
– A network that connects computers reasonably close
together
• WAN
– A network that covers a geographic area or begins to
include other networks
Describe Networks and Define
Network Terms
• Network configurations
– Peer-to-peer
• Most commonly found in homes and businesses
• Each node communicates with every other node without a dedicated
server among computers.
– Client/server
• Typically have two different types of computers
– The client: used by an individual
– The server: used by network technicians and
administrators to manage network resources
Network Servers
• Domain Controller
– Domain – used to group users and computers
•
•
•
•
File Server
Print Server
Web Server
E-mail Server
Describe Networks and Define
Network Terms
• Network topologies – describes the
different types of network architecture
used for client/server networks.
– Bus topologies – connects each node to a single, central high-speed line
known as a bus.
– Ring topologies – connects each node to the next, forming a loop.
– Star topologies – connects each node to a special device known as a
switch.
Describe Networks and Define
Network Terms
• Network topologies
Identify Safe Computing Practices
• Computer Maintenance
– Establish a regular maintenance routine
• Backup utilities
• Disk Cleanup
• Disk Defragmenter
• Task Scheduler
• System Restore
Identify Safe Computing Practices
• Viruses
– Malicious codes or software
– Invade a computer and alter or destroy data
• Worms
– Malicious programs that spread from
computer to computer
– Replicate themselves
Identify Safe Computing Practices
• Trojan horses
– Often appear to be a desirable software
program
– Do not duplicate themselves or infect other
files
– Allow intruders such as botnets
• software robots that run automatically in
networks
• Phishing
Identify Safe Computing Practices
• Spyware
– Captures information on a computer
– Usually not intended to harm a computer
• Adware
• Cookies
• Key loggers
• Social Engineering
Identify Safe Computing Practices
• Protecting Yourself and Your Computer
– Software updates and patches
– Antivirus software
• Finds and removes viruses
– Antispyware software
• Similar to antivirus software
• Finds and removes spyware
Identify Safe Computing Practices
• Personal firewalls
– Software programs or hardware devices
• Can make computers invisible to hackers
• Can prevent hackers from turning your computer
into a zombie
Identify Safe Computing Practices
• Zombie
– A remotely controlled computer used to spread viruses,
spyware, or spam
– Can also be used in denial of service (DoS) attacks
Identify Safe Computing Practices
• What else should you do to be safe online?
– Do not give our personal information
– Avoid spam email and phishing attacks
• Phishing is an email that masquerades as authentic organizations and
ask for personal information
– Check for hoaxes and scams online
– When in doubt, always check
Updates and Firewall

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