School-To-Work Transition and Asperger Syndrome

Report
Kristin K. Higgins
Ph.D., LPC, Certified School Counselor
Paper Authors: K. Higgins, L. Koch, E. Boughfman, C. Vierstra
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Holes in the Research/Literature
Asperger Syndrome Overview
Psychosocial Impact of Asperger Syndrome
Work Related Challenges
School-to-Work Transition
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Career Exploration
Job Seeking Skills Training
Supported Employment/Education
Accomodations Planning
Services to Employers
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Number of articles, research, studies looking
at the entire range of ASD in relation to
identification, treatment, and school-based
interventions.
Limited research focusing on the vocational
needs of adolescents and young adults on the
higher end of the spectrum.
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Some have begun to explore the needs of
individuals with ASD in relation to
postsecondary education and vocational skill
development*, but often these works attempt
to comprehensively address all disorders on
the spectrum and fail to provide information
about diagnosis-specific interventions and
programs.
*Ardeon & Durocher, 2007; Atwood, 2007: Dillon, 2007; Hillier,
Fish, Cloppert, & Beversdorf, 2007; Howlin, Alcock, & Burkin,
2005; Hurlbutt & Chalmers, 2004; & Kitchen, 2007
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One of five pervasive developmental disorders
known as ASD
First coin as “Autistic Psychopathy” in 1944 by
Austrian Pediatrician, Hans Asperger.
Was not widely know in English speaking countries
until Lorna Wing published on the subject in the
1980’s.
Was not recognized by the American Psychological
Association until 1994 (Barnhill, 2007).
“Life-long developmental disorder, that is
considered to fall on the higher functioning end of
the autism spectrum disorder” (Barnhill, 2007).
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Aspergers is present in 7 out of 1000 births.
1 in 200 primary school age children have
Aspergers (Cohen-Baron, 2005)
Individuals with Aspergers often look “normal” but
their behaviors are considered abnormal by society
Symptomalolgy ranging from mild to severe- often
difficult to portray accurate picture of the disorder.
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A. Qualitative impairment in social
interactions, as manifested by at least two
of the following:
◦ Marked impairment in the use of multiple
nonverbal behaviors.
◦ Failure to develop peer relationships
appropriate to developmental level.
◦ Lack of spontaneous seeking to share
enjoyment, interests, or achievements with
others.
◦ Lack of social or emotional reciprocity.
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C. The disturbance causes clinically significant
impairment in social, occupational, or other
important areas of functioning.
D. There is no clinically significant general delay in
language.
E. There is no clinically significant delay in
cognitive development or in the development of
age-appropriate self-help skills, adaptive behavior,
and other curiosity about the environment in
childhood.
F. Criteria are not met for another specific
Pervasive Developmental Disorder or
Schizophrenia.
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1. Lack of empathy.
◦ Not to be confused with Theory of Mind (TOM).
 “inherent disability of putting themselves in someone else's shoes or
understanding the psychological perspective of others” (Lacava, et al,
2007. p. 174)
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2.
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 Empathy is reacting to the individual once TOM has been accomplished (Lacava,
et al, 2007)
Inappropriate one-sided conversations.
Little or no ability to form friendships.
Repetitive speech.
Poor non-verbal communications.
Intense absorption in certain
objects/subjects.
7. Clumsiness.
 “Aspergers lack the ability to understand and use the unwritten rules
governing social behavior” (Wing, as cited by Lee & Park,
2007, p. 132-33)
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Functional impairments and marked deficiencies
in social interactions, communication, and
behaviors. (vary by individual)
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Viewed by others as odd, egocentric, peculiar, or
loners.
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Few, if any, meaningful peer relationships.
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Co-morbidity of other disorders
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Increases social distance between the individual
with AS and his or her peers
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Emerge from the deficits in social skills and
communication skills
Difficulties both in job attainment and job
retention
Interview difficulties
Skills necessary to work effectively on work
teams
Challenges related to stigma associated with
their disability and accompanying negative
perceptions of their co-workers and
superiors.
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Requires a wide array of transition services over
an extended period of time
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View individual holistically- strengths,
challenges, and opportunities
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Team representing a variety of disciplines
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Working alliance model (Bordin, 1994)
◦ Assessement and intervention strategies promoting early
intervention
◦ Extensive job acquisition and placement support
◦ On-going follow up
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Provide opportunities for introductory work
experiences
Provide avenues for:
◦ Discovering the world of work
◦ Learn and practice general work behaviors
◦ Develop self-awareness of strengths, weaknesses,
and career interests
◦ Match their abilities, interests, etc. to the world of
work
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Focus on strengths and assets that he/she
has to offer a potential employer
Break down tasks of finding a job into
manageable steps
Ample time in a supportive and nonthreatening environment to practice
interview, cold call, responding to inquires
etc.
◦ Scripts
◦ Role plays
◦ Immediate constructive feedback
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Resume assistance
Further practice, therapy for the use of
pragmatic language skills
Address and practice disability disclosure
◦ Timing
◦ Requesting Accomadations
Group training can be especially advantageous
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Supported employment is a job placement and
training intervention designed to prepare people
with disabilities for competitive employment in
integrated, community-based work settings
Services are targeted at: (Job Coaches)
◦ (a) determining the individual’s abilities and support
needs in the workplace;
◦ (b) locating and obtaining suitable employment;
◦ (c) identifying and providing workplace supports to
enhance job performance; and
◦ (d) problem solving issues that, if left unaddressed could
lead to termination of employment
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Supported education emphasizes the provision of
extensive services, above and beyond the
academic support services that are typically
provided to students with disabilities, to address
behaviors that may interfere with success and to
facilitate a positive adjustment to the academic
environment
Examples:
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Stress management training
Tutoring
Peer support
Faculty mentorships
Career counseling
Adjustment Counseling
Referral to campus resources
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Increasing self-advocacy skills:
◦ Access to information about legal protections
◦ Develop skills at disclosing disability information
◦ Identify and request accommodation needs
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Examples of Potential Accommodations:
◦ Provide advanced notice of topics for meetings
◦ Bring job coach, co-worker etc. to meetings
◦ Communicate in writing rather than verbally
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Efforts directed towards employers focus on understanding the
workplace’s normative behavioral and communicative standards
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Educate the employer to understand how individuals with ASDs
may have a difficult time meeting these normative standards
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Help employers to develop positive frames of reference
concerning their employees with ASDs, and assisting employers
to develop effective, appropriate, and non-discriminatory
responses towards their employees with ASDs.
Identify the positive aspects of hiring individuals with AS:
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Cognitive abilities
Attention to detail
Loyalty
Dependability
Less distracted by social aspects of the workplace- more productive
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