Culturally Responsive Environments

Report
CULTURALCOMPETENCE
Culturally Responsive Environments
May 14, 2012
PRESENTER
Dr. Patrick C. Coggins, PhD., LLD (Hon.)
Sponsored by Stetson University Diversity Council
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DIVERSITY
TOPIC
Making a Difference: Culturally Responsive Teaching
(CRT)
CULTURALCOMPETENCE
Cultural Competence Philosophy
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“Cultural Competence is a Philosophy and a way of life that enables
us to appreciate, respect and help people to achieve their highest
level of Humanness.”
(Patrick Coggins, 2000, CDC accepted definition)
CULTURALCOMPETENCE
Why CRT ?
Two Human Rights issues that Eleanor Roosevelt
was involved in?
1. Tuskegee Airmen Experience in 1944
2. The 1948 ,Universal Declaration of Human Rights—
(30 Rights)
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DIVERSITY
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CULTURALCOMPETENCE
Preamble to the Universal Declaration of
Human Rights
“Whereas, recognition of the inherent dignity and
of the equal and unalienable rights of all members
of the human family is the foundation of freedom,
justice and peace in the world.” (U.N., 1948)
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CULTURALCOMPETENCE
Article 1
“ All human beings are born free and equal in
dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason
and conscience and should act towards one another
in a spirit of brotherhood.”
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CULTURALCOMPETENCE
Article 15
“Everyone has the right to a nationality. No one shall
be arbitrarily deprived of his nationality nor denied
the right to change its nationality.”
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CULTURALCOMPETENCE
Article 26
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“Everyone has the right to education.’
 “Education shall be directed to the full development of
human personality and to strengthening of respect for
human rights and fundamental freedoms.”
 “It shall promote understanding, tolerance and
friendship among all nations, peoples, racial or
religious groups…”
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CULTURALCOMPETENCE
Presentation Purpose
Questions to be Answered
 What is Culturally Responsive Teaching?
 Why is Cultural Competence necessary in the
delivery of educational services?
 What Cross Cultural values should drive educational
and learning practices?
 Which cultural competence issues and strategies are
research based?
 What are the benefits to be derived from the use of
a Cultural Assessment regimen by educational
professionals?
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This presentation will provide participants with experiential and practical
applications that enable educators to bridge existing gaps in cross cultural
interaction with ethnically and racially diverse student groups in Stetson
University.
CULTURALCOMPETENCE
Methodology
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This session will be conducted through the use of active didactic
information and diverse interactive processes.
There will be a major emphasis on the practical application of the
content to the faculty’s realities in higher education settings.
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CULTURALCOMPETENCE
Cultural Competence Paradigm Shift
PAST
PRESENT
FUTURE
MONOCULTURAL
BICULTURAL
MULTICULTURAL
• Focusing on
one dominant
culture
• Primarily
White or Black
or Native
American.
• Tend to Focus
on two
dominant
cultures
• e.g. Black and
White or
White and
Hispanic
• Focusing on all
cultures in our
schools,
colleges,
communities,
and agencies.
BUILDING PEACE, HARMONY, APPRECIATION, RESPECT,
UNDERSTANDING FOR CULTURAL/ETHNIC DIVERSITY
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(Changing our Cultural Perspectives)
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CULTURALCOMPETENCE
Cultural Paradigm Shift
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1948 - U.N. Declaration of Human Rights
1960s – Civil Rights. Cultural Sensitivity (T Groups)
1970s – Women’s Rights 1972: (Amendment EEOC)
1980 – Human Rights (Carter)
1990 – Global Rights, Multicultural Education, Cultural
Diversity
2000 – Cultural Competence & CRT Focus
Beyond Sensitivity
Beyond Awareness
Beyond Understanding
Today! It is doing, thinking and feeling culturally connected,
habitually, and most of all, feeling culturally empowered that
matters.
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CULTURALCOMPETENCE
Acquiring Cultural Competence +(CRT)
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Starts with the recognition/awareness of one’s own
Biases/Prejudices.(Gary Howard,2006)
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Decision to become less Ethnocentric but rather more
Bicultural – acceptance of at least one outside
culture.(De Anda,1984)

Grows with knowledge and acceptance of three or
more culture (Becoming Multicultural).(Gay,2000)
Enhanced with sustained cross cultural contact(s) of
OPENNESS (Cultural Competence and Proficiency).
 (Randy Lindsey, et al,2006)
 Actualized through the acquisition of cross cultural
skills based on substantive cross cultural encounters
that leads to cultural proficiency and empowerment
(see Banks, 2007).

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The Journey…
CULTURALCOMPETENCE
THE CULTURAL COMPETENCE CONTINUUM
* Cultural Empowerment
Cultural Proficiency
Cultural Competence
Cultural Pre-Competence
Cultural Blindness
Negative
Cultural Incapacity
*Cultural
Empowerment added
by Coggins (2006)
Cultural Destructiveness
(Cross 2002
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Positive
CULTURALCOMPETENCE
Why CULTURALLY RESPONSIVE TEACHING Is Needed
Closing the Cultural GAP will require Educators who:
Think systematically about their practice and learn from experiences and,
“exemplify the virtues they seek to inspire in students: curiosity, tolerance, honesty,
fairness, respect for diversity, and appreciation of cultural differences and, examine
their practice, seek to expand their repertoire of skills, deepen their knowledge and
adapt their teaching to new research and theories.”
(NEA, 2004)
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Cognition is Shaped by Cultural Ideas/Information.
“When an individual fails to teach or learn their history and culture sooner or later
their history and culture will be forgotten and the individual or group will be
rendered nameless and faceless.”
(Carter G. Woodson, 1926)
Key:
Relevant culture specific and reinforcing information is crucial in cross cultural
communication. We should also put a face on the cultures in our learning
environments.
CULTURALCOMPETENCE
Exercise 1: Development of Culturally Responsive Educators
Exercise: Discussion on the difference between tolerance vs. appreciation?
We need to move to a level of appreciation! What is that difference?
Please write your response below.
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
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National Education Association Standards (2004) said that effective
educators and schools demonstrate:
“Awareness of the influence of context and culture on
behavior”
“Exemplify the virtues of appreciation and respect for the
individual’s cultural, religious, and racial differences and appreciation of
the group’cultural differences” (NEA, 2004).
CULTURALCOMPETENCE
Exercise 2: Culture
Exercise:
Please define in your own words the term of culture and
identify 2 values that are expressed in your definition.
_______________________________________________
_______________________________________________
_______________________________________________
________________________________________________
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Culture represents the histories, attitudes, behaviors, languages,
values, beliefs and uniqueness, which distinguish each racial or
sub-cultural group in a society. Each of us has a historical
heritage and a contemporary heritage that comprise our
present culture.
CULTURALCOMPETENCE
Understanding Diverse Cultures
Material = Surface Culture
This specifically represents the external and observable processes, which we see
as part of the composite of one’s culture. Some examples of this material
culture are:

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Artifacts
Language
Dress
Behaviors
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Color
Food
Songs
Others: (explore)
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TWO TYPES OF CULTURE
 Material Culture
= Surface Culture
 Immaterial Culture
= Deep Culture
CULTURALCOMPETENCE
Understanding Diverse Cultures
This specifically represents the internal or intrinsic processes, which we
cannot see. The oral culture requires cultural translators. Some examples
of this immaterial culture are:
Myths
Folklore
Stories
Feelings
Values
Oral Culture
Spiritualism
Messages Behind the Values
Others: (explore)
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Immaterial = Deep Culture -The areas we do not see
CULTURALCOMPETENCE
What is Cultural Competence?
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Cultural Competence refers to the
ability of an individual to interact
effectively with people of various
cultures.
 In order to do this, a teacher must
have an awareness of their own
culture, an attitude towards
cultural differences, knowledge of
different cultural practices/views,
as well as cross cultural skills.
 In effect, a Culturally Competent
person must have the ability to
see “beyond the tip of the
iceberg” and understand other
cultures in a much greater depth.
(Geneva Gay & Carl Grant,2000)

CULTURALCOMPETENCE
Culture
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Central to learning.
 Beliefs, customs, practices, and social behavior
of a particular nation or people.
 Shapes the thinking process in groups and
individuals as well as an vital part in
communication and receiving information.

CULTURALCOMPETENCE
THE NEW FLORIDA LAWS
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CULTURALCOMPETENCE
Understanding the Florida Educational Goals and Laws in MCE
F.S 1003.42(2002)
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The Declaration of Independence
Republican Form of Government
FL Statute
U.S. Constitution
1003.42, (2002)
Flag Education, Display and Flag Salute
Civil Government
History of Holocaust (1933-1945)
History of African Americans
Study of Hispanic Contributions to the United States
Study of Women’s Contributions
Character Development
Education for Speakers of Other Languages (ESOL) FS 1011.62
Accomplished Practices
Diversity: Uses teaching and learning strategies that reflect each student’s
culture, learning styles, special needs and socio-economic background.
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CULTURALCOMPETENCE
What is Cultural Competence?
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Research-based Definitions in
Cultural Competence
CULTURALCOMPETENCE
Definition of Cultural Competence
Most definitions of cultural competence use terms to describe an
increased cultural awareness, knowledge, and change in attitude.
Other authors take the definition of cultural competence further,
describing it as a process, rather than an endpoint. For example:

Weneger (1999) discusses the need for a lifelong commitment to a
journey of increasing cultural understanding.

Meleis (1999) stresses the need to actively seek cultural experiences
that expand one’s own cultural worldview. Additionally,

Campinha-Bacote (2000) includes the educator’s ability to effectively
work within the cultural context of a student as the practical outcome
of cultural competence. Effectively working within the student’s
cultural context requires a developmental process for the
professional.
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CULTURALCOMPETENCE
Definition of Cultural Competence
“The ability to relate and communicate effectively when individuals
involved in the interaction do not share the same culture, ethnicity,
language, or other salient variables” Based on Hains, Lynch, and
Winton’s (1997).

Basic cultural competence occurs when organizations and
practitioners respect differences, engage in ongoing cultural selfassessment, expand their cultural knowledge and skills, and adapt
services to fit the community’s culture, situation, and perceived needs
(Harvey and Rauch, 1997).
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CULTURALCOMPETENCE
Research on Cultural Competence
Key words are:
Habit
Exhibiting
Automatic
Cultural Diversity Awareness
Culturally Competent Behaviors
Cultural Sensitivity
Cultural Assessment
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Coggins (2000) The habit of exhibiting the appropriate behaviors with respect to
the diverse cultural ethnic and racial student population. Habit is used to indicate
the automatic responsive actions of the educator based on personal knowledge
and the individual’s cues and preferences. Thus, cultural competence is a process
where the practitioner automatically exhibits cultural diversity awareness, culturally
Competent Behaviors, and Cultural Sensitivity, all of which are integrated into the
Cultural Assessment of the student.(American Journal of Health Studies:21(4)2006
.p9.; CDC (2006).
CULTURALCOMPETENCE
Research in Support
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Thus, Ruby Payne, Irvine (1990), Erickson (1987),
Au and Kawakami (1991), Asante (1998) and
Banks,2007,2010 all argued that their research
and experiences conclude that
“only when teachers understand the cultural and
historical background of students can they
comprehend and react positively to minority
students while enhancing their academic
achievement.”
CULTURALCOMPETENCE
Cultural Competence
Share resources
and credit.
Have patience
and stay for the
long haul.
Behave in ways
that
acknowledge
interdependence
and diversity.
Take some risks,
experience
cultures in nonpatronizing ways.
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Beyond Sensitivity and Awareness
CULTURALCOMPETENCE
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CULTURALCOMPETENCE
The Culturally Responsive School
“Approaching a student's education in these culturally and
linguistically responsive ways—rather than emphasizing deficits—
has the potential to truly engage all students in learning, both in
college and beyond.”
Villegas, Ana M. and Lucas, Tamara (Mar. 2007). Responding to Changing Demographics: The Culturally Responsive Teacher.
Educational Leadership, Vol. 64, Number 6. (pgs. 28-33.)
http://www.ascd.org/publications/educational_leadership/mar07/vol64/num06/The_Culturally_Responsive_Teacher.aspx 30
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“Teachers and school leaders must develop a shared vision of the
culturally and linguistically responsive school and teacher.”
CULTURALCOMPETENCE
Culture and Its Impact on Academic Achievement
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Culture is the glue that enables an individual
to make sense of the world. It is the frame of
reference for our intentions, behaviors and
impact and influence on others.
CULTURALCOMPETENCE
Culturally Responsive Teaching Means

Integrating cultural content that
enhances achievement for all
“Students are more likely to
master essential reading writing
and computational skills when the
teacher uses content that deals
with significant diverse, human
history and cultural events,
especially the history and
contemporary contributions of
their ethnic group.” (Banks,
2007,p. 28) (Howard, 2006 p.2)
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CULTURALCOMPETENCE
Exercise 5: Five Foundations to CRT
Phase 1: Building Trust
Proposition:
 90% of US College and Public School teachers are
white, middle class, English speaking, Received degree in
predominantly white college (Gay, Dingus and Jackson,
2003)
 No experiential and educational background prepare
teacher for their student’s diversity (Ladson-Billings,
2002; Vaurus, 2002)
Your strategy:
As an educator to build trust is:
________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
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Five strategies for sustaining a culturally competent school
CULTURALCOMPETENCE
Exercise 6: Engaging Personal Culture
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Phase II: Engaging Personal Culture
Proposition:
Educator’s need to build their cultural competence i.e. “Their ability
to form and model effective cross cultural relationships across
racial/ethnic differences” (Howard, 2006, Coggins, 2005).Help
students to develop:
1. Feeling of belonging
2. Trust in people around them,
3. Belief that teachers value their intellectual competence
impacts in student motivation and performance (Aronson
and Slede, 2005)
Your Strategy:
As an educator to “engage personal culture that positively impacts
on student motivation and performance, I will do the following
______________________________________________________
______________________________________________________
CULTURALCOMPETENCE
Ex 6: Social Dominance/White Privilege
Your strategy: As an educator, I would implement the following strategy:
__________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________
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Phase III: Confronting Social Dominance/Social Justice (White
Privilege)
Proposition:
Systems of white privilege and preference create enclaves of exclusivity
in colleges/schools. Some demographics are served well. Other languish
in limitations, mediocrity and failure (Howard, 2006, Banks, 2003, Gay,
2004, Hirsh, 2005, Peggy McIntosh, 1988).
Could your college/school show clear and convincing evidence of
equitable participation of ethnic minorities in all aspects of University life,
etc.
CULTURALCOMPETENCE
Exercise 6: Transforming Instruction
Phase IV: Transforming Instructional Practices
Proposition: It is essential that schools shift the instructional
strategies to meet the increasing numbers and diverse
learning needs of students by instituting CRT (Culturally
Responsive Teaching). CRT in no way avoids having high
expectations for all students (Gay, 2000, Ladson-Billings,
1996, McKinley, 2005, Shade, Kelly and Oberg, 1997,
Howard, 2006, Coggins, 2005)
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CULTURALCOMPETENCE
Exercise 6: Transforming Instruction
As an Educator, I would “transform my instructional
practices,” in the following ways:
__________________________________________
__________________________________________
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Transforming Instructional Practices
Your strategy:
CULTURALCOMPETENCE
Exercise 6: The Entire College/School
Your strategy:
As an educator, how would you engage the Entire College/School
Community?
_____________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________
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Phase V: Engaging the entire School
Community
Proposition: Changing demographics have
profound implications for all levels and
functions of College life. To create a
welcoming and equitable environment for
diverse students and their families, school
leaders must engage the entire
college/school community (Howard, 2006,
Banks, 2003, Coggins, 2002).
CULTURALCOMPETENCE
Cultural Responsive Teaching! What is it?

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Children whose language and culture align
closely to that of the school are advantaged in
the learning process. Those that feel devalued
or unrecognized become alienated and
disengaged from the learning process.(Gay
2000)
Culturally Responsive Teaching does not focus
on stereotypes of the culture, such as food and
art. It is based on ways of communicating and
learning that are familiar to the student, along
with themes that are empowering to them.
(Banks, 2007)
Culturally Responsive Teaching requires that
teachers interpret their students' behaviors
within the cultural context of the student. They
know the cultures in their classrooms, and
reflect on the impact of this cultural
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CULTURALCOMPETENCE
What is Culturally Responsive Teaching?
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Gay (2000) defines culturally responsive teaching as using the
cultural knowledge, prior experiences, and performance styles
of diverse students to make learning more appropriate and
effective for them; it teaches to and through the strengths of
the students.
CULTURALCOMPETENCE
Culturally Responsive Teaching (CRT)
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Seeks to maximize learning opportunities,
teachers gain knowledge of the cultures
represented in their classrooms and translate
this knowledge into instructional practices.
CULTURALCOMPETENCE
Six (6) Culturally Responsive Teaching are…
Transformative
Comprehensive
Empowering
Multidimensional
Emancipatory
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DIVERSITY
Validating
CULTURALCOMPETENCE
Six Essential Characteristics

1. Validating
 2.
Comprehensive
 3. Multidimensional
 4. Empowering
 5. Transformative
 6. Emancipatory
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Culturally Responsive Teaching is:
CULTURALCOMPETENCE
Culturally Responsive Teaching
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A pedagogy that provides equal access to
education for all students of diverse cultures
which recognizes, responds to and celebrates
these cultures.
 Students’ cultures are recognized as important
and referenced in all facets of learning
experiences.

CULTURALCOMPETENCE
What is Culturally Responsive Teaching?
Recognizes,
respects, and
uses students'
identities and
backgrounds as
meaningful
sources
by using cultural
referents to
impart
knowledge, skills
and attitudes.
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Culture is central
to student
learning.
Empowers
students
intellectually,
socially,
emotionally, and
politically
CULTURALCOMPETENCE
Culturally Responsive Teaching is…Validating
Information from the “In-Time” website at www.intime.uni.edu
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DIVERSITY
Gay (2000) defines culturally responsive teaching as using
the cultural knowledge, prior experiences, and
performance styles of diverse students to make learning
more appropriate and effective for them; it teaches to and
through the strengths of these students.
 . When we teach with the intention of Florida Law, Statute
1003.42, we validate all of our students by teaching them
about a wide variety of cultures.
 Validation comes by embracing what students have to
share about their cultures.

CULTURALCOMPETENCE
Culturally Responsive Teaching is Validating
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It acknowledges the legitimacy of the cultural
heritages of different ethnic groups, both as legacies
that affect students' dispositions, attitudes, and
approaches to learning and as worthy content to be
taught in the formal curriculum.
 It teaches students to know and praise their own and
each others' cultural heritages.
 It incorporates multicultural information, resources,
and materials in all the subjects and skills routinely
taught in schools. (Banks,2008,2009)

CULTURALCOMPETENCE
Culturally responsive teaching is… Comprehensive
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DIVERSITY
Ladson-Billings (1992) explains that culturally
responsive teachers develop intellectual, social,
emotional, and political learning by "using cultural
referents to impart knowledge, skills, and attitudes"
(p. 382).
 Hollins (2006) - education designed for racially
diverse students incorporates "culturally mediated
cognition, culturally appropriate social situations for
learning, and culturally valued knowledge in
curriculum content" (p. 13).
 Culturally responsive teachers realize not only the
I
importance of academic
achievement, but also the
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CULTURALCOMPETENCE
Culturally Responsive Teaching
is…Multidimensional
Multidimensional culturally responsive teaching
involves many things: curriculum content, learning
context, classroom climate, student-teacher
relationships, instructional techniques, and
performance assessments.

Teachers from various disciplines (language arts,
science, social studies, music) may collaborate in
teaching a single cultural concept, such as protest.
Students can also participate actively in their own
cultural presentations (Gay, 2000).
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CULTURALCOMPETENCE
Learning Within the Context of Culture
Yet Multidimensional
Why
How
• Students may feel pressure to remove themselves from their culture.
• This behavior can interfere with development and make learning hindered.
• Teachers should bridge cultural differences by using
effective communication and examples across cultures.
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What
• Cultural expectations for learning may be different.
• Lessons should be adapted so that they are familiar to the student’s culture.
CULTURALCOMPETENCE
Culturally Responsive Teaching is Empowering
Culturally Responsive Teaching empowers students to be
better human beings and more culturally proficient

Students must believe they can succeed in the diverse
classroom and have motivation to persevere.
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CULTURALCOMPETENCE
Culturally Responsive Teaching is…Empowering
Information from the “In-Time” website at www.intime.uni.edu
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Empowerment can be described as academic
competence and self-efficacy
Teachers must demonstrate appropriate
expectations and exhibit support for the student’s
culture.
This can be done through providing resources and
personal assistance, modeling positive self-efficacy
beliefs, and celebrating individual and collective
Cultures’ (Gay, 2000).
CULTURALCOMPETENCE
Culturally Responsive Teaching is…Transformative
DIVERSITY
Banks (1991,2007) asserts that if education is to
empower marginalized groups, it must be
transformative. This involves helping "students to
become culturally responsive and be able to make
reflective decisions and implement their decisions in
effective personal, social, political, and economic
action" (p. 131).
 Culturally responsive teaching does not only
incorporate traditional educational practices with
respect to diverse students (Gay, 2000). It means
respecting
the from
cultures
and
experiences
Information
the “In-Time”
website
at www.intime.uni.eduof various
groups and then use these as resources for teaching53
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CULTURALCOMPETENCE
Culturally Emancipatory Instruction
Why
How
• Students become active participants in teaching their own
culture while learning the cultures of others.
• Research student’s prior cultural experiences.
• Create an environment that encourages cultural infusion.
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What
• Cultural Emancipatory instruction should incorporate and
integrate diverse ways knowing, understanding, and
representing information.
CULTURALCOMPETENCE
Culturally Responsive Teaching: in Summary


Instruction is culturally responsive when it incorporates and
integrates diverse cultural ways of knowing, understanding
and representing information. (Mayan ,2012)
An environment that encourages multicultural viewpoints and
allows for inclusion of knowledge that is relevant.
Learning happens in culturally dynamic situations.
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CULTURALCOMPETENCE
CRT Reflection
Excluding the consideration of students’ cultures is
liken to teaching reading with no prior knowledge.
As teachers we are always looking for the
meaningful activities that connect the known with the
unknown. Incorporating individual aspects of cultures
naturally produce the connections, but, taking it a
step further nurtures the respect and appreciation
for all cultures.
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CULTURALCOMPETENCE
Building an Authentic Value System To Support your Cultural
Competence
Policies,
Procedures and
Programs
 To culturally competent is to be authentic
 Understanding the Five Values Driving a Culturally
Competent Institution
 Understanding the “Personal Responsibility Principle”.
 Thank You! Feedback!
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 Thinking
 Feeling
 Acting
CULTURALCOMPETENCE
THESE VALUES/PERCEPTIONS ARE:

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Justice – Fairness
Equality – Treating everyone similarly
Caring – Deep sensitivity to person and group
Closeness – Familiarity rather than isolation
Dialogue – Give and receive-sharing the
healing field
The challenge is to integrate these behaviors into our
practices and delivery of teaching and educational
services.
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CULTURALCOMPETENCE
Cultural Responsive Teaching:
A Final Perspective
“Imagination is more important than knowledge.”
(Albert Einstein)
“The future never first happened, it was created. SSC must
create a culturally sensitive, linguistic, and culturally
competent classroom/school environment.”
(Coggins)
So it is all about “students, faculty and administrators
celebrating cultures in an inclusive atmosphere.”
(Coggins)
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DIVERSITY
“THE ATMOSPHERE YOU CREATE DETERMINES THE POSITIVE
CROSS-CULTURAL RESULTS YOU PRODUCE.”
CULTURALCOMPETENCE
Managing Culturally Responsive Teaching:
A Final Perspective
“To promote cooperation and teamwork, Remember: People tend
to resist that which is forced on them. People tend to support
that which they help to create.”
(Vince Pfaff)
Therefore, let us create a College environment where people
can see that there is a willingness to imagine new culturally
competent ways.
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DIVERSITY
Let us create a partnership between you and your student/.
(Coggins)
CULTURALCOMPETENCE
UN Human Rights Epilogue
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DIVERSITY
“The time is now for all men and women to work
shoulder to shoulder for peace, freedom, racial,
religious and reduction of racial hatred.”
 “The prize is a world of peace and sanity where the
pursuit of happiness is possible.”

CULTURALCOMPETENCE
Personal Responsibility Principle
“I cannot be responsible for someone I cannot change and that is you. I must be
responsible for myself and the things I say or do in the conduct of myself. Only
you have the power to change the things you do and yourself. If you will
accept personal responsibility for your own behavior, and I accept personal
responsibility for my behavior, then, together we will influence others around us
to accept the same responsibility for the things they say or do and their
behavior.” (Coggins, 2004)
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DIVERSITY
“The price of greatness is taking responsibility for what you say and do.”
(Winston Churchill,1930)
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CULTURALCOMPETENCE
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