4-week Attendance Program - The Danya Institute Inc.

Report
Using Motivational Incentives in
Behavioral Health Treatment
Welcome to
CTN Mid-Atlantic Node/
Central East ATTC Webinar Series
April 24, 2013
Vouchers and Fishbowls
Clinical Trials
Network
Facilitator:
Christine Higgins, M.A.
Dissemination Specialist, Mid Atlantic Node,
Clinical Trials Network/NIDA
PAMI Trainer
MI-Presto Trainer
Provide consultation to many Community Treatment
Programs on implementation
And our attendees today are a mix of
professionals, including…
nurses, case managers, and social workers…
from the fields of mental health, addictions,
criminal justice and medicine.
Let’s begin with 2 survey questions:
Question #1:
I attended at least one of the last two
webinars. Y/N
Question #2:
I have first-hand experience with
implementing incentives where people
received tokens or prizes. Y/N
A quick review of Session 1 & 2:
We have discussed the principal of
contingency management or motivational
incentives (interchangeable terms) in which
there is some observable and measurable
behavior that is reinforced each time it
occurs, and it is often one step in a series of
steps that leads to achieving a larger goal.
Last week, we talked about the option of a
tic-tac-toe board to break large goals
(like achieving a methadone take home)
down into smaller steps and reinforcing
each step along the way.
We also discussed how these small steps can be
reinforced using smaller no-cost or low cost
prizes while still acknowledging achievement.
First Tic-TacToe
Good Sam's Methadone Clinic
Tic Tac Toe Take Home
Orientation
Session 1
Orientation
Fee
Approval
Orientation
Session 4
Regular
Attendance
First
Meeting
2nd contact
group or
ind.
Prize from the
treasure chest.
Orientation
Session 2
Regular
Medication
Orientation
Session 3
Patient’s Name _______________________
Second TicTac
Toe
Inspirational
Poster
Fill the board:
Earn your first
take home:
____________
_
Counselor’s
Signature
____________
Date of
Completion
First Tic-Tac-Toe
Staying on Track
Probation Tic Tac Toe
Prize from the
treasure chest.
Second TicTac
Toe
Fee
payment
Orientation
Network list/
support people
Visit
Workforce
Development
2nd
Appt.
Report to
Agent
Contacts from
job search
Complete
Job Skills
Class
Long
Term goal
Give
urinalysis
Probationer’s Name _______________________
Appointment
Book
Fill the board:
Certificate of
Completion
_____________
P.O.
Signature
____________
Date of
Completion
Tic Tac Toe Versus Other Methods
• The Tic Tac Toe method was developed by
practitioners and is compatible for use with
individual treatment plan goals
– Primary and mental health care; probation
requirements, educational or vocational attainment
• Standard reinforcement methods using vouchers
or fishbowls have been used for basic treatment
goals of attendance and drug abstinence
Session #3
Voucher and Fishbowl Method
•
•
•
•
•
•
What we will cover today:
What is a voucher system?
What is the fishbowl method?
How well do they work in research studies?
Why do we choose one method over another?
How do we pre-determine the cost?
Voucher Reinforcement
• Dr. Steven Higgins invented the voucher
reinforcement method in the early 1990’s.
Research has shown over and over that
vouchers are highly effective in reducing drug
use and retaining cocaine abusers in
treatment programs.
• Amount offered in original research was
$1000 during a 12-week treatment episode
$1000???
Yippee!!!
You’ve got to
be kidding!!!
Voucher Reinforcement
• Elegantly incorporates behavioral
principles to initiate & sustain
abstinence
• Demonstrated efficacy in controlled
trials
BUT
• Costs were high ($1000 offered per
client)
Cost May Be Worthwhile
The economic cost to U.S. society of drug abuse?
• Nearly 100 billion dollars, according to the
National Institute on Drug Abuse.
• Use of drugs like cocaine is associated with
serious social and health problems, including
crime and the spread of infectious diseases.
• If motivational incentives help people stay in
treatment longer, and people have a better
chance of long term recovery, it may be worth it.
Innovative Cost Reduction
Approaches
• Dr. Ken Silverman and colleagues at Johns Hopkins
University formed a non-profit data processing
company to employ and treat drug addicts.
• Hopkins Data Services, employed men and women
who abused cocaine and gave them regular salaries
(instead of vouchers) for their data entry work as
long as they stayed off drugs.
• The company's goal was to maintain a selfsustaining business that could employ the former
addicts and pay for their drug treatment and
monitoring.
Innovative Cost
Reduction Approaches
•Psychologist Nancy Petry at the University of
Connecticut finds that a lower-cost reward system
using prizes also works in retention and treatment of
drug abusers and may be attractive to communitybased treatment programs that cannot afford using
the vouchers.
•The Fishbowl Method: Intermittent Reinforcement
Schedule is used in the first multi-site trial of
abstinence incentives in community drug settings.
This is our guest today!
CM expert and lead Investigator of
the national CTN multi-site study of
abstinence incentives
MIEDAR: Motivational Incentives
to Enhance Drug Abuse Recovery
MIEDAR STUDY CTN
Protocol 006 & 007
ctndisseminationlibrary.org
Dr. Maxine Stitzer,
Principal Investigator,
CTN Mid-Atlantic Node
How do motivational incentives fit into the
clinical picture?
• Add-on to counseling as usual
– Special intervention to enhance motivation
for sustained abstinence
– Focuses on the positive to recognize and
celebrate success
– Allows counselors to work on life-style
changes that can sustain abstinence beyond
incentives
Voucher Reinforcement
making abstinence a more attractive option
using a point system
• Intensive counseling plus
abstinence incentives
• Points earned for cocaine negative
urine results
– Escalating schedule with reset penalty
– Trade in points for goods
– $1000 available in first 3 months
Points Escalate with
Stimulant-Free Test Results
5
4
3
2
1
Weeks Drug Free
# points
Bonus Points Can Be Awarded for
Opiate and Marijuana Abstinence
2
2
2
Weeks Drug Free
2
2
# points
Voucher Trade-in
• Clients could trade in points at any time and
request any retail items they might want
– Some spent frequently;
– Some saved up for larger items
• Staff would go shopping to fill client requests
Why $1000?
Voucher Incentives for Outpatient
Drug-free Treatment of Cocaine Abusers
Higgins et al. Am. J. Psychiatry, 1993
Cocaine negative urines
Higgins Studies With On-site VS Offsite Control Groups
100
Study 1 incent
Study 2 incent
On-site control
Off-site control
80
60
40
20
0
4 to 5
8 to 10
16 to 20
Consecutive Weeks of Abstinence
CTN MIEDAR Study
Participants = 800 stimulant users
(cocaine or methamphetamine)
Two parallel studies conducted:
6 methadone and
8 drug-free programs
Random Assignment
• Usual care
• Usual care enhanced with
abstinence incentives
• 3-month evaluation
Fishbowl Method
Incentive = draws from a bowl
- Draws earned for each stimulant-negative urine with
negative BAC
- Draws escalate with consecutive negatives
- Bonus draws given for also being opiate
and marijuana negative
Intermittent Reinforcement Schedule:
Draws from the Abstinence Bowl
Good
Job
Small
Small
Large
Small
Good
Job
Good
Job
Good
Job
Good
Job
Good
Job
Good
Job
Small
Good
Job
Half the chips were winners
Win frequency inversely related to cost
 largest chance (42%) of
winning a small $1 prize
 moderate chance (8%) of
winning a large $20 prize
 small chance of winning a
jumbo $100 prize
Sample Collection
Twice Weekly Over
12 Weeks
Total Earnings
• $400 in prizes could be earned on
average
– If participant tested negative for all targeted
drugs over 12 consecutive weeks
On-site Prizes
MIEDAR: Who participated and how
did it turn out?
Retention and Drug Use
Outcomes
METHADONE PROGRAM STUDY
RESULTS
Study Retention in Methadone Treatment
Percentage Retained
100
80
60
Incentive
Control
40
20
0
RH = 1.1
CI = 0.8,1.6
2
4
6
8
10
12
Percentage of stimulant negative
urine samples
Percent Stimulant Negative Urines
100
Abstinence Incentive
Usual Care
80
60
40
20
OR=1.91 (1.4-2.6)
0
1
3
5
7
9
11 13
15 17 19 21 23
Study Visit
Individual Subject Performance
21% Incentive
vs
8% control
had prolonged abstinence outcome
(19-24 Stimulant Negative Urines)
Outpatient Psychosocial Clinics:
Contrasting Outcomes
Percentage negative samples
Percent of Submitted Samples Testing Stimulant
and Alcohol Negative
100
80
60
40
Abstinence Incentive
Usual Care
20
0
1
3
5
7
9
11
13
15
Study Visit
17
19
21
23
Incentives Improve Retention in Counseling Treatment
100
Incentive
Control
Percentage Retained
80
60
50%
40
35%
20
0
RH = 1.6 CI=1.2,2.0
2
4
6
8
Study Week
10
12
Psychosocial Site Differences: Raising
Performance
• Abstinence incentives worked best in
clinics with lower retention
– Control mean = 3.6 - 6.8 weeks
• Clinics where clients were usually
retained for 8 weeks didn’t show
improved retention with incentives
RESEARCH CONCLUSIONS
Incentives can improve client
outcomes on retention and
drug use when implemented
in community treatment
programs
How much was paid out in MIEDAR?
• Psychosocial counseling study: $203
• Methadone study: $120
• Why was more $$$ paid out in the
psychosocial counseling study?
1) More subjects in study
2) More counseling received
3) More motivated patients
4) Less stimulant drug use overall
Amount of Money Needed Depends
On Target Behavior
• Attendance
– Effective studies have offered $250 or less over 12 weeks
• Drug abstinence
– Effective studies have offered $250 or more
• Why?
– More difficult behavior change requires higher
reinforcement values
Amount of Money Needed Depends
on Problem Severity
• Recent Petry study divided clients at intake
into those testing pos vs neg for stimulant
• For negative clients, goal is relapse prevention
– $250 was fine and less may have worked too
• For positive clients, goal is stopping use
– $560 was effective but $250 was not
Harder the behavior change, more
that is needed to motivate change
Same Incentives For All vs
Individualized Approach
This is one of the first dilemmas faced in
adopting an incentive approach to
supplement usual care treatment
• We recommend same for all while getting
your feet wet in use of this technique
– Easier to learn and implement
– May be perceived as more “fair” by clients
Nitty Gritty of How To Do It
Designing A Voucher Program for
Abstinence Incentives
• Decide on maximum earnings per patient
– $400-$600 may be needed for active drug users
– Less will do for relapse prevention or other targets
• Decide on frequency and duration of reinforcement
occasions
– e.g. twice weekly for 12 weeks
• Design escalating schedule of points
– Can have a “top-out” value e.g. 10 points per neg UA
• Assign money value to numeric points to achieve
desired maximum earnings
UA
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
Points
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
Total Points = 195
@ $1 each max cost = $195
@ $2 each max cost = $390
@ $5 each max cost = $975
Note that payout is usually
about 50% of max cost
Exercise
Devise a voucher point schedule for your clinic
Pick a target behavior:
1 = Attendance
2 = Abstinence
Exercise Examples
Twice Weekly OP
(4 week program)
Once Weekly UA
(6 week program)
OP Sessions
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
Points
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
UA Week
1
2
3
4
5
6
Points
5
10
15
20
20
20
36
Total Pts
90
Total Pts
Why did we assign more
numeric points to the
urinalysis program than to the
attendance program?
Cost Calculations
4-week Attendance Program:
6-week Neg UA Program
36 points
90 points
What is the total cost for:
What is the total cost for:
$1 prizes
$1 prizes
$2 prizes
$2 prizes
$5 prizes
$5 prizes
Cost Calculations
4-week Attendance
Program:
36 points
What is the total cost for:
$1 prizes = $ 36
$2 prizes = $ 72
$5 prizes = $180
6-week Neg UA Program:
90 points
What is the total cost for:
$1 prizes =
$ 90
$2 prizes =
$180
$5 prizes = $450
Which dollar amount would you pick?
Attendance Program
UA Program
(Remember, you usually end up paying out about half
of what is offered)
Designing A Fishbowl Program
• Find an opaque bowl and make tickets or chips
• Decide on number of chips (500 has been standard but
can be less)
• Decide on frequency and duration of draw occasions
– e.g. twice weekly for 12 weeks
• Design escalating schedule of draws
– Can have a “top-out” value e.g. 10 draws per neg UA
• Decide on approx maximum earnings per patient
– $400-$600 may be needed for active drug users
– Less will do for relapse prevention or other targets
UA
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
Points
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
Total draws = 195
Designing A Fishbowl Program
• Calculate total number of possible draws
• Decide on prize categories and prize values
– e.g. small = $1, medium = $10, large = $30
• Decide on percentage of chips for each prize
value based on cost per draw calculation
Cost Per Draw Calculation
Total draws = 195
Half the chips (250) = “Good Job”
Half (250) result in prizes
Cost per draw = Probability of win X cost of prize
prize
total
# chips prob cost
Per draw cost # draws cost
_____________________________________________
200/500 = .40 X $1 = .40 per draw X 195 = $78
30/500 = .06 X $10 = .60 per draw X 195 = $117
20/500 = .04 X $30 = 1.20 per draw X 195 = $234
Total cost = $429
Nancy Petry’s Calculations
for 1000 slips Fishbowl
Table 10.7 Formula for Adjusting Prize Bowls to Alter Costs
Note: Type in the gray sections. A sample is provided.
Slips
Type
Max
value
Avg
value
Probabability
Cost per
draw
595
Good
Job
0
0
.0595
$0.00
320
Small
$1
$0.80
0.32
$0.26
60
Medium
$5
$4.00
0.06
$0.24
24
Large
$20
$18
0.024
$0.43
1
Jumbo
$100
$80
0.001
$0.08
Total
1000
Total
1.00
$1.01
Designing a fishbowl takes thought..
Cost depends on value of prizes, percentage of
winning chips and number of draws. You can use a
standard fishbowl draw of 500 (as we saw today),
and, this software can help you keep track of
inventory and
target behaviors.
It even has a
virtual
fishbowl!
Choosing Between Vouchers
and Fishbowls
• Cost is not the issue: Both can be adjusted to
achieve desired total available payout
– Vouchers: monetary value and total possible number
of points
– Fishbowl: cost of prizes offered; probability of winning
each prize; total possible number of draws
• Efficacy is not the issue:
– Research shows that both are effective with equivalent
effects at similar costs
Why Choose One Over the Other?
• Which would clients like best?
– Fishbowl allows participation
– Vouchers offer more certain payoffs
• Which makes it easier for staff to manage?
– Tracking; fishbowl has MIIS
– Shopping could be done in bulk for either
– Fishbowl requires maintenance and cheat control
Which method do you prefer and
why?
Choice 1: Voucher
Choice 2: Fishbowl
Dissemination/Adoption
• Clearly recognized as one evidence-based practice advocated
by program funders and licensers
• 1/4 - 1/3 of clinics are currently using incentives- mostly to
reinforce attendance (Roman et al., 2010)
• Information on what it is and how to do it increasingly available
– PAMI materials at www.nattc.org
•
- PAMI and MI:PRESTO at www.bettertxoutcomes.org (on-line course)
For more how-to information:
.
Contingency Management for Substance Abuse
Treatment: A Guide to Implementing This
Evidence-Based Practice by Nancy Petry
With charts,
worksheets and
tables!
Motivational Incentives Suite
1. Promoting Awareness of Motivational Incentives (PAMI)
2. Motivational Incentives: Positive Reinforcers to Enhance
Successful Treatment Outcomes(MI:PRESTO)
For additional copies, contact:
Katia Delrahim-Howlett, Ph.D.
Synergy Enterprises, Inc.
8757 Georgia Avenue, Suite 1449
Silver Spring, MD 20910
240-485-1700
www.motivationalincentives.org
•
•
•
•
•
•
Experts
Resources
Bibliography
Downloads
Bright Ideas
Power Points
…. and more
Looking Into the Future
Peace, Prosperity and…
Prizes in every clinic!

similar documents