renewable energy for rural india : power generation and

Report
RENEWABLE ENERGY FOR RURAL
INDIA : POWER GENERATION
AND EMPLOYMENT
OPPORTUNITIES
PREVIEW
• Benefits of Rural Electrification.
• Why Renewable Energy?
• Hybrid Power Plant off grid Solutions for Rural India.
• Finance
• Employment Generation
2
INTRODUCTION
A Day in The Life of a Woman in Rural
India
3
DEFINITION OF RURAL ELECTRIFICATION
• The basic infrastructure within the revenue boundary of the village.
• Any of the public places avail power supply on demand.
• The ratings of distribution transformer and LT lines decided in
consultation with the Panchayat/Zila Parishad/District
Administration.
• The number of household electrified should be minimum 10% for
villages which are unelectrified, before the village is declared
electrified. The revision of definition would be prospective.
India's Installed Power Capacity -2013(Mega Watts)
Coal
Hydro
Total Capacity
(MW)
132,288.39
39,623.40
RES
27,541.71
12.20
Gas
Nuclear
Oil
Total
20,359.85
4780
1,199.75
2,25,793.10
9.02
2.12
0.53
Source
Percentage
58.59
17.55
Benefits of Rural Electrification
10
Buzz word of this decade
GO GREEN
Awake……Awake…..
TOP RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES
WIND ENERGY
TIDAL ENERGY
SEA WAVE ENERGY
SOLAR ENERGY
TOP RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES
BIO MASS ENERGY
GEO THERMAL ENERGY
HYDRO ENERGY
Green Power
• Environment friendly
• Reduction in Green House gas as compare
to 1 MW of a Coal Power Plant vis a vis 1
MW of Wind Energy Plant per annum
– 1338 tons of Carbon-di-oxide
– 17 tons of Sulphur Oxide
– 4 tons of Nitrogen Oxide
– 966 tons of Ash
• Potential to get approx. 7000 CERs per MW
Renewable Energy Deployment
Wind installation (global)
160,000 MW (cumulative)
India’s share (and position)
20000 MW(fifth in the world)
SPV cell production (global)
11,700 MW
India’s share (and position)
(seventh in the world)
Biogas plants (global)
56 million units (cumulative)
India’s share (and position)
3.9 million family size units
(second in the world)
Solar Thermal (global)
110 million sq.m (cumulative)
India’s share (and position)
1.65 million sq. m (ninth in the
world)
Source: Ministry of New and Renewable Energy
Potential and Installed Capacity- RES
In MW
60000
50000
150000
105000
40000
30000
30000
Potential
Installed
20000
20700
15000
10000
3200
3000
Small Hydro
Biomass
0
Wind
982
Solar
Contribution of Various RES in 2013
Power
Wind
2%
14%
Small Hydro
14%
70%
Bio Mass &
Waste
Solar
Small Hydro Power
Small Hydro Power in India
Solar Energy
Global solar radiation over India
Bio Mass
Biomass is a renewable energy source that is derived
from living or recently living organisms.
Biomass includes biological material, not organic
material like coal
India’s climatic conditions offer an ideal environment
for biomass production.
Biomass can be chemically and biochemically treated
to convert it to a energy-rich fuel
Bio-energy has remained critical to India’s energy mix,
with a total installed capacity of 3000 MW.
The total biomass & waste energy potential in India has
been estimated at over 30,000 MW.
Bio Mass
Small scales. Off grid
Can replace costlier heating options like
furnace oils
India has an estimated potential of over
30,000 MW of power from biomass, but
around 3000 MW has been exploited.
Thus, over 90 percent of potential
capacity lies untapped
Advantage/Disadvantage
Advantages
• Renewable resource
• Reduces landfills
• Protects clean water supplies
• Reduces acid rain and smog
• Reduces greenhouse gases
Disadvantages
• Biomass has a smaller energy
content for its bulk than fossil
fuels
• Costs of labor, transportation,
and storage would then be
higher
Biomass emits carbon dioxide when it
naturally decays and when it is used as an
energy source
Living biomass in plants and trees absorbs
carbon dioxide from the atmosphere through
photosynthesis
Biomass causes a closed cycle with no net
emissions of greenhouse gases
BIOMASS LOGISTICS
•
Operations necessary to move biomass
feedstocks to the energy plant and to
ensure that the delivered feedstock
meets the specifications of the
conversion process.
•
Generally the biomass is trucked
directly from farm to biorefinery.
•
Aim to minimise number of passes;
reduce moisture content and increase
the bulk density of biomass.
37
EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITIES
Wind Energy
India’s Success Story in Wind: 5th Biggest in World
Estimated potential up to 100000 MW (@ 80 m
Hub ht)
Represents 70% of total renewable
energy installation in country.
Current Installed base of 20000 MW
• In FY 12-13 more than 1800 MW- investment
Rs 20000 crore. 4th in the world
• Contributed 119 Billion units of wind elect
to grid till date
• During FY 12-13, 23.35 billion units
offsetting 18.91 million tones of CO2
1995
470 MW
2000
1170 MW
Entire investment by Pvt sector.
2005
4388 MW
April 2012
17300 MW
Apr 2013
20000 MW
Growth of wind energy in India
Ref: MNRE data
Wind Zones in
India
Missing Link – Renewable Energy
HYBRID RENEWABLE ENERGY SOLUTIONS
Why Hybrid?
1. The sun shines in the day.
2. The wind is ever changing and never constant.
3. Bio mass cannot function in very cold weather.
4. MHP will have more water seasonally.
44
Purpose
In order to stabilize the power source,
Wind and Solar energy which depend on weather conditions
Biomass energy which can be stored and its input regulated
Triple
hybrid renewable
energy generation
system
Triple
Triple hybrid
hybrid renewable
renewable energy
energy generation
generation system
system
45
HYBRID POWER PLANT SOLUTIONS
•
Hybrid renewable energy systems (HRES) popular for remote
area power generation applications.
•
Consists of two or more renewable energy sources used
together.
•
Increased system efficiency.
•
Greater balance in energy supply.
•
Grid connecting India is a very costly proposition at present.
Hence need for offline/decentralised grids.
46
SOLUTION FOR A 1000 HOUSE HOLD SMALL
VILLAGE OFF GRID
•
Average energy reqmt of 1000 units per year per family. A
total of 1 million units a year.
•
Can be met by a 600 KW Wind Turbine in a wind zone.
•
Can be met by a 1 MW Solar Plant in most of India.
•
Ideally needs to be met by a hybrid renewable energy plant.
47
SOLUTION FOR A 1000 HOUSE HOLD SMALL
VILLAGE OFF GRID
• Suggested solution incl the offline grid:-
•
A 200 KW Wind Turbine costing Approx Rs 1 Cr. Generating
about 0.4 million units.
•
A 200 KW Solar Plant costing approx Rs 1.2 Cr. Generating
about 0.3 million units.
•
A 200 KW biogas plant generating approx Rs 0.8 Cr to meet
the balance requirement.
•
Total Cost of Rs 3 Crs approx about Rs 30 Thousand per
household.
48
SOLUTION FOR A 1000 HOUSE HOLD SMALL
VILLAGE OFF GRID
•
In addition each house hold to be given a mix of solar lanterns,
solar stoves and dryers as required.
•
Initial investment to be met by Govt through Private Industry
using a mix of subsidy, tax depreciations and generation based
incentives.
•
Charging at Rs 4 per unit would recover about Rs 40 lacs per year
from the village. Thus the break even of the project would be 7
to 8 years.
49
EMPLOYMENT GENERATION
•
Employment generation occurs while constructing the grid,
installing the wind/solar farm, O&M of the plant.
•
Employment occurs due the logistics of procuring biomass.
•
The biggest employment generation takes places due to freeing
women from drudgery and starting of home businesses.
•
The force multiplier is enhanced education permeating through
villages.
50
EMPLOYMENT GENERATION
•
According
to
Greenpeace,
Global
Wind
Energy
Council and European Renewable Energy Council's joint 2012
report, approximately 2.4 million jobs can be created in India in
2020 from growth in the renewables market. Importantly, this
report points out that renewable energy has the potential to
significantly grow the labor market, as clean technologies are
generally more labor-intensive and will consequently create more
domestic jobs as the market grows.
51
EMPLOYMENT GENERATION
•
MNRE 2010 human resources report projects renewables
employment to increase nine-fold to reach 20 million jobs by
2030, with biomass leading the growth at 59% of total capacity,
followed by solar PV at 31%.
52
EMPLOYMENT GENERATION: HSBC REPORT
•
India’s Green Energy market will create 10.5 million green jobs.
•
Expected to treble to INR 351,000 crore (USD 77 billion) in the
next ten years.
•
India fifth in the world in exploitation of wind.
•
Bold low carbon policies needed .
•
Advantage of Low cost labor and a highly skilled manufacturing
base.
•
The rate of increase of India’s private investment in clean energy
will be 736% over the next ten years - three times that of US or
China.
53
National Level Economics for a Rural Offline
Power Deficiency Removal
• Today about 7.8 crore house holds need to be powered.
• @ 30 thousand per household this translates into an investment
of approx Rs 2.4 lac crores.
• This is approximately about 3 percent of India’s GDP.
• Over the last 20 years to provide 20 GW of Wind Power pvt
industry has invested Rs 1.2 lac crores. “So the money is available”.
Govt policies however placed impediments in 2012.
54
National Level Economics for a Rural Offline
Power Deficiency Removal
• Pvt Industry has the funds to invest.
• What they need is a steady IRR.
• This can be met through tax depreciations and GBI.
•
It also needs security of its investments in rural India.
• Unless land issues are depoliticized infrastructural growth in India
will crawl.
•
55
STANDALONE MINIGRIDS : ADVANTAGES
•Can reach remote areas.
•More cost effective than large distance grids.
•Less distribution losses.
•Can hook on national grid once extended.
•Involves community integration and
participation.
56
• Govt Subsidies.
• International development and Finance Organisations.
• Social Entrepreneurs.
• Electrical companies trying to expand business.
• Carbon credit finance.
58
59
CONCLUSION
60

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