Executive Briefing

Executive Briefing
This briefing is designed as a stand alone
briefing for Airline Senior Executives / CEOs.
Minor text amendments following review at Cario CAAG meeting.
DJG 30 Mar 2002
The Balance of Risk
Business depends on the balance of risks, often
accomplished by the fine judgement of financial
But have you considered the financial consequences from
poorly judged flight safety strategy ?
Could your operation survive an Approach and Landing
Accident; would it change the financial balance ?
Could it happen to you ?
Page Down or ENTER to continue
This briefing examines the need for management attention
to the flight safety aspects of approach and landing
accidents (ALA).
Controlled flight into terrain (CFIT) together with ALA
account for the highest number of fatalities and aircraft
hull losses respectively.
The Flight Safety Foundation has produced a training aid –
the Approach and Landing Accident Reduction Tool Kit. All
pilots should be aware of the contents of this safety aid.
Awareness of the risks and provision of training to combat
the threat are the primary management tools in risk
What can you do ?
• Fit a Terrain Awareness System (TAWS) to all aircraft.
> TAWS will be the mandatory fit for all aircraft in 2005.
However there will be at least 5 approach accidents or
CFIT in each year before then. Fitting TAWS immediately
will give insurance against an Approach and Landing
• Adopt the advice and procedures from the ALAR Tool Kit
as your company policy.
> Adherence to procedures is another safety tool; but first
you need to publish procedures.
• Ensure that CFIT and ALAR training is available and
> An audit checks that procedures are in place; an inspection
ensures that procedures are being followed.
• TAWS is the latest generation of safety awareness
avionics. Most systems use an extensive terrain
database against which the aircraft position and altitude
is compared. If an aircraft exceeds predetermined limits
the crew are given both audio and visual warnings.
Fitting TAWS to all of
your aircraft may
appear to be expensive.
How much will an
accident cost?
Advice and Procedures
• Simple rules and procedures can give protection against
Require that all approaches use precision or precision like
approach aids. Fly the final approach with a stabilised
flight path.
If the approach to land is not going as anticipated then
require the crew to go around. It is better financial
judgement to have a safe arrival before an on time
Promote the safety concept that it is OK to go around.
Standard Operating Procedures
• Where a task is conducted safely write it down for
others to follow; this is the basis of producing Standard
Operating Procedures - SOPs.
SOPs can reduce risks during flight operations.
They must be the basis of
training and checking. They
enhance crew co-ordination and
Where both pilots are aware of
the company limits, the
monitoring pilot knows when and
how to alert the operating pilot,
this enables optimum cockpit
resource management.
Give an Approach Briefing
• The crew are expected to brief the passengers before
arrival; ensure that the crew brief themselves about the
expected approach, the airfield, the weather or terrain
An approach briefing gives the
crew a common understanding of
how the approach and landing is
expected to progress
Use the Radio Altimeter
• Radio Altimeters are valuable awareness tools.
Approach procedures are constructed such that
adequate terrain clearance is provided during the
approach and landing.
Ensure that the crew call when the instrument first
indicates. Always call 1000ft and 500ft above terrain; if
these calls come at an unexpected time the crew
should be aware of an error.
It could be someone
else’s error
• 85% of aircraft accidents are due to human error, but
human error is manageable. Multiple crew members are
employed to give redundancy and cross check each
other; ensure that they are trained for their tasks.
• Poor judgement or lack of decision making are often
circumstantial causes of accidents. These mental
attributes such as thinking are skills thus can be taught
and improved by practice.
All skills can be trained and
When TAWS or GPWS gives
the alert “Pull Up” then Pull
Audits and Inspection
• In the same way as you would audit financial
performance then audit the operational performance,
the policies, procedures and practice.
Use management tools such as FOQA or LOSA.
FOQA – Flight Operations Quality Assurance is a process of
routinely monitoring aircraft data for abnormal
This tells you what is happening in your airline.
LOSA – Line Operations Safety Assessment is a human
overview of the operation, the procedures, and the
This tells you why things are happening in your airline.
The Cost of an Accident ?
11 Killed
Airline ceased
Aircraft written
Use the FSF ALAR Tool Kit
Use the ALAR Tool Kit to
balance the risks;
ensure that an approach
and landing accident
does not happen to you.
The ALAR Tool Kit is available on CD-ROM from the
Flight Safety Foundation
Suite 300, 601 Madison Street, Alexandria, VA 22314-1756 U.S.
Telephone: +1 (703) 739-6700 Fax: +1 (703) 739-6708

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