Using Motivational Incentives in Behavioral Health Treatment Welcome to CTN Mid-Atlantic Node/ Central East ATTC Webinar Series April 24, 2013 Vouchers and Fishbowls Clinical Trials Network Facilitator: Christine Higgins, M.A. Dissemination Specialist, Mid Atlantic Node, Clinical Trials Network/NIDA PAMI Trainer MI-Presto Trainer Provide consultation to many Community Treatment Programs on implementation And our attendees today are a mix of professionals, including… nurses, case managers, and social workers… from the fields of mental health, addictions, criminal justice and medicine. Let’s begin with 2 survey questions: Question #1: I attended at least one of the last two webinars. Y/N Question #2: I have first-hand experience with implementing incentives where people received tokens or prizes. Y/N A quick review of Session 1 & 2: We have discussed the principal of contingency management or motivational incentives (interchangeable terms) in which there is some observable and measurable behavior that is reinforced each time it occurs, and it is often one step in a series of steps that leads to achieving a larger goal. Last week, we talked about the option of a tic-tac-toe board to break large goals (like achieving a methadone take home) down into smaller steps and reinforcing each step along the way. We also discussed how these small steps can be reinforced using smaller no-cost or low cost prizes while still acknowledging achievement. First Tic-TacToe Good Sam's Methadone Clinic Tic Tac Toe Take Home Orientation Session 1 Orientation Fee Approval Orientation Session 4 Regular Attendance First Meeting 2nd contact group or ind. Prize from the treasure chest. Orientation Session 2 Regular Medication Orientation Session 3 Patient’s Name _______________________ Second TicTac Toe Inspirational Poster Fill the board: Earn your first take home: ____________ _ Counselor’s Signature ____________ Date of Completion First Tic-Tac-Toe Staying on Track Probation Tic Tac Toe Prize from the treasure chest. Second TicTac Toe Fee payment Orientation Network list/ support people Visit Workforce Development 2nd Appt. Report to Agent Contacts from job search Complete Job Skills Class Long Term goal Give urinalysis Probationer’s Name _______________________ Appointment Book Fill the board: Certificate of Completion _____________ P.O. Signature ____________ Date of Completion Tic Tac Toe Versus Other Methods • The Tic Tac Toe method was developed by practitioners and is compatible for use with individual treatment plan goals – Primary and mental health care; probation requirements, educational or vocational attainment • Standard reinforcement methods using vouchers or fishbowls have been used for basic treatment goals of attendance and drug abstinence Session #3 Voucher and Fishbowl Method • • • • • • What we will cover today: What is a voucher system? What is the fishbowl method? How well do they work in research studies? Why do we choose one method over another? How do we pre-determine the cost? Voucher Reinforcement • Dr. Steven Higgins invented the voucher reinforcement method in the early 1990’s. Research has shown over and over that vouchers are highly effective in reducing drug use and retaining cocaine abusers in treatment programs. • Amount offered in original research was $1000 during a 12-week treatment episode $1000??? Yippee!!! You’ve got to be kidding!!! Voucher Reinforcement • Elegantly incorporates behavioral principles to initiate & sustain abstinence • Demonstrated efficacy in controlled trials BUT • Costs were high ($1000 offered per client) Cost May Be Worthwhile The economic cost to U.S. society of drug abuse? • Nearly 100 billion dollars, according to the National Institute on Drug Abuse. • Use of drugs like cocaine is associated with serious social and health problems, including crime and the spread of infectious diseases. • If motivational incentives help people stay in treatment longer, and people have a better chance of long term recovery, it may be worth it. Innovative Cost Reduction Approaches • Dr. Ken Silverman and colleagues at Johns Hopkins University formed a non-profit data processing company to employ and treat drug addicts. • Hopkins Data Services, employed men and women who abused cocaine and gave them regular salaries (instead of vouchers) for their data entry work as long as they stayed off drugs. • The company's goal was to maintain a selfsustaining business that could employ the former addicts and pay for their drug treatment and monitoring. Innovative Cost Reduction Approaches •Psychologist Nancy Petry at the University of Connecticut finds that a lower-cost reward system using prizes also works in retention and treatment of drug abusers and may be attractive to communitybased treatment programs that cannot afford using the vouchers. •The Fishbowl Method: Intermittent Reinforcement Schedule is used in the first multi-site trial of abstinence incentives in community drug settings. This is our guest today! CM expert and lead Investigator of the national CTN multi-site study of abstinence incentives MIEDAR: Motivational Incentives to Enhance Drug Abuse Recovery MIEDAR STUDY CTN Protocol 006 & 007 ctndisseminationlibrary.org Dr. Maxine Stitzer, Principal Investigator, CTN Mid-Atlantic Node How do motivational incentives fit into the clinical picture? • Add-on to counseling as usual – Special intervention to enhance motivation for sustained abstinence – Focuses on the positive to recognize and celebrate success – Allows counselors to work on life-style changes that can sustain abstinence beyond incentives Voucher Reinforcement making abstinence a more attractive option using a point system • Intensive counseling plus abstinence incentives • Points earned for cocaine negative urine results – Escalating schedule with reset penalty – Trade in points for goods – $1000 available in first 3 months Points Escalate with Stimulant-Free Test Results 5 4 3 2 1 Weeks Drug Free # points Bonus Points Can Be Awarded for Opiate and Marijuana Abstinence 2 2 2 Weeks Drug Free 2 2 # points Voucher Trade-in • Clients could trade in points at any time and request any retail items they might want – Some spent frequently; – Some saved up for larger items • Staff would go shopping to fill client requests Why $1000? Voucher Incentives for Outpatient Drug-free Treatment of Cocaine Abusers Higgins et al. Am. J. Psychiatry, 1993 Cocaine negative urines Higgins Studies With On-site VS Offsite Control Groups 100 Study 1 incent Study 2 incent On-site control Off-site control 80 60 40 20 0 4 to 5 8 to 10 16 to 20 Consecutive Weeks of Abstinence CTN MIEDAR Study Participants = 800 stimulant users (cocaine or methamphetamine) Two parallel studies conducted: 6 methadone and 8 drug-free programs Random Assignment • Usual care • Usual care enhanced with abstinence incentives • 3-month evaluation Fishbowl Method Incentive = draws from a bowl - Draws earned for each stimulant-negative urine with negative BAC - Draws escalate with consecutive negatives - Bonus draws given for also being opiate and marijuana negative Intermittent Reinforcement Schedule: Draws from the Abstinence Bowl Good Job Small Small Large Small Good Job Good Job Good Job Good Job Good Job Good Job Small Good Job Half the chips were winners Win frequency inversely related to cost largest chance (42%) of winning a small $1 prize moderate chance (8%) of winning a large $20 prize small chance of winning a jumbo $100 prize Sample Collection Twice Weekly Over 12 Weeks Total Earnings • $400 in prizes could be earned on average – If participant tested negative for all targeted drugs over 12 consecutive weeks On-site Prizes MIEDAR: Who participated and how did it turn out? Retention and Drug Use Outcomes METHADONE PROGRAM STUDY RESULTS Study Retention in Methadone Treatment Percentage Retained 100 80 60 Incentive Control 40 20 0 RH = 1.1 CI = 0.8,1.6 2 4 6 8 10 12 Percentage of stimulant negative urine samples Percent Stimulant Negative Urines 100 Abstinence Incentive Usual Care 80 60 40 20 OR=1.91 (1.4-2.6) 0 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 Study Visit Individual Subject Performance 21% Incentive vs 8% control had prolonged abstinence outcome (19-24 Stimulant Negative Urines) Outpatient Psychosocial Clinics: Contrasting Outcomes Percentage negative samples Percent of Submitted Samples Testing Stimulant and Alcohol Negative 100 80 60 40 Abstinence Incentive Usual Care 20 0 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 Study Visit 17 19 21 23 Incentives Improve Retention in Counseling Treatment 100 Incentive Control Percentage Retained 80 60 50% 40 35% 20 0 RH = 1.6 CI=1.2,2.0 2 4 6 8 Study Week 10 12 Psychosocial Site Differences: Raising Performance • Abstinence incentives worked best in clinics with lower retention – Control mean = 3.6 - 6.8 weeks • Clinics where clients were usually retained for 8 weeks didn’t show improved retention with incentives RESEARCH CONCLUSIONS Incentives can improve client outcomes on retention and drug use when implemented in community treatment programs How much was paid out in MIEDAR? • Psychosocial counseling study: $203 • Methadone study: $120 • Why was more $$$ paid out in the psychosocial counseling study? 1) More subjects in study 2) More counseling received 3) More motivated patients 4) Less stimulant drug use overall Amount of Money Needed Depends On Target Behavior • Attendance – Effective studies have offered $250 or less over 12 weeks • Drug abstinence – Effective studies have offered $250 or more • Why? – More difficult behavior change requires higher reinforcement values Amount of Money Needed Depends on Problem Severity • Recent Petry study divided clients at intake into those testing pos vs neg for stimulant • For negative clients, goal is relapse prevention – $250 was fine and less may have worked too • For positive clients, goal is stopping use – $560 was effective but $250 was not Harder the behavior change, more that is needed to motivate change Same Incentives For All vs Individualized Approach This is one of the first dilemmas faced in adopting an incentive approach to supplement usual care treatment • We recommend same for all while getting your feet wet in use of this technique – Easier to learn and implement – May be perceived as more “fair” by clients Nitty Gritty of How To Do It Designing A Voucher Program for Abstinence Incentives • Decide on maximum earnings per patient – $400-$600 may be needed for active drug users – Less will do for relapse prevention or other targets • Decide on frequency and duration of reinforcement occasions – e.g. twice weekly for 12 weeks • Design escalating schedule of points – Can have a “top-out” value e.g. 10 points per neg UA • Assign money value to numeric points to achieve desired maximum earnings UA 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 Points 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 Total Points = 195 @ $1 each max cost = $195 @ $2 each max cost = $390 @ $5 each max cost = $975 Note that payout is usually about 50% of max cost Exercise Devise a voucher point schedule for your clinic Pick a target behavior: 1 = Attendance 2 = Abstinence Exercise Examples Twice Weekly OP (4 week program) Once Weekly UA (6 week program) OP Sessions 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Points 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 UA Week 1 2 3 4 5 6 Points 5 10 15 20 20 20 36 Total Pts 90 Total Pts Why did we assign more numeric points to the urinalysis program than to the attendance program? Cost Calculations 4-week Attendance Program: 6-week Neg UA Program 36 points 90 points What is the total cost for: What is the total cost for: $1 prizes $1 prizes $2 prizes $2 prizes $5 prizes $5 prizes Cost Calculations 4-week Attendance Program: 36 points What is the total cost for: $1 prizes = $ 36 $2 prizes = $ 72 $5 prizes = $180 6-week Neg UA Program: 90 points What is the total cost for: $1 prizes = $ 90 $2 prizes = $180 $5 prizes = $450 Which dollar amount would you pick? Attendance Program UA Program (Remember, you usually end up paying out about half of what is offered) Designing A Fishbowl Program • Find an opaque bowl and make tickets or chips • Decide on number of chips (500 has been standard but can be less) • Decide on frequency and duration of draw occasions – e.g. twice weekly for 12 weeks • Design escalating schedule of draws – Can have a “top-out” value e.g. 10 draws per neg UA • Decide on approx maximum earnings per patient – $400-$600 may be needed for active drug users – Less will do for relapse prevention or other targets UA 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 Points 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 Total draws = 195 Designing A Fishbowl Program • Calculate total number of possible draws • Decide on prize categories and prize values – e.g. small = $1, medium = $10, large = $30 • Decide on percentage of chips for each prize value based on cost per draw calculation Cost Per Draw Calculation Total draws = 195 Half the chips (250) = “Good Job” Half (250) result in prizes Cost per draw = Probability of win X cost of prize prize total # chips prob cost Per draw cost # draws cost _____________________________________________ 200/500 = .40 X $1 = .40 per draw X 195 = $78 30/500 = .06 X $10 = .60 per draw X 195 = $117 20/500 = .04 X $30 = 1.20 per draw X 195 = $234 Total cost = $429 Nancy Petry’s Calculations for 1000 slips Fishbowl Table 10.7 Formula for Adjusting Prize Bowls to Alter Costs Note: Type in the gray sections. A sample is provided. Slips Type Max value Avg value Probabability Cost per draw 595 Good Job 0 0 .0595 $0.00 320 Small $1 $0.80 0.32 $0.26 60 Medium $5 $4.00 0.06 $0.24 24 Large $20 $18 0.024 $0.43 1 Jumbo $100 $80 0.001 $0.08 Total 1000 Total 1.00 $1.01 Designing a fishbowl takes thought.. Cost depends on value of prizes, percentage of winning chips and number of draws. You can use a standard fishbowl draw of 500 (as we saw today), and, this software can help you keep track of inventory and target behaviors. It even has a virtual fishbowl! Choosing Between Vouchers and Fishbowls • Cost is not the issue: Both can be adjusted to achieve desired total available payout – Vouchers: monetary value and total possible number of points – Fishbowl: cost of prizes offered; probability of winning each prize; total possible number of draws • Efficacy is not the issue: – Research shows that both are effective with equivalent effects at similar costs Why Choose One Over the Other? • Which would clients like best? – Fishbowl allows participation – Vouchers offer more certain payoffs • Which makes it easier for staff to manage? – Tracking; fishbowl has MIIS – Shopping could be done in bulk for either – Fishbowl requires maintenance and cheat control Which method do you prefer and why? Choice 1: Voucher Choice 2: Fishbowl Dissemination/Adoption • Clearly recognized as one evidence-based practice advocated by program funders and licensers • 1/4 - 1/3 of clinics are currently using incentives- mostly to reinforce attendance (Roman et al., 2010) • Information on what it is and how to do it increasingly available – PAMI materials at www.nattc.org • - PAMI and MI:PRESTO at www.bettertxoutcomes.org (on-line course) For more how-to information: . Contingency Management for Substance Abuse Treatment: A Guide to Implementing This Evidence-Based Practice by Nancy Petry With charts, worksheets and tables! Motivational Incentives Suite 1. Promoting Awareness of Motivational Incentives (PAMI) 2. Motivational Incentives: Positive Reinforcers to Enhance Successful Treatment Outcomes(MI:PRESTO) For additional copies, contact: Katia Delrahim-Howlett, Ph.D. Synergy Enterprises, Inc. 8757 Georgia Avenue, Suite 1449 Silver Spring, MD 20910 240-485-1700 www.motivationalincentives.org • • • • • • Experts Resources Bibliography Downloads Bright Ideas Power Points …. and more Looking Into the Future Peace, Prosperity and… Prizes in every clinic!