欧盟的工人代表

Report
Worker Representation
in the European Union
(欧盟的工人代表)
Michael Stollt
European Trade Union Institute, Brussels
欧洲工会研究所,布鲁塞尔
March 7-9, 2014 – Guangzhou(广州,2014,3月7-9日)
Seminar on new forms of labor relations
« Momentum for worker representation at the enterprise level? »劳动关系的多样性:企业内工人代
表性的新局势?
International Center for Joint Labor Research at Sun Yat-sen University
and Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung(中山大学劳动问题国际研究中心和弗里德里希·艾伯特基金)
Two (interlinked) perspectives(两个互相联系的视角)
and
National perspective
(28 member states)
国家的视角
(28个成员国)
2
2
EU perspective
(supranational level)
(欧盟视角)
(超国家的层面)
© ETUI 2014 - [email protected]
The jigsaw puzzle of worker participation in the EU
A national system can only be understood by looking at how the
different „pieces“and the actors involved are interacting(人们只能
通过观察一个国家不同的人、群体之间是如何互动的来了解这个国家)
3
© ETUI 2014 - [email protected]
Trade Union Density in the European Union (EU-28)(欧盟的工会密度)
Sources: see country reports
on worker-participation.eu
4Great variety (from 74% to 8%), not
a sufficient indicator of strength
(从8%到74%,巨大的差异性,没有
足够大的强度指标)
Sweden
Finland
Estonia
UK
Latvia
Denmark
Lithuania
Netherlands
Ireland
45 – <60%
Poland
Belgium
Germany
Cz. Rep.
Luxembourg
France
23%
≥ 60%
30 – <45%
Slovakia
Austria Hungary
Romania
Slovenia
Croatia
15 – <30%
0 – <15%
Bulgaria
Portugal
Spain
Italy
Greece
4
© ETUI 2014Malta
- [email protected]
Cyprus
Key level of collective bargaining(集体谈判的关键水平)
e.g. Austria,
Germany(例如:
澳大利亚、德国)
e.g. UK, Poland
(英国、波兰)
5
Belgium(比利时)
5Higher levels may set the framework
(高水平设置了框架)
© ETUI 2014 - [email protected]
Collective Bargaining Coverage in the European Union欧盟集体谈判的覆盖范围
6 Proportion of employees
Sources: see country reports
on worker-participation.eu
covered by collective
bargaining
(集体谈判的员工覆盖比率
)
Sweden
Finland
Estonia
UK
Latvia
Denmark
Lithuania
Netherlands
Ireland
60 – <80%
Poland
Belgium
Germany
Cz. Rep.
Luxembourg
France
62%
80 – 100%
40 – <60%
Slovakia
Austria Hungary
Romania
Slovenia
Croatia
20 – <40%
0 – <20%
Bulgaria
Portugal
Spain
Italy
Greece
© ETUI 2014Malta
- [email protected]
Cyprus
Some remarks about collective bargaining in EU-28(一些关于欧盟28国
集体谈判的评论)
7
● Coverage rate is not a sufficient indicator of strength (content, application in reality,
interacting levels…)
(覆盖率不是一个足够的强度指标)
●
Key reasons for high density(高密度的关键原因)
●
:
High unionisation / Extensions by law or government
(高的工会化、由政府或者是法律扩展)
●
●
Extensive industry bargaining (广泛的行业讨价还价)
General trend towards greater decentralisitation
●
Shift from national/sectoral level to company level (currently speeded-up in some
countries by economic crisis)
(从国家、行业的层面转向了公司的水平,目前加速了一些国家的经济危机)
●
7
But: National minimum wage is now more typical (21)
(但是,全国最低工资现在很典型)
© ETUI 2014 - [email protected]
8
Channels of workplace representation – The role of trade unions(工会的作
用——工作场所的代表性渠道)
CTI
8
TRADE UNION
(工会)
CTI
TRADE UNION
(工会)
© ETUI 2014 - [email protected]
Works Council
(企业委员会)
Main channel(s) of workplace representation(工作场所代表权的主要途径)
Sources: see country reports
on worker-participation.eu
Sweden
Finland
Estonia
UK
Latvia
Denmark
Lithuania
Netherlands
Ireland
works council
(企业委员会)(4)
Poland
Belgium
Germany
Cz. Rep.
Luxembourg
France
(de facto) union
(工会) (17)
Slovakia
Austria Hungary
Romania
Slovenia
both structures
(两种都有)(7)
Croatia
Bulgaria
Portugal
Spain
Italy
Greece
9
© ETUI 2014Malta
- [email protected]
Cyprus
Workplace Representation(工作场所的代表权)
Differences exist not only with regard to actors but also ...
(差异不仅仅是因为参与其中的人,还包括)
●Tasks
and Rights
(任务和权利)
●(information
– consultation – co-decision – negotiations)
(信息-咨询-共同决策-谈判)
●Protection
against dismissal
(对于解雇的保护)
●Time
off and resources
(时间和资源)
●Representation
at group level
(集团层面的代表性)
10
© ETUI 2014 - [email protected]
Employee board-level representation (BLER)(在董事会层面的雇员代表)
The right to elect or appoint some of the members of the company's
supervisory board / board of directors(有权选举或者任命公司监事会、理事会的成
员)
11
BLER is an integral part of
Corporate Governance in most
EU member states(在欧盟的大多
数成员国,BLER是公司治理的一
部分)
11
© ETUI 2014 - [email protected]
Two (interlinked) perspectives(两个相互关联的视角)
and
National perspective
(28 member states)
(国家的视角)
28个成员国
12
12
EU perspective
(supranational level)
(欧盟的视角)
超国家的层面
© ETUI 2014 - [email protected]
Despite all differences: General Consensus at EU level
(尽管各国有差异,但是在欧盟的层面上存在着共识)
Worker participation is a basic democratic right, enshrined for example in
the (binding) EU Charter of Fundamental Rights ...(工人的参与权是基本的民
13
主权利,欧盟基本权利宪章如此规定)
“Workers and employers, or their respective
“Workers or their representatives must, at the
appropriate levels, be guaranteed information
and consultation in good time in the cases and
under the conditions provided for by Union law
and national laws and practices.”(工会法和国家
organisations, have, in accordance with Union law
and national laws and practices, the right to
negotiate and conclude collective agreements
at the appropriate levels and, in cases of conflicts
of interest, to take collective action to defend
法律实务规定,必须保证工人和他们的代表在适
their interests, including strike action.”(依照联邦法
当的水平之下及时地了解信息及与之协商)
律和国家法律和实践,工人和雇主,或者各自的组
Article 27 EU
织,享有谈判和签订集体协议的权利,在利益冲突
的情况下,有权采取集体行动捍卫自己的利益,包
括罢工行动 )
Article 28
13
© ETUI 2014 - [email protected]
Despite all differences: General Consensus at EU level
(尽管各国有差异,但在欧盟的层面上存在着共识)
14
... and worker participation also makes economically good sense
(工人的参与也使经济变得合理)
“The type of labour needed by European companies – skilled, mobile, committed,
responsible, and capable of using technical innovations and of identifying with the objective
of increasing competitiveness and quality – cannot be expected simply to obey the
employers‘ instructions. Workers must be closely and permanently involved in decisionmaking at all levels of the company.”
(欧洲企业所需的劳动力的类型——熟练,灵活、忠心、负责任,和能够技术创新以及对增加竞争力和质量的
目标表示认同——不可能简单地服从雇主的指示。工人必须紧密地和永久地参与公司的各级决策)
Final report of the EU High-level expert group on workers’ involvement, 1997
(欧盟高级专家组关于工人参与的最终报告,1997)
14
© ETUI 2014 - [email protected]
Increasing impact of EU legislation(欧盟立法日益增长的影
响)
●
Some 20 EU Directives deal with information,
consultation and board level representation in some kind
of a general or specific sense
(欧盟有20个指示在一般或者是特殊的意义上处理信息、咨询和董事会
层面的代表权问题)
●
The most prominent example are European Works
Councils, set-up in transnational companies > 1000
employees in the EU
(最显著的例子是欧洲企业委员会,它存在于超过1000个员工的跨国公
司中)
15
© ETUI 2014 - [email protected]
15
Some conclusions
16
● National systems are still the backbone of EU industrial relations 
path dependancy(国家系统仍然是工业关系的支柱)-路径依赖
●
However: European level has become much more important and
interlinked with national levels(然而,欧盟的层面已经成为更重要的一面,并且和
国家层面相互关联)
●
Strong worker representation is a key feature of the „European model“
(欧洲模式的一个重要特征就是强有力地代表工人)
●
Trade unions are a key actor in this respect, both at national and
European level(不论是在国家还是欧盟的层面上,工会都是一个关键的角色)
●
Policy measures following „the crisis“ are threatening – at least in
some „crisis countries“ – existing rights (至少在某些危机国家,由危机带来
的政策措施正在威胁着工人的权利)
16
© ETUI 2014 - [email protected]
More information about worker representation in Europe (关于欧盟工人代表权的
更多信息请参考)www.worker-participation.eu
●
National Worker Representation Systems in Europe
(欧洲国家的工人代表系统)
●
European Works Councils (EWC) (欧盟企业委员会)
●
European Company (SE) (欧洲公司)
●
EU Framework for Information, Consultation
& Board-level Representation
(欧盟处理信息、咨询和董事会层面代表权的框架)
●
Corporate Governance & EU Company Law (公司治理和欧盟公司法)
●
EU Social Dialogue (欧盟社会对话)
17
+ e-Newsletter (3 times/year)
17
© ETUI 2014 - [email protected]

similar documents