Dependency Ratios 12936KB Sep 20 2012 09:21:54 PM

IB Geography
Dependency Ratios
Mrs. Leahy
Horton High School
What's to come…
What are
Impacts of
youthful and
Responses to high and low fertility- Populations in Transition
Dependency Ratios
Getting Started with dependency ratios
Dependency Ratio: is the relationship between the
working or economically active population and the
non-working population.
Youth Dependency Ratio- the ration of the number
of people 0-14 to those of 15-64 years.
Elderly dependency ratio: the ratio of the number of
people aged 65 and over to those aged 15-64 years.
Importance of dependency ratios
• The dependency ratio is important because
the economically active population will
contribute more to the economy (taxes on
income, goods and business activity)
• The dependent population tends to be bigger
recipients of government funding (education,
health care, pensions).
• The increase in the dependency ratio can
cause significant financial problems for a
government if it does not have the financial
reserves to cope with such change.
Limitations of the dependency ratio:
• In developed countries few people leave education
before the age of 18, many do not get a job until 21 and
even retire before the age of 65.
• A large number of people in the economically active
group are staying home, such as parent to look after
children and other reasons.
• In developing countries many children are working full
or part time before the age of 15- some areas also have
high unemployment.
Video time: Watch and Learn
Impacts of a youthful or
aging populations
Lets start with:
Case Study- Malawi
Problems to Malawi's Youthful Population
• Pressure on providing adequate medical services and
health care. This may lead to widespread disease and
• Education system under stress – lack of education
leads to under-paid, under-privileged jobs.
• Insufficient food supply – could lead to famine
• Increased rural-urban migration as rural areas unable
to sustain growing population. This could lead to
shanty towns
• Increased poverty and lower standards of living.
Advantages and disadvantages
- provides a large and cheap future
- puts strain on education and health
- provides a growing market for
manufactured products
- puts strain on food supplies
- provides a large tax base for the
- puts strain on available
- lack of available jobs in the future
- Source of new innovation and ideas
Aging Populations
Video Clip
Japan Case Study
Japan Case Study
Japan has an ageing population because the birth rates have fallen
and it has one of the world's highest life expectancy's. In fact the
islands of Okinawa off Japan's south coast have the highest life
expectancy and the greatest percentage of centenarians in the world.
Japan has the highest proportion of old dependents (about 23%) and
the lowest proportion of young dependents (about 13%) in the
world. It has a total fertility rate of only 1.25. This is well below the
replacement rate of 2.1.
Even though the Japanese are working longer, it may have to look
outside its borders to prevent future population decline and
economic decline. Japan is traditionally a very insular country so
allowing large scale immigration would involve huge social and
cultural changes.
Causes of an Aging Population
High life expectancy caused by:
-Good medical care
-Good diet and improved water supply
-Good sanitation and hygiene
Low birth rates caused by:
-Emancipation of women
-Cost of children
-Emigration of economically active
Advantages and disadvantages
-Elderly people have a lot of
-Shortage of economically
experience and can be valuable in the active
-Reduced taxation income for
the government
-Less money spent on schooling and
-Cost of providing healthcare
natal medical care
and care homes (elderly tend
to get sick more frequently)
-Lower crime rates and less money
-Reduced spending on
needed to be spent on policing
education, policing, transport
network, etc.
-Cost of paying for pensions
-Service decline (schools,
sports centres, etc. not used
by older residents)
Solutions to an Ageing Population
-Pro-natalist policies
-Increased immigration of economically active
-Increased retirement age
-Private pensions
-Private healthcare
-Increased taxes of economically active
• Videos: Ageing Populations: Chinas- Upside
down pyramid- 6 mins
• Aging populations:
Natalist Policies
Population Policy Project:
You may choose to work with a partner, or a group of
three. Each group must select a country and research
their population policy. No two groups can study the
same country. Please sign your group up with the
country of your choice to ensure that no two groups
have chosen the same one.
The following should be covered in your project•Provide a brief demographic profile of the country – e.g.
CBD, CDR, IMR, MMR, LE, TFR, stage in DTM,
contraceptive use etc. /5
• Show population pyramids for past, present and future.
Describe and account for the trends in the demographic
situation that the population pyramids show. /6
•What is the government’s policy towards population
growth? How does it implement its policy? Evaluate the
success of the policy. /6
•What predictions do you have for the future –
demographically, socially, economically, politically, and
environmentally? /5
You may use any of the following to present your project:
-PowerPoint, wiki page, webpage or have other ideas??
Just ask!
Some Ideas:
» China
» Iran
» Egypt
» France
» Denmark
» Singapore
» Nigeria
» India
» The Kerala

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