biological diversity and the illegal wildlife trade in malaysia

Report
BIOLOGICAL DIVERSITY AND THE
ILLEGAL WILDLIFE TRADE IN
MALAYSIA
Presented by:
Rt Hon. Tan Sri Richard Malanjum
Chief Judge of Sabah & Sarawak
OVERVIEW OF MALAYSIA’S BIOLOGICAL DIVERSITY
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Malaysia is ranked 12th in terms of biodiversity richness.
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Malaysia’s forested area covers more than half of its total land area
or about 60% or 19.52 mil. ha
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Malaysia is a tropical country that houses various types of
ecosystems and biodiversity:
i. forests biodiversity;
ii. mountain biodiversity;
iii. inland waters biodiversity;
iv. marine and coastal biodiversity; and
v. agricultural biodiversity.
BIODIVERSITY MANAGEMENT RELATED AGENCIES IN MALAYSIA:
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Forestry Department Peninsular Malaysia (FDPM);
Forestry Department Sabah;
Forest Department of Sarawak;
Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM);
Department of Wildlife and National Park;
Department of Marine Parks Malaysia;
Sabah Biodiversity Centre;
Sarawak Biodiversity Centre.
LIST OF POLICIES, LAWS AND REGULATIONS
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National Forestry Policy 1978 (Revised 1992)
National Policy on Biological Diversity 1998
Wildlife Conservation Act 2010
CITES Act, 2008
Biosafety Act,2007
National Forestry Act 1984
Sabah Forestry Enactment
Forests Ordinance Sarawak
SUMMARY OF OVERALL BIODIVERSITY RICHNESS
Organisms
Total No. of Species
Mammals
306
Birds
742
Reptiles
567
Amphibians
242
Marine fishes
4,000
Freshwater fishes
449
Invertebrates
>150,000
Seed plants
15,000
Fern and fern allies
2,012
Fungi
4,000
Mosses
400
THREATS TO BIOLOGICAL DIVERSITY AND PRIMARY
CAUSE OF BIODIVERSITY LOSS
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Land use changes especially for agriculture, housing demand and
plantation;
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Unsustainable development projects;
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Natural disaster (tsunami and forest fire);
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Theft of native plants such as wild and rare orchids by foreigners; and
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Poaching and illegal wildlife trade (by local and foreigners).
MALAYSIA’S NATIONAL POLICY ON BIOLOGICAL DIVERSITY (NPBD)
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15 strategies and 87 actions (NPBD 1998):
i.
Conservation and sustainable use; and
ii.
Fair and equitable sharing of benefits from utilization of biodiversity.
NPBD 1998 is now being updated due to the global Strategic Plan for Biodiversity
2011-2020.
To transform Malaysia into a world centre of excellence in conservation, research and
utilization of tropical biological diversity in the year 2020.
To conserve Malaysia’s biological diversity and to ensure that its components are
utilised in a sustainable manner for the continued progress and socio-economic
development of the nation.
CONSERVATIONS PROGRAMMES IN MALAYSIA
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The 26 Million Tree Planting;
Tree Planting Programme along coastlines area;
Centre Forest Spine;
Heart of Borneo;
Coral Triangle Initiatives (CTI);
National Tiger Conservation Action Plan (NTCAP);
Providing sanctuaries for endangered animals; and
Facilitating the continuation of habitats of animals such as the
elephant corridors in Sabah
RECENT INITIATIVES FOR CONSERVATION OF BIODIVERSITY
RECENT INITIATIVES FOR CONSERVATION OF BIODIVERSITY
INTERNATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL TREATIES AND CONVENTIONS TO WHICH
MALAYSIA IS A PARTY:
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Convention on biological diversity (CBD);
RAMSAR Convention on Wetlands;
Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of
Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES);
United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change
(UNFCC); and
United Nations Forum on Forest (UNFF)
ISSUES ON WILDLIFE POACHING AND ILLEGAL TRADE
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Malaysia is known as a wildlife smuggling hub and transit point
Lack of skills and expertise in species identification
Communication between enforcement agencies
Investigation and prosecution
Power to compound offences
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Malaysia a Hub For Wildlife Smuggling
13
Wildlife Smuggling Species
For Pets
Madagascar Tortoise
Grey Parrot
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Wildlife Smuggling Items
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Collection/ “luxury item”
Made from Ivory
15
Wildlife Smuggling Species
 Exotic food
Frozen Pangolins
16
Wildlife Trafficking In Southeast Asia
22 Nov. 2011 – Seizure in Thailand of
50 rare pangolins from Malaysia en
route to China, via Laos
17 Nov. 2011 – Seizure in Malaysia of
approx. 700 protected animals
(monitor lizards, snakes, tortoises)
Source: UNODC
17
Wildlife Trafficking
TIGER:
Via land / sea
ORIGIN:
Sumatra
Cambodia
Via land / sea
Via air
TRANSIT:
Malaysia
Thailand
Laos
Vietnam
DESTINATION:
Primarily China
Source: TRAFFIC
Wildlife Trafficking
PANGOLINS
ORIGIN :
Indonesia
Malaysia
Cambodia
Via land / sea
Via land / sea
TRANSIT :
Singapore
Kuala Lumpur
Bangkok
Hanoi
Penang
DESTINATION :
Domestic
International - China
Source: TRAFFIC
Via air
Wildlife Trafficking
Frozen/Wild pangolin, turtle,
monitor lizard and snake :
Via land / sea
Via sea
ORIGIN :
Malaysia
Borneo
Sumatra
Via air
TRANSIT:
Penang
Kuala Lumpur
Johor
DESTINATION :
Primarily China
Source: TRAFFIC
Wildlife Trafficking
PARROT/OTHER EXOTIC BIRDS:
ORIGIN :
Sumatra/Medan
Papua
Irian
Via land / sea
Via sea
EXIT:
Belawan and Tanjung Balai in
Medan, Kuala Tungkal in Jambi,
Batam and Riau.
ENTRANCE:
Penang, Malacca, Johor
Source: TRAFFIC
Johor
Wildlife Trafficking
BULBUL/OTHER BIRDS:
ORIGIN :
Thailand
Malaysia
DESTINATION :
Malaysia
Indonesia
Via land
Via sea
Johor
Wildlife Trafficking
TURTLES/TORTOISE
ORIGIN:
Indonesia
Czech Republic
India
Madagascar
Zambia and Chennai
TRANSIT/ DESTINATION :
SE Asia
Japan
China / Hong Kong
Malaysia
Source: TRAFFIC
WILDLIFE BLACK MARKET
Wildlife Specimen
Estimation (USD)
Rhino Horn
97,000 / kg
Bear Bile
250,000 / kg
Tiger (Live)
50,000/ head
Tiger (Skin)
35,000/ pieces
Tiger (Skin)
2,000/ kg
Ivory
1,300 / pound
Elephant
28,000/ head
Orang-utan
45,000/ head
Pangolins
1,000/ head
Source: Havocscope (Global Black Market Information)
24
SMUGGLING CASES
Monitor Lizard (Varanus salvator
Reticulated Python (Python reticulatus)
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SMUGGLING CASES
Seizure 7,093 head of Monitor lizards
(Varanus bengalensis)
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SMUGGLING CASES
Smuggling birds using PVC
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SMUGGLING CASES
Seizure of Tiger, Tiger Part and Ivory
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Number of Cases Recorded
[Act 76 (Before 2011), Act 716 and Act 686]
No of Cases Recorded
3587
4000
Court Cases
60
3813
3487
55
60
3500
45
50
3000
2500
40
2000
30
39
27
1500
1000
20
475
354
10
500
0
2008
2009
2010
2011
0
2012
2008
2009
Smuggling Cases
2011
2012
Poaching Cases
54
60
50
2010
45
41
40
80
71
54
60
31
29
30
40
20
20
19
10
2
4
2011
2012
0
2008
0
2008
2009
2010
2011
2009
2010
2012
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CURBING THE ILLEGAL WILDLIFE TRADE
The law impose severe punishment in curbing the illegal wildlife trade. Examples of
Section 65 and Section 71 have been introduced under the Act 716 that imposes both
fines and mandatory jail
Section 65: Any person who imports, exports or re-exports any protected wildlife or any part or
derivative of a protected wildlife without a licence commits an offence and shall, on conviction, be
liable to a fine of NOT LESS THAN RM20,000 and NOT MORE THAN RM50,000 and to
imprisonment for a term not exceeding 1 year
Section 71: Any person who imports, exports or re-exports any totally protected wildlife or any part
or derivative of a totally protected wildlife without a special permit commits an offence and shall, on
conviction, be liable to a fine of NOT LESS THAN RM30,000 and NOT MORE THAN RM100,000 and
to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 3 years
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Curbing The Illegal Wildlife Trade
In the years 2011-2012, the DWNP has taken action on 764 cases, whereby a total
of 99 cases have been prosecuted in court. Acknowledging the seriousness of the
illegal wildlife trade, the court fines and jail term have since increase. Sentences
such as imprisonment from 6 months to a year and fine between RM 300.00 to RM
100,000.00 have been delivered by the court.
With the enforcement of the new law the scope and jurisdiction of the DWNP also
include, animal welfare and cruelty, zoos and wildlife exhibitions. The enforcement
of the Act 716 is a critical step towards reducing species loss and managing our
biodiversity holistically while being guided by the National Policy on Biological
Diversity
In supporting the Government’s effort in bringing a major shift in transforming
enforcement agencies to be more resilient, dynamic, proactive and transparent, the
Enforcement Division of the DWNP is revamped beginning September 2012 where
new officers are being assigned to the enforcement division.
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CURBING THE ILLEGAL WILDLIFE TRADE
The DWNP enhance the Wildlife Crime Unit (WCU) flying
squad for additional regional enforcement activities to
further strengthen enforcement activities. A new
Intelligence Unit is formed to enhance networking and
intelligence gathering in curbing crimes related to wildlife
The DWNP has established the Wildlife Genetic Resource
Bank (WGRB) in 2007 to provide forensic evidence for
court cases involving wildlife
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FUTURE PLANS (SHORT TERM)
Strengthening through roadshows and capacity building programs to stakeholders on the
enforcement of Act 686 and Act 716.
Enhance public awareness through promotions and dissemination of brochures/ handbook on
CITES and Act 686 especially to passengers at international airport.
Coordinate joint enforcement operations regularly with related agencies.
Conduct research and study on the species labeling method especially on the tagging method of
wildlife to prevent falsification on trade documents.
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FUTURE PLANS (LONG TERM)
Strengthen the enforcement linkages and network to combat illegal trade of wildlife.
Continue the cooperation with other countries especially with the neighboring countries. (i.e.
Bilateral Meetings with Thailand)
Law enforcement through continuous education and awareness to the public.
On going trainings to enforcement officers, prosecutors, scientists and policy makers.
Continuously conduct research regarding impact on trade of endangered species and ex-situ
conservation of endangered species
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Thank you
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