What does it mean to have an “unwritten Constitution”?
A: Not written explicitly in the Constitution
ex. Political parties, judicial review, cabinet
What precedents did Washington establish
for future presidents?
Enter George Washington
“A Born Leader”
 1st President of the
United States
 General during the
American Revolution
 Although he had little
experience, he had an
“air of authority”
 “The preservation of the sacred fire of liberty, and the
destiny of the republican model of government, are
justly considered deeply, perhaps as finally, staked on
the experiment entrusted to the hands of the
American people.”
 George Washington, First Inaugural Address, April 1789
 Who is Mr. Washington trying to appeal to?
Cabinet “GW’s Crew”
 Set a pattern for future presidents
 Washington chose men he knew and trusted!
 Considered the best cabinet in U.S. History
 Congress created the first 3 departments of cabinet:
 State, treasury, and war
 John Adams becomes VP after losing election
 Constitution stated Vice President would preside over
the Senate (only job at this time)
 Judiciary Act of 1789- Congress organized the judicial
 6 person Supreme Court
 John Jay named first chief justice
Dude where’s my money?
 Alexander Hamilton faced huge problems/US was in
 Hamilton’s Economic Plan
 Taxes on imported goods
 Excise tax on liquor and sugar (NOT HAPPY)
 National gov’t pays off debt
Jefferson not happy because North had more debt than the
South (South gets screwed)
Hamiltonians vs. Jeffersonians
Views of the Constitution
Alexander Hamilton
 “To constrain the powers of
the federal government
would mean to weaken it
Thomas Jefferson
 “Necessary and proper”
clause would open the door
to the abuse of power
Compromise over dinner…
 Capital would be moved from Philadelphia to the
South, near Virginia (Jefferson wins!)
 Hamilton had to convince Federalists of this
 In return, southerners would vote for Hamilton’s debt
bill to pass (Hamilton wins!)
How much power?
 Strict constructionist- Gov’t can only do what is
specifically in the Constitution (Jefferson)
 Loose constructionist- Gov’t can take reasonable
actions that are not outlined in the Constitution
Thomas “Teflon” Jefferson
 “Nothing sticks” to Jefferson though he spreads
information about other politicians
 Could he get away with it today?
 Believed Washington was a “monarchist bent on
destroying the rule of the people and a senile follower
of the policies of Alexander Hamilton”
 Thought Hamilton was influencing Washington
(“ignorant puppet”)
 Letters between the men/ “Martha”
The “Reynolds Affair”
 Hamilton had an affair with Maria Reynolds, who
requested him to help her escape her abusive husband
 Hamilton paid the husband over $1000 to keep it a
 Eventually Jefferson got hold of the love letters and
brought them to the newspaper, exposing Hamilton’s
private life
 Hamilton responded with a 95 page pamphlet in
which he openly admitted to the affair but denied
In what ways did Washington strengthen
the Federal Government?
Debate over the bank
 Hamilton wanted Congress to create a national bank
 Believed bank would win support of community
 Bank would help the gov’t in its financial dealings
 Democrat-Republicans argued that the Constitution
didn’t give the gov’t the authority to create a bank
 Hamilton said that any powers not stated in the
Constitution were “implied” or needed for the common
 Washington signed the bank bill into effect
Who is the person in the cartoon? What is he
2. What is the significance of the phrase “bottling up”?
Whiskey Rebellion
 In 1794, Western Pennsylvania farmers protested and
refused to pay the excise tax on whiskey
 Washington called out state militias and put down the
 Demonstrated that the new gov’t intended to enforce
federal law
Why whiskey?
Farmers had a hard time getting their grain to
market, so they turned their grain into whiskey,
which was easier to transport.
They got more money for the whiskey anyway.
Farmers traded the whiskey for salt, sugar, and
other goods.
Farmers used whiskey as money to get
whatever supplies they needed.
Farmers did not have the money to pay for the
Why do you think tax collectors were tarred and
Why do you think Washington chose to lead the troops
Washington’s Farewell
 “It is our true policy to steer clear of
permanent alliances with any portion of the
foreign world…”
 Washington’s Farewell Address, 1796
1. Summarize this quote…What is Washington
2. Why do you think he said this to the American
Washington’s Farewell Address
Before he retired, Washington gave a farewell
address (speech). In it he
Warned against political parties - he thought they
caused arguments
Urged the nation to remain neutral and not
become involved in foreign alliances.
Warned against a powerful military.
Urged Americans to maintain and value a sense
of national unity.
What were the differences between the
Federalists and the Democrat-Republicans?
Hamilton versus Jefferson
Alexander Hamilton led the Federalists.
Thomas Jefferson led the DemocraticRepublicans.
Northern merchants and manufacturers
became Federalists.
Southern farmers and workers became
The Evolution of Political Parties
• Federalist Party: first
U.S. political party
• Democratic-Republicans
formed in opposition to
the Federalists
• Democratic Party
developed from the
• Whig Party arose to
counter the Democratic
Henry Clay
Andrew Jackson
Daniel Webster
Political Parties
 Debate between Federalists and Anti-Federalists led to
the creation of a two party system
 Two major parties at this time were:
The Role of Political Parties
• Parties organize individuals
with similar ideas who work
to effect political change
• Citizens may freely choose
their party affiliation, or opt
to have none at all
• Parties can represent a wide
variety of interests
• Parties aim to elect people to
government who will help
pass laws in their favor
Third Parties in a
Two-Party System
Third-party poster from the 1912
presidential campaign
• Usually form in opposition to one
or both major parties
• Have had great influence without
ever winning the presidency
• Bring attention to important public
issues ignored by the major parties
• Complaints about third parties:
– They take votes away from
major candidates with similar
– Supporting a third-party
candidate “wastes” one’s vote
What challenges did the United States face
to remain “neutral”?
Election of 1796
Issues in the Young Nation
• Federalists and
aren't speaking
to each other.
End of the One-Party System
Election of 1796
The Potential Candidates
• Final candidate was
the Vice-President,
John Adams, who
was also a
Federalist, but more
John Adams
Election of 1796
Results in the Electoral College
• Adams 71,
Jefferson 68,
and Pinckney
– Adams takes
Jefferson as
– Does not trust
Hamilton and
1796 Election Results
On this week’s episode of
Desperate Founding Fathers…
• Constitution Says…
– Two candidates with the most votes become
President and Vice President! So…..
• President Adams and Vice President Jefferson
are from different political parties
• This is changed by Amendment XII (1804)
• Predictions?
Jay’s Treaty
 France and Great Britain had fought many wars
 Agreement between the U.S. and Great Britain
designed to prevent future wars
 Hamilton believed it would ease tensions between the
two countries
 Jefferson was concerned with our alliance with France
and that it may suffer because of this treaty
 How do you think France felt?? Why?
The French Revolution Interferes
• American merchant ships being seized by
French warships
– French not happy with Jay’s treaty
• Adams sends delegates to France to negotiate
• XYZ Affair
– French ministers (X, Y, & Z) requested bribes in order
to enter into negotiations
XYZ Affair
American Response
• Congress ends the French alliance.
• Creation of a naval department.
• Congress appropriates money to
triple the size of the army and build
40 warships.
• Washington comes out of retirement
to lead the American forces.
• American privateers attack French
1. Who are the people in the cartoon?
2. What are the two men on the left doing?
Public Opinion toward France Shifts
Britain looking on from on high
5 members of the Directory in France
Rest of the world
looking on
The XYZ affair - Maiden America ravaged by the French
Fallout from XYZ Affair
• Many Americans calling for war with France
– Hamilton, others thought U.S. could gain land
– “Millions for defense, but not one cent for tribute!”
• Adams feels that U.S. Army and Navy not
strong enough to fight a major power
– Sends new ministers instead
• Unpopular move, but….?
Federalists take control
• Public anger with France strengthens
Federalists in congress
– Win majority of both houses in 1798
– Enacted laws that were restrictive to DemocraticRepublican rivals
• What did Washington warn about again?
Naturalization Act
What did it do?
• Increases from five to fourteen number of
years required to qualify for U.S. citizenship
Why would it favor the Federalists?
• Most immigrants voted with the DemocraticRepublicans
Alien Acts
What did it do?
• Authorized the president to deport any aliens
considered to be dangerous
• Authorized the president to detain any enemy
aliens in a time of war
Why would it favor the Federalists?
• Democratic-Republicans sympathetic to the
French Revolution
The Alien & Sedition Acts
The Alien Acts
• Naturalization Act.
– Increased the eligibility for
citizenship from 5 to 14
• Alien Enemies Act.
– Gave the President the
power to arrest or expel
enemies in times of
"declared war."
• Alien Act.
– President can expel all
aliens deemed "dangerous
to the peace and safety of
the United States."
The Alien Act
Sedition Act
What did it do?
• Makes it illegal for newspapers to
criticize the president or Congress
• Imposed heavy penalties for editors who
violated the new law
– Fines
– Imprisonment
Why would it favor
the Federalists?
• Are you kidding?
Representative Matthew Lyon of Vermont, arrested under
the Sedition Act of 1798, attacking a fellow congressman
The Alien & Sedition Acts
The Sedition Act
• Made it a crime to
"impede the
operation of any
A Fight in Congress
Over the Sedition Act
– Illegal to publish
or speak any
scandalous, and
criticism of high
Judging Adams
Dislike for the Federalist Congress and the Alien and
Sedition Acts cost Adams his reelection and gave control of
Congress to the Republicans. But in weighing his
presidency, we have to consider the negative along with the
• Relationship with
France damaged
• New taxes imposed
• Party politics become
• Keeps U.S. out of war,
preserves neutrality
• Strengthens the Navy
• Peaceful transfer of
power in 1800
Homework Tonight
• Pg. 220 #2-3
• Pg. 231 #17
Thomas Jefferson’s
Food for Thought
Why was Jefferson’s victory in the Election of
1800 considered a “peaceful transfer of power”?
How did Jefferson’s acquisition of the Louisiana
Purchase contradict his political views?
Election of 1800
Thomas Jefferson & Aaron Burr both tie with 73
votes. It goes to the House and Hamilton controls
the outcome and chooses Jefferson! Why?
He hates Burr more than Jefferson!
Thomas Jefferson became our 3rd president
The Democratic-Republicans took control of
The Twelfth Amendment was added to the
Pres and VP run as a ticket
"We are all Republicans, we are all Federalists."
Why is this significant??
The election of 1800 was the most
important election in American History
No one knew after the election (which
lasted forever and was the closest ever)
what would happen.
Would the Federalists give up power
peacefully or would there be revolution,
secession, or civil war??
It was the first time EVER, in the history
of mankind, that power had been
transferred from one group to another
without bloodshed and war.
The Midnight Judges
The night before Jefferson is sworn in as
President, John Adams does the
John Adams filled all open positions with
Federalist Judges!
Why would he do this???
The Louisiana Purchase
Louisiana Purchase
Jefferson’s purchase of Louisiana had its
origins in his desire to
Give the United States control over the
Mississippi River
Acquire a port to provide an outlet for western
Hoped to preserve an agricultural (agrarian)
society by making abundant lands available to
future generations
To prevent war with France over control of the
Louisiana Territory and secure American
Louisiana Purchase
April 30, 1803
Robert Livingston & James
Monroe signed the
Louisiana Purchase Treaty
in Paris
The United States paid $15
million for the land, roughly
4 cents per acre
The purchase doubled the
size of the United States
On July 4th the Louisiana
Purchase is publicly
Original treaty can be found at:
Lewis and Clark Expedition
January 18, 1803
Jefferson asks Congress
for funds to explore the
land west of the
His goal is to find a water
route to the Pacific
May 1804
Meriwether Lewis and
William Clark depart on
the expedition
Map of Lewis and Clark’s Route
Original map can be found at:
But wait a minute…
What’s wrong with this picture?
He must use “implied powers” to
justify the deal
Evaluating Jefferson
• Contradicts his own interpretation of
Expands the size of the
the Constitution.
United States. “Louisiana
~ Why?

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