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Chemistry 100(02) Fall 2012
Instructor: Dr. Upali Siriwardane
e-mail: [email protected]
Office: CTH 311
Phone 257-4941
Office Hours: M,W, 8:00-9:00 & 11:00-12:00 a.m
Tu,Th,F 9:00 - 10:00 a.m.
Test Dates:
October 1,2012 (Test 1): Chapter 1 & 2
October 22, 2012 (Test 2): Chapter 3 & 4
November 14, 2012 (Test 3) Chapter 5 & 6
November 15, 2012 (Make-up test) comprehensive:
Chapters 1-6 9:30-10:45:15 AM, CTH 328
CHEM 100, Fall 2012 LA TECH
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Text Book & Resources
REQUIRED :
Textbook: Principles of Chemistry: A Molecular Approach,
2nd Edition-Nivaldo J. Tro - Pearson Prentice Hall and also
purchase the Mastering Chemistry
Group Homework, Slides and Exam review guides and
sample exam questions are available online:
http://moodle.latech.edu/ and follow the course information
links.
OPTIONAL :
Study Guide: Chemistry: A Molecular Approach, 2nd EditionNivaldo J. Tro 2nd Edition
Student Solutions Manual: Chemistry: A Molecular
Approach, 2nd Edition-Nivaldo J. Tro 2nd
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Chapter 1. Matter, Measurement, and Problem
Solving
1. 1 Atoms and Molecules . 1
1 .2 The Scientific Approach to Knowledge . 3
1 .3 The Classification of Matter 5
1 .4 Physical and Chemical Changes and Physical and
Chemical Properties . 9
1 .5 Energy: A Fundamental Part of Physical and Chemical
Change . 12
1 .6 The Units of Measurement .. 13
1 .7 The Reliability of a Measurement 20
1 .8 Solving Chemical Problems 27
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Chapter 1. KEY CONCEPTS
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What is chemistry?
Scientific Method.
Properties of the three states of
matter
Physical changes and
properties.
Chemical change and
properties.
Categories of matter.
Elements and Compounds
Atomic symbols
Chemical Elements and
properties
Chemical Symbolism
Separating Mixtures.
Scientific Measurement
CHEM 100, Fall 2012 LA TECH
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Prefixes of SI units
Macro, micro and nano-scales
Conversion factors.
Factor label method.
Uncertainty and significant
figures
Temperature Conversions.
Density Calculations.
Three chemical Laws
Dalton's atomic theory
Interpreting chemical formulas
and chemical reaction.
Concept of mole
Gram to mole conversion
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What is chemistry?
1. Chemistry dea s with non-reversible changes of
matter.
2. Chemistry expl ains using atoms, molecules and
ons.
3. Chemical Concepts and M odel s improve your
problem solving skills
4. Chemistry is a Central Science
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What is an Atom?
Very small particle.
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Smallest particle of an element
Different atoms have different physical and chemical
properties
 Atoms combine to from mol ecul es and lose/gain electrons to
form ions
 Atoms, molecules and ions determine how matter behaves—
if they were different, matter would be different.
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Mod els of matter
Mod el s are commonly used to help visualize atoms and
molecu les.
Atom - The smallest unit of an element that has all of the
properties of an element.
Mol ecul e -The smallest unit of a pure substance that has
the properties of that substance. It may contain more
that one atom and more than one element.
ons - Charged particl es formed by the transfer of
electrons between atoms or molecu les
Metal s – Collections of metal atoms with special
properties
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Structure of Substances?
NaCl: Na+ and Cl-Pt metal
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Allotropes
Forms of element that has different bonding pattern
Graphite
Diamond
Buckminsterfullerine
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Molecular Modles (Asprin)
Letters are chemical
symbols that
represent atoms.
Lines represent
connections
between atoms.
To a chemist, molecular structure
refers to the way the atoms in a
molecule are connected together...
0
0 C C H
I I
0 H
H
Structural formula Ball-and-stick model Space-filling model
of aspirin of aspirin of aspirin
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...and the three-dimensional
arrangement of the atoms
relative to one another.
The space occupied by each
atom is more accurately
represented in this model.
Biomolecules (hemoglobin)
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1) Identify the name of atoms, molecules or ions
(with charge) formed from the following elements
and compounds explain their properties.
a) Nitrogen-N2
b)Potassium-K
c) Iodine-I2
d) Magnesium-Mg
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1) Identify the name of atoms, molecules or ions
(with charge) formed from the following elements
and compounds explain their properties.
e) Sulfur-S8
f) Sodium Chloride-NaCl
g) Carbon monoxide-CO
h) Diamond-C allotrope
CHEM 100, Fall 2012 LA TECH
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Scientific Method
Procedure
designed to
test an idea
Tentative explanation of a
single or small number of
observations
General explanation of
natural phenomena
Careful noting and
recording of natural
and experimental
phenomena
Generally observed
occurence in nature
Copyright
2011 Pearson Education,
Scientific Method
Further experiments
SubEtance
screatedby mold
Penicillin was
isolated in
pure form and
many othters
The Scientific Approach to Knowledge
2) What are the key steps involved in scientific
method:
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3) What is a hypothesis in science? Give an
example.
4) How does hypothesis become a scientific
theory? Give an example.
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Kinetic Molecul ar Theory: Gases
1 . particles gaseous matter are in continuous,
2.
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random, rapid motion
collisions between partic es are el astic
vo ume occupied by the particles is negligibly
sma effect on their behavio
attractive forces between particles have a
negligible effect on their behavior
gases have no fixed vo ume or shape, take
he volume and shape of the container
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5) What is a scientific theory? Give an example.
6) What are postulates of a scientific theory? Give
an example.
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Gas Laws (This is not theory)
Boyle's Law (V and P)
Charles Law (V and T)
Gay-Lussac's combined Gas Law
(V, P and T)
Avogadro's Law (V and
n)
Ideal Gas Law (V, P, n, R and T)
Scientific law is a summary or pattern
in observation
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7) What is a scientific law? Give an example.
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Areas of Chemistry
“The study of matter and the changes it undergoes.”
Major divisions
norganic Compounds of el ements other than
carbon
Organic Compounds of carbon
Biochemistry Compounds of living matter
PhysicalQuantitative Theories and
concepts
Analytical Methods of analysis
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8) What are the main branches of chemistry?
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9) Identify the main branches of chemistry under
the following:
a. A researcher analyzes a water sample for lead content:
b. An undergraduate studies the allotropes of phosphorus:
c. Robert Boyle studied the effect of pressure on the volume of a gas:
d. Alexander Fleming discovered penicillin from fungi and later it was
synthesized in the lab:
a. A researcher starting from simple organic compounds complex drugs
are synthesized:
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Properties of Substances
Physical properties:
Physical properties are descriptions of matter such
as color, density, viscosity, boiling point, and
melting point.
Chemical properties:
Chemical properties relates to the changes of
substances making up the matter. For example,
corrosiveness, Flammability
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Classification of Matter
by Composition
1. made of one type of
particle
2. all samples show the
same physical and
chemical properties
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1. made of multiple types
of particles
2. samples may show
different properties
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Mixtures
A combination of two or more pure substances.
 Homogeneous - Uniform composition (solution)
 Heterogeneous - Non-uniform composition
Which are homogeneous or heterogeneous?
 Blood Urine “T-Bone” steak
 Gasoline Twinkie Salad Dressing
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Classification of Mixtures
1. made of multiple
substances,
whose presence
can be seen
1. portions of a
sample have
different
composition and
properties
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1. made of multiple
substances, but
appears to be one
substance
1. all portions of an
individual sample
have the same
composition and
properties
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The Classification of Matter
10) What is a mixture? Describe it generally and
given an example.
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11) What is a: (Describe it generally and given an
example)
Homogenous mixture?
b) Heterogeneous mixture?
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12) Classify following as
heterogeneous/homogenous (het/hom) mixtures?
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
g.
h.
i.
Salt water
A chocolate chip cookie
a handful of soil
a vegetable garden
An ice cream sundae
Steel
Bronze
Closed soft drink bottle
Just opened soft drink bottle
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