Current status and developments of the ISON optical network

Russian Academy of Sciences
Keldysh Institute of Applied Mathematics
Current status of the ISON optical
Igor Molotov, Vladimir Agapov, Viktor
Voropaev, Vladimir Zolotov, Tungalag
Namkhai, Tatiana Kokina, Javier Montojo,
Rodolfo Zalles
40th COSPAR Scientific Assembly
2 - 10 August 2014, Moscow, Russia
International Scientific Optical Network (ISON)
• ISON is an open international project developed to be an
independent source of data about space objects for
scientific analysis and SSA
• Additional scientific goals – asteroids and GRB afterglows
• ISON joins 35 observation facilities of various affiliation
with 80 telescopes in 15 countries that produced already
about 20 millions measurements on 4000 objects
• Main area of monitoring is GEO, regular surveys of HEO
objects are carried out, observations of LEO objects are
• Keldysh Institute of Applied Mathematics of the Russian
Academy of Sciences (KIAM) maintains 35% more
complete GEO-object database than public TLE data and
provides conjunction analysis for Roscosmos GEO satellites
ISON Research Goals in Space Debris Area
• Estimation of real population of space debris at high
geocentric orbits
• Determination of physical properties of discovered space
debris objects
• Determination of probable sources of newly discovering
space debris fragments
• Verification of existing evolution models of space debris
• High orbit space debris risk assessment
• Improvement of technologies of studying of space debris
population using optical instruments
• Improvement of motion models for space debris objects
with complex physical properties
Map of ISON observatories
ISON structure
• 5 telescope subsets
- global GEO survey (down to 15.5m)
- tracking the the faint (fainter than 15.5m) space debris
at GEO and GTO
- tracking the bright GEO and HEO objects
- HEO survey and extended GEO survey (down to 14.5m
- tracking the bright LEO objects
- 3 types of telescope properties:
- Academies of Sciences (including KIAM) and Universities
- Roscosmos space debris dedicated mini-observatories
- Commercial companies and private
First two Roscosmos mini-observatories in
Kislovodsk and Byurakan with 3 telescopes
in each (2x19.2 cm, 25 cm and 40 cm)
Global GEO survey subsystem: 8 of 22 cm, 4
of 25 cm with FOV of 3.5- 5.5 degree
Planning of GEO survey observations: a few strips
covering selected declination range
Distribution of the catalogued GEO objects in right
ascension – declination plane
Global GEO survey subsystem:
• 12 small survey automated telescopes across the
globe + one 50-cm telescope near Barcelona
• centralized scheduling at KIAM
• each telescope is surveying visible part of GEO and
provides a few thousands measurements for a few
hundreds objects per night
• duration of tracks is varying between 15 and 40
• these surveys produce measurements for all bright
GEO-objects supporting the maintenance of KIAM
• many uncatalogued fragments and objects of new
GEO launches are detecting
• many HEO objects are detecting as background ones
Subsystem for faint debris tracking:
AT-64 Nauchny-1, RC-800 Mayaki, S-600 Andrushivka, CANTEL650 in Ussuriysk, CHV-400 in Kosala, AZT-14 Mondy, Zeiss-600
in Arkhyz, ORI-40 in Kitab, CHV-400 in Uzhgorod, CHV-500 in
Subsystem for tracking of bright GEO and HEO
objects: GAS-250 in Ussuriysk, BNC-250 in Uzhgorod,
ORI-25 in Blagoveschensk, ORI-25 in Tiraspol, TAL-250 in
Chuguev, ORI-25 in Kislovodsk, PH-1 n Nauchniy-1, ORI25 in Byurakan, TAL-250 in Barnaul, TAL-250 in Mayaki
One18-cm telescope for HEO survey (Nauchniy-1) and
six 19.2 cm telescopes for extended GEO survey
(Khuraltogot, Sanglokh, Kislovodsk, Byurakan,
Nauchniy-1, Tiraspol) with FOV of 7 degree and more
Planning of extended GEO survey observations:
many strips selects providing more frequent passes of
GEO during night
Distribution of the catalogued GEO objects in right
ascension – declination plane
Extended GEO surveys
• four 18-19.2 cm automated survey telescopes with
FOV of 7x7 degree
• centralized scheduling at KIAM
• each telescope is surveying visible part of GEO and
provides up to 15 thousands measurements for 500 700 objects per night
• duration of object tracks is up to a few hours
• these surveys allows to KIAM to determine more
precise GEO orbits for conjunction analysis, to detect
maneuvers of active satellites and to help maintain
the orbits of GEO objects in clusters
• many HEO objects are detecting as background ones
Extended GEO surveys. Measurement arc length.
Sanglok VT-78e.
Starting of new subsystem for tracking
of LEO objects
• 5 telescopes (25 cm and 12.5 cm in Kislovodsk,
22 cm and 12.5 cm in Tiraspol, 12.5 cm in Moscow)
• 5 more telescopes in plans
Growing amount of measurements
collected by ISON for objects in GEO and
HEO, 2003 – 2013
GEO coverage by ISON in January-May of 2014
KIAM/ISON Database Current Status
• 4031 tracking high orbit objects with orbit
epoch age not older than 1 year as of May 13,
3059 (75.9%) observing by ISON and having
orbital data published at SpaceTrack
972 (24.1%) observing by ISON and partner
teams only (no other public sources of orbital data)
• Total number of high orbit objects with A/m >
0.1 sq.m/kg:
704 (225 with orbital data available from both
sources/479 with orbital data producing by
ISON and partner teams only):
HEO, MEO and GEO Objects
in ISON Database
Objects associated with
Molniya-type orbit launches
Objects associated
with GTO launches
Objects originated in GEO
Distribution of observing GEO objects
by period and inclination
Distribution of observing GEO objects
by eccentricity and area to mass ratio
Forms of collaboration with ISON
• Joint observation campaigns to exchange the
obtained results
• Installation of ISON telescopes to share the data
• Modernization of non-operational obsolete
• Production of telescope under scientific grants
for future joint observations
• Service on provision of orbital data
• Service on conjunction analysis
• Participation at ISON workshops
Part of ISON orbital data is available:
Information about ISON project:
• ISON project is good example of fruitful international
scientific collaboration in field of near-Earth orbits
• Unique observatory network provides global coverage
and release updated orbital data for about 1400
objects without TLE
• Unique KIAM database (about 20 millions of
measurements for 4000 objects ) is using for scientific
analysis and applied tasks, including spaceflight safety
• Development of ISON continues and everyone is
welcome to participate
• During next year next generation of ISON telescopes
will appear – 20-cm aperture with and 40-cm aperture
with FOV of 7x10 degree to form barrier optical multichannel system

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