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Higher Geography
Human Environments
Unit Learning Intentions
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Identify the CBD of a settlement,
quoting map evidence to explain your
choice and compare the CBD of two
settlements, referring to location and
land use
Identify the different land-use zones
from the CBD to the suburbs, using map
evidence to justify your decisions and
describe the site of the particular
urban zones
account for the location of the zones
within the town
Describe and account for differences
in land use from the CBD to the
suburbs
Give map evidence to suggest the likely
function of a settlement (e.g. industrial
town or holiday resort)
Describe and contrast features of the
urban landscape of selected areas
(urban zones)
•
explain why the environments of
particular zones are so different and
comment on the likely quality of the
environment
•
Suggest the impact of new
developments in particular urban zones
and describe the problems caused by
new developments
For any named city in an EMDC:
•
show how its location and site
encouraged its growth
•
Describe and account for the likely
land uses to be observed in the CBD
•
Describe and explain the changes
which have taken place in the CBD and
the old inner-city area
•
explain why changes were necessary
and comment on their success
WE WILL
• Understand the key terms for the
urban unit
Activity
• White board activity using key word
cards.
OR
• Make key word cards for the topic
WE WILL
• For any named city in an EMDC, show
how its location and site encouraged its
growth
Influential Site Factors
• A site which is near to a supply of fresh
water.
• A site which provides flat land for building on
and room for expansion as the settlement
grows.
• Areas which have good, fertile soils will be
attractive for settlement.
• Early settlements often built close to a
source of fuel such as a forest or woodland
areas.
• Sites on areas of dry firm land. This was
important in areas where the ground
consisted of largely of marshland or fenland.
The settlements were built on islands of dry
lands and since been referred to as ‘dry –
point’ sites.
• Sites which offered defence against potential
enemies such as a high point for building a
castle or fortress were also selected. If
these sites also offer commanded a strategic
position – for example overlooking major
routes – this offered an advantage.
• Coastal areas with access to the sea would
afford opportunities for both fishing and
transport by sea.
• Some sites were chosen because they were at
the centre of major routes or perhaps lay in a
gap between upland and lowland areas. These
sites known as ‘gap’ sites.
• The lowest point at which a river could be
crossed was often chosen. These sites
offered good opportunities for the
development of trade. These sites are called
‘lowest bridging points’.
• With the industry and the need for raw
materials, areas which had raw materials such
as coal, iron, ore and other minerals were
chosen for the development of mining
centres.
Advantages of Edinburghs Site
Defensive Site on the
crag (130m)
Protection on three
sides of the crag by
steep cliffs for
defence
Two deep hollows
either side of the
tail improved
defence
Tenement housing
developed on the
“tail” towards
Holyrood House
Disadvantages of Edinburgh’s
Site
• The original site was restricted and became
overcrowded
Therefore…
• The city expanded in all directions, most
notably with the building of the 'New Town‘
• New Town was developed to the north of the
Old Town in the late 18th century.
Situation
• Trade and travellers forced through gap
between Pentland Hills and the Firth of
Forth
• Port of Leith (trade with Europe)
Edinburgh's Situation
Important trade
routes from east to
west forced through
this gap = Control
Gap site between the
Pentland Hills to the
south and the Firth of
Forth to the north.
Pentland Hills
Water Supply
Fertile soils
Mineral rich ‘gley’ soils occur
throughout the area.
Rural west Edinburgh and parts of
the south and east of the city. Most
of this area is fairly high grade
quality agricultural land which would
be capable of producing a moderate
to very high range of arable crops
Bridging points
Edinburgh Site and Situation
Flat land
Fuel
Dry firm land
Defence
Coastal
Major routes
Minerals/Resources
Activity
• Using the internet and/or maps from
the department, find examples of towns
or cities with different site factors.
• Save or copy the OS map and label any
key features.
• Write a short description next to each
one to explain the site factor.
Exam Question
• For any city you have studied in the
Developed World, show how its original
site and situation encouraged its
growth.
(8 marks)
Sample Answer
The growth of Edinburgh has been affected by many site and situation
factors. One site factor which has impacted on the growth of Edinburgh
is the relief of the land. The flatter the land the easier it is to build.
Edinburgh developed on the areas of flat land around the crag and tail
which was created due to volcanic activity. It was restricted by areas
such as Arthurs Seat.
A further site factor was defence as the castle was built on the raised
area of igneous rock where there were also defensive trough to the
North and South.
Edinburgh has been greatly influenced by its situation where travellers
and traders could access Edinburgh through a gap site between the
Pentland Hills and the Firth of Forth. The fact that Edinburgh is on a
coastal location also encouraged its growth with the port at Leith being
a main trading points with Europe.
Due to population pressure Edinburgh expanded along the steep slopes
north towards Leith and westwards around Dean village. The deep
hollows around the Royal mile had to be bridged to allow such expansion.
WE WILL
• Be able to name and describe different
urban models.
• Consider how such models apply to
Edinburgh.
• Geographers have put together models
of land use to show how a 'typical' city
is laid out
Concentric Model – Burgess
• Land values are highest in the centre of a
town or city. This is because competition is
high in the central parts of the settlement.
This leads to high-rise, high-density buildings
being found near the Central Business
District (CBD), with low-density, sparse
developments on the edge of the town or city.
Sector Model - Hoyt
• Based on the circles on the Burgess model,
but adds sectors of similar land uses
concentrated in parts of the city.
• Some zones, eg the factories/industry zone,
radiate out from the CBD. This is probably
following the line of a main road or a railway.
Multiple Nuclei (Ullman and Harris
• Based on the fact that many towns and nearly all large
cities grow about many nuclei rather than around a simple
CBD.
Distinctive land-use zones develop because some
activities repel each other; high-quality housing does not
generally arise next to industrial areas, and other
activities cannot afford the high costs of the most
desirable locations.
• New industrial areas develop in suburban locations since
they require easy access, and outlying business districts
may develop for the same reason
Mann’s Model
• Combines the sector theory with the
concentric zone model. Four basic sectors are
postulated: middle class, lower middle class,
working class, and lower working class.
• Each sector displays four zones. In each case,
there is the CBD, the transitional zone, a zone
of smaller houses, and the outermost zone
made up of post-1918 housing.
Activity
• Read page 327 of textbook.
• Complete sheet to show how the models
apply to Edinburgh.
Model
Concentric Model (Burgess)
Sector Model (Hoyt)
Multiple Nuclei (Ullman and
Harris)
Mann’s Model
Description of Model
Edinburgh
Model
Concentric Model (Burgess)
Description of Model
Edinburgh
The model which least applies to
Edinburgh is this model. The varied
relief and steeply sloping igneous hills
and deeply incised rivers made
concentric growth unlikely.
Sector Model (Hoyt)
May be identified, it did grow outwards
in a radical fashion, But not in broad
segments, But it did grow along the main
roads and to a lesser extent railways .
Multiple Nuclei (Ullman and
Harris)
Does apply to Edinburgh in a sense. Two large
urban coastal areas, Portobello and Leith,
which eventually became part of the city. Each
had its own recognisable Central Business
District, and each had zones of contrasting
urban land use, age and town scape. The city
expanded along the coast and inland when they
were absorbed by extensions to the city’s
boundary.
Mann’s Model
This model can be applied to Edinburgh
as there is a west-east divide of highclass housing to the west with a low
population density and there is low-class
housing to the east with a high
population density.
Lesson Review
WE WILL
• Describe and account for the likely land
uses to be observed in the CBD
• describe and explain the changes which
have taken place in the CBD and the old
inner-city area
• explain why changes were necessary and
comment on their success
• As most maps show, the main roads converge on
this area. You would refer to this and identify
roads by name if possible.
• You would also look for buildings such as train
and bus stations, town halls, museums,
information centres, perhaps colleges and other
large further education establishments, large
churches, possibly even cathedrals, large blocks
of buildings which could be shopping centres, car
parks and possibly theatres.
• It is unlikely that there would be much evidence
of industry, either in estates or large works.
• There would also be little evidence of housing. However
the street patterns may show small narrow streets at the
very centre indicating the oldest part of the settlement.
Whenever these features are identified, grid references of
their location should be given to support identification.
• The CBD may also be identified in terms of its location in
that most would be found in the most point of the city and
certainly the part of city which is most accessible.
• There may be some streets which have shapes such as, small
cul-de sacs and curves. These streets may contain large
terraced houses which have been converted to offices.
• This has happened in, for example, Edinburgh and Glasgow.
The Core Area - CBD
• The site of this area is often but not always in the centre
of the settlement and it should be the most accessible
point, indicated by the convergence of all major transport
routes, both road and rail.
• Due to this highly accessible position, it is the area where
most services would like to locate so as to gain maximum
access to their customers.
• Functions such as retailing, wholesaling, offices, services,
public administration, entertainment transport terminals,
art centres are all located here.
• This is also the area where land prices are most expensive
and only those functions which can afford the relatively
high cost of this land can compete for space
Edinburgh’s CBD
• The old town & the new town.
• Includes the Royal Mile, Princes Street,
Queen Street, as far as Holyrood
Palace.
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Taller buildings
Lack of open space
Most expensive land
Route centre (roads
and rail)
• Competition for land
• Most accessible spot
• Central in city
Shops ...large chain
stores
Shopping Centres
Large Banks, insurance
companies
Tourism
Government offices
Recreation/Leisure
Bus stations
Main railway station
Exclusive stores
Edinburgh’s CBD
• Shops ...large chain stores
– e.g John Lewis, M&S on
Princes St.
• Shopping Centres
– Princes Mall,St.James’s
centre.
• Large Banks, insurance
companies
– e.g Standard Life
• Tourism
– e.g Castle, Holyrood
Palace, museums,
Dynamic Earth
• Government offices
– e.g Parliament.
• Bus stations
– St.Andrews Square
• Main railway station
– Waverley
• Recreation...
– Pubs e.g. Rose St.
– Theatres e.g Playhouse
on Leith Walk
– cinemas,
– hotels (The Balmoral)
– eating places.
• Exclusive stores
– e.g.Harvey Nics, Multrees
Walk
Activity
• Compare old/new maps and photographs
and consider the changes.
• Design project for Inverness CBD
Changes in the CBD
• Large expensive stores built e.g Harvey Nics.
• New cinema / eating complex built
– Omni-centre
• Plans for underground car parks (George Street) &
improved shops in Princes Street.
http://www.scotsman.com/edinburgh-evening-news/transport/plans-for-underground-edinburgh-car-park-1-2788540
• Many houses (George St, Queen St.) converted to
offices)
• Movement of many offices out of city
• Attempts to attract customers at Christmas with fair
/ ice rink / market
Changes in the CBD cont…
• Bank buildings converted to pubs, restaurants etc.
• Movement of bank HQ:
– RBS to Hermiston Gait and HBOS to Gyle.
• The Gyle shopping centre built, attracting shops &
customers away from CBD.
• Covered shopping centres
– Princes mall and St James centre
• Scottish Office moved to Leith.
Converted
bank
New cinema
complex
German Market
Former Scottish Offfice
Memory picture
• In groups of 4 give each member a
number 1,2,3,4
• In turn you will come out and look at the
computer screen.
• You must try and recreate what you see
on the screen on your page by working
as a group.
Banks converted to
bars and
restaurants
Plans for
underground car
parks (George
Street)
Some
offices
move out of
city
Out of town shopping centres
Large houses
converted to
offices
Markets e.g. German Covered shopping centres
Christmas market
New cinema
complex - Omni
Scottish
Government
offices move to
Leith
Banks converted to
bars and
restaurants
Plans for
underground car
parks (George
Street)
Some
offices
move out of
city
Out of town shopping centres
Large houses
converted to
offices
Markets e.g. German Covered shopping centres
Christmas market
New cinema
complex - Omni
Scottish
Government
offices move to
Leith
Change
Reason
Edinburgh
Example
Banks converted
to bars and
restaurants
Offices moving
out of CBD
Out of town
shopping centres
Scottish
Government
offices move to
Leith
More room for larger stores and expansion.
Allows for have large areas of free car
parking which is better for customer
access.
Markets
German Christmas
market
New leisure
facilities
Omni
Exam Question
“The Central Business District of major cities
undergoes continuing change.”
• Referring to a city that you have studied in the
Developed World, explain the changes which have
taken place in the CBD over the past few decades.
You should refer to named locations within the CBD
(8)
TIP: Give real examples, explain the changes using linking words
like ‘due to’, ‘so that’, ‘so’, ‘because of’, ‘therefore’, ‘in order to’.
Problems in Edinburgh’s CBD
• Traffic congestion
• High rent / land values
• Lack of land for expansion
• Lack of car parking
• Cost of maintaining old buildings
• Customers wanting indoor shopping
Transport
Movement
Regeneration
Projects
Changes in the CBD
Leisure
Employment
(Edinburgh)
Commercialisation
Markets
Developing
Shopping
centres in and
around
Edinburgh
They now have a Tram Line.
They did this to lower traffic
congestion.
To get out of the busy CBD
More space to expand
Cheaper land
Transport
Movement
Regeneration Projects
Change appearance of CBD
Movement of Bank HQ: RBS to
Hermiston Gait & HBOS tp Gyle
Changes in the CBD
New stores moving to Edinburgh
CBD
(Edinburgh)
German market
Commercialisation
Markets
Developing Shopping centres
in and around Edinburgh
Attract people into the CBD
Gyle Shopping Centre
New Stores
Brings out people from
Edinburgh city centre and takes
them out to shopping centres
outside Edinburgh itself.
Harvey Nics
Banks, tertiary industries
relocating to estates which
allows more shops restaurants
to open.
Comparison of CBDS
• Location within the settlement.
• Accessibility with reference to roads,
railways bus and train stations.
• The general size of the areas.
• Types of zones close by e.g. industry or
housing.
• Perhaps comment on the presence of
individual such as tourist information centres,
churches. Etc.
2009
• Describe and explain the changes,
other than shopping, which have taken
place in the CBD over the past few
decades.
8
Glasgow Example Points (SQA)
Pedestrianisation and landscaping of CBD roads eg Buchanan
Street, Argyle Street etc to reduce traffic flow in and around
the CBD – to increase pedestrian safety and improve air quality
and environment.
Upgrading of CBD open space, eg George Square.
Diversification of city employment – much greater emphasis on
tourist industry (significance of city-break holidays) leading to
increased bed accommodation in new CBD hotels (Hilton,
Radisson). Hotels can also tap into lucrative conference market
given Glasgow’s improved image as a tourist and cultural centre.
Alteration of CBD road network – one-way streets (around
George Square), bus lanes to discourage use of private transport
and encourage use of public transport. Also achieved by increased
metering and increased parking charges in and around CBD.
Renovation and redevelopment of many CBD sites to provide
modern hi-tech office space (Lloyd’s TSB, Direct Line etc) and
residential apartments (Fusion Development, Robertson Street).
Building of M8, M77 and M74 extension all designed to keep
through traffic off CBD roads.
Younger, more affluent population continues to be attracted to
central city area by long-standing concentration of up-market
pubs, clubs, cinemas etc (Cineworld in Renfrew Street).
Contraction of number of public transport termini within CBD (2
major railway stations instead of 4) but upgrading of remaining
termini, (Buchanan Street bus station, Central Station).
Edinburgh
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Answer
Pedestrianisation and landscaping of CBD roads eg Buchanan Street, Argyle Street etc
to reduce traffic flow in and around the CBD – to increase pedestrian safety and improve
air quality and environment.
Upgrading of CBD open space, eg George Square.
Diversification of city employment – much greater emphasis on tourist industry
(significance of city-break holidays) leading to increased bed accommodation in new CBD
hotels (Hilton, Radisson). Hotels can also tap into lucrative conference market given
Glasgow’s improved image as a tourist and cultural centre.
Alteration of CBD road network – one-way streets (around George Square), bus lanes to
discourage use of private transport and encourage use of public transport. Also achieved
by increased metering and increased parking charges in and around CBD.
Renovation and redevelopment of many CBD sites to provide modern hi-tech office space
(Lloyd’s TSB, Direct Line etc) and residential apartments (Fusion Development,
Robertson Street).
Building of M8, M77 and M74 extension all designed to keep through traffic off CBD
roads.
Younger, more affluent population continues to be attracted to central city area by longstanding concentration of up-market pubs, clubs, cinemas etc (Cineworld in Renfrew
Street).
Contraction of number of public transport termini within CBD (2 major railway stations
instead of 4) but upgrading of remaining termini, (Buchanan Street bus station, Central
Station).
WE WILL
• Consider the main features of inner city
areas.
• Discuss the changes in inner city areas.
• Develop a case study of Leith in
Edinburgh as an example of an Inner
city area.
The Inner City:
Leith
Historical Leith
Pre-Change Leith
• Leith used to be a busy port
• Port trade declined
• Trade with UK and rest of
Europe
• Loss of many industries
• Whiskey and sugar warehouses
• Fertilisers
• Lots of people employed there
• Many goods transported by
railways and canals
• Shipbuilding
– e.g shipbuilding; fertilisers;
distilling.
• Lots of derelict land + derelict
buildings.
• Many subtandard houses.
• Many empty buldings.
• Limited shopping facilities.
• A declining, and ageing
population.
• 1960s tower blocks
Most inner cities now have urban
regeneration schemes in which
buildings are being modernised,
converted, demolished and
replaced, with gap sites being
filled
Britannia
Grid iron
Scottish
Government
Empty docks
Now flats
Recent Development in Leith
• Real radio station.
• The Ocean Terminal
shopping centre.
• Royal Yacht Britannia.
• New hotels (Malmaison)
• Health Club (Pure Gym
in Ocean Terminal)
• Large restaurants (The
Kitchin)
• Big events e.g Tall Ships
and MTV awards.
• Development of passenger
shipping trade.
• ‘Gentrification’ of old
Whisky Bonds.
• Leith Walk – tree planting.
• Large stores
Recent Develoments in Leith
Converted warehouses: shops,
bars, restaurants on ground
floor, flats above.
Scottish Executive
Headquarters
(Victoria Quay)
New Expensive Flats
Success?
• Younger, more affluent people attracted to
Leith.
• Increase in daytime population.
• Attracted people from all over to Leith to
spend their leisure time.
• Created an affluent dock and riverside fringe.
Activity
Create a poster to show:
• Main feature of Inner city in Edinburgh
• Changes in Leith
• Reason for Changes
• Named examples
Exam Question
• Referring to an inner city landscape in
Glasgow, or in a city you have studied,
describe and explain the changes which
have taken place in recent years.
(10)
WE WILL
• Be able to describe what typical suburb
areas are like.
Suburbs
• Modern late 20th/early 21st century
• semi-detached and detached housing
• gardens and greenery around the areas
• low density and high quality environment
• well-planned street patterns of crescents and cul-desacs.
• Some outer-city council estates with flats, high rise
and mixed housing.
• Growths of car ownership, commuting and demand for
quieter and safer residential environments have led to
the growth of these areas.
• Reduced land values from CBD
Kirkliston
• North West
• 10 miles from city centre
• Originally a village
£245,000 4 bedroom detached
The Beeches – New
Housing Development
£294,995 To £344,995
Newbridge
• South of Kirkliston
Greenbelt
£380,000 4 bedroom
detached
Industrial Area
Large Gardens
£145,000 2 bedroom
South Gyle
• West of city centre
• £105,000 1 bedroom
£105,000 1 bedroom flat
• South West
Craiglockhart
• £1.1 million for 5 bedroom detached
• Napier University
Comparing Areas
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•
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•
•
Street Pattern
Density
Roads/communications
Buildings – housing?
Open Space
• Explain why there are differences
CBD
Street Pattern
Density
Communication
links
Buildings
Open Space
Other
Inner City
Suburbs
Cul-de-sacs, crescents
CBD
Inner City
Suburbs
Street Pattern
Grid iron
Narrow streets
Narrow streets, long, lots
of cars
Cul-de-sacs, crescents
Density
Medium to high
population density
Medium to low
low
Communication
links
Main route centre
Railway and bus
stations
Taxis and Bus stations
Main roads for
commuters, e.g. A71
Buildings
Important public
buildings, eg. Tourist
information and
museums
Tenement
Mixture of new and old
where there has been
regeneration
1 or 2 storey semidetached/detached
modern houses
Open Space
Not much open space
because of densely
packed houses and
shops, etc
Lots of traffic, busy,
little green
space/gardens
Lots, most have gardens,
garages
Low desity
St.Andrews Square
crescents and cul-de-sacs.
Most expensive land
Large houses converted to
offices e.g. George Street
Modern late 20th/early 21st
century
Princes Mall
During decline there were
many areas of derelict land
and derelict buildings.
Newbridge
Banks converted to bars and
restaurants
Leith
Large restaurants
most services
In the 1960s tower blocks
were built here.
Some modern industry found
in this area.
Historically a industrial area
with trade with Europe.
St.Andrews Square
crescents and cul-de-sacs.
Most expensive land
Large houses converted to
offices e.g. George Street
Modern late 20th/early 21st
century
Princes Mall
During decline there were
many areas of derelict land
and derelict buildings.
Newbridge
Banks converted to bars and
restaurants
Leith
Large restaurants
most services
In the 1960s tower blocks
were built here.
Some modern industry found
in this area.
Historically a industrial area
with trade with Europe.
Greenbelt
• South East Development
• Urban Villages
Blue Belt
• Coast from Cramond to Portobello
• Granton (run down waterfront industrial
area – to be transformed
WE WILL
• Consider the benefits and problems of
out of town shopping centres.
• Consider what might be important when
locating a new out of town shopping
centre.
Fort Kinnaird
One of the largest shopping destinations outside Princes
Street in Edinburgh and Sauchiehall Street in Glasgow.
The development links the existing Kinnaird Park and
Edinburgh Fort on the outskirts of Edinburgh to create
a huge 54,255 sq m one-stop shopping destination.
In the CACI Retail Footprint 2010, Top 10 UK retail
parks, Fort Kinnaird was named 6th best in the UK and
was Scotland's top performing retail park.
http://www.fortkinnaird.co.uk/
The Gyle
Spanning 20 hectares with 27,870sq m of retail space, The Gyle is
a flagship shopping centre to the west of Edinburgh city centre
close to the airport and city bypass. It has 2,500 car parking
spaces and more than 600,000 people living within a 20 minute
drive. This increases to 1m within a half-hour drive.
http://www.gyleshopping.co.uk/
Cameron Toll
• A premium shopping centre with more than
1100 free secure car parking spaces located
3.5km from Edinburgh's city centre and
housing a range of high street and
independent retailers covering fashion, gifts,
food, beauty, electronics and other sectors
http://www.camerontoll.co.uk/
Fort Kinnaird
One of the largest shopping destinations outside Princes
Street in Edinburgh and Sauchiehall Street in Glasgow.
The development links the existing Kinnaird Park and
Edinburgh Fort on the outskirts of Edinburgh to create
a huge 54,255 sq m one-stop shopping destination.
In the CACI Retail Footprint 2010, Top 10 UK retail
parks, Fort Kinnaird was named 6th best in the UK and
was Scotland's top performing retail park.
http://www.fortkinnaird.co.uk/
The Gyle
Spanning 20 hectares with 27,870sq m of retail space, The Gyle is
a flagship shopping centre to the west of Edinburgh city centre
close to the airport and city bypass. It has 2,500 car parking
spaces and more than 600,000 people living within a 20 minute
drive. This increases to 1m within a half-hour drive.
http://www.gyleshopping.co.uk/
Cameron Toll
• A premium shopping centre with more than
1100 free secure car parking spaces located
3.5km from Edinburgh's city centre and
housing a range of high street and
independent retailers covering fashion, gifts,
food, beauty, electronics and other sectors
http://www.camerontoll.co.uk/
Benefits
• Plenty of space for expansion and for providing large free car parks
• Rates and rents are lower than in the city centre (shops can be
bigger)
• Provides under-cover shopping (not restricted by weather and
shoppers, shop in the comfort of an air-conditioned complex)
• Large variety of shops
• Bright and modern with many different facilites, including a leisure
centre, cinema, creche and other attractions for children
• Near to suburban housing (provides a labour force)
• Near a number of motorway intersections (Gyle close to both M8
and M9) - great accessibility and access to large sphere of influence
• Old brownfield site (was a steelworks) with plenty of room for
expansion if required
Problems
• Traffic congestion in the vicinity of the new
developments
• Larger stores are often attracted away from
nearby town and city centres to these new centres
• More empty shops in town and city centres (often
attract vandalism)
• Fewer people visiting the city centres - resulting in
the creation of a 'dead heart', particularly in
smaller market towns and economic decline
• News clip
• http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/business21611772
• http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b01q
fjdn
• http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/business13977255
Activity
• Read the following article.
• Highlight key information about the
impact of out of town shopping.
• Consider how similar issues may impact
on Edinburgh.
Assess the Impact Of Out of Town Shopping Centre Retailing Areas on the Regions in Which They Occur.
Prior to 1980s, all shopping centres were located within city centres, such as the Arndale centre in Manchester. Out of
town shopping centres sprang up with the increase of the cars, in 1960 39.5% of UK households had no cars, but by the year
2000, this had drastically fallen to 27.4%. This and newly implemented transport link, such as rail, bus and tram opened up a
new world to consumers as they were more able to travel away from the CBD. For the first time, this allowed shopping
centres to spring up on the outskirts of cities. The Trafford Centre, built in 1998, is an example of an out of town shopping
centre. It is located in Trafford, Greater Manchester, and runs adjacent to the Bridgewater Canal. Merry Hill, built in the
1980s, is a further example, located in Brierley Hill, near Dudley in the West Midlands. But what are the effects of
developments such as these upon the areas in which they occur?
Traditionally, the shopping hierarchy was such that the CBD had the greatest sphere of influence and low order shops with
the smallest, but with the rise of out of town shopping centres, the CBD’s position has been encroached. The Trafford
Centre’s ideally located along the M60; it is easily accessible from junctions 9 or 10. There’s also bus links from Manchester
and Stockport town centres and plans are in place to extend the metro link in to the area. Out of town centres can be more
attractive to customer, given the prior mentioned lower traffic, often lesser parking charges and various other attractions
they offer, such as the Trafford centre’s laser quest, cinema, miniature gold, dodgems, bowling, Legoland and arcade. The
indoor nature of the shopping centres means that shoppers are also not subject to the weather, which would stem sales on
the high street. With access being this easy and attractions being this ripe, shoppers have changed their habits.
Nearby areas such as Manchester’s own CBD, Altrincham and Stockport have been impacted by these changes in shopping
habits. The shops of Altrincham’s high street are unable to draw their usual local consumer base, having served 212,000
residents and the local wealthy areas of Hale and Bowden. Shops are unable to compete with the free parking offered by
the Trafford centre, which has a much greater sphere of influence, where 95% of people come from a 50 mile radius. This
has caused many of the shops to close, having the positive feedback effect of causing other shops to lose business a window
shoppers’ decrease. This pattern is reflected across the country, 25% of town shops are now empty in the Midlands. The
Arndale centre, located in Manchester’s CBD also suffered, effects were worsened as it was being rebuilt after the 1996
Manchester Bombings and had to compete with the rapidly established Trafford centre Merry Hill also posed this plight to
neighbouring town centres. Dudley was the worst affected area as the development coincided with Dudley Council’s
implementation of parking charges and, similarly to Altrincham, it lost a large proportion of its customer base and shops had
to shut down.
Out of town developments can often spark off redevelopment competitions with town centres, with both fighting to receive
the greatest custom. Some may argue however, that the redevelopments already taking place thanks to the bombings in
Manchester allowed for modernisation, allowing the Arndale to continually compete with the Trafford Centre. In its
previous 1970’s state, it was unable to keep up with the modern, more sociable design of the centre.
This arguably lessened the impact, as during the development many concepts used by out of town shopping centres were implemented,
such as maximizing the natural light in a previously dark shopping centre in order to be able to compete. Solihull, one of the towns
affected by Merry Hill, was not so fortunate; it had to recover from a greater loss of sales. By the 1990s, the Solihull town centre
had become seemingly outdated. It was unable to compete with the transport links, the free parking, and the vast array of services
including a cinema and citizen’s advice bureau in Merry Hill. Solihull is an example of where some large chains even relocate to out of
town shopping centres. But in a positive twist to this negative impact, it spawned a massive redevelopment of the city centre, known as
“Touchwood”. Designed to complement the existing architecture, Touchwood was developed as a 60,000m2 shopping and entertainment
centre in the centre of the town. In combat against the likes of Merry Hill, it mirrored its attracting features, such as its strategic
location on the M42 and its masses of parking spaces. After increasing sales every year since opening, Merry Hill has had to
recompete, with plans for a 20 screen cinema, a bowling alley, comedy club, a casino and other leisure activities.
Out of town shopping centres often contribute to urban sprawl taking place on the urban-rural fringe. This has come to the objection
of many environmentalists, farmers and those who generally hold appreciation for country areas. Merry Hill was met with protests. It
was built on the former Merry Hill farm site, causing a loss of greenbelt land. Furthermore, the development took advantage of a
‘Government Enterprise Zone’, intended initially for the creation of industrial units. Furthermore, it attracted other developments;
the owners of Merry Hill even suggest it is creating a new town itself, with new houses appearing alongside. Additionally, since the
Touchwood development, the proposed response of Merry Hill, such as the 20 screen cinema, will further increase urban sprawl in the
area to the extent where the development is merging with the nearby town centre of Brierley. Trafford Centre, was built on a
brownfield site in Dumplington, and so did not meet this opposition. But there’s already evidence to suggest it is attracting further
nearby developments, such as the newly ‘Chill Factore’.
Increased road use is another one of the common complaints raised about out of town shopping centres, as the centres can attract so
many people in a single day (the Trafford Centre has 27 million visitors each year). The popularity of the Trafford Centre for
instance, means that there is often congestion on the M60’s Barton Bridge. Furthermore, centres are often built in rural areas, such
as Bluewater in Kent, often spark resentment from locals, those who often do not want change and farmers who fear damage from
visitors and resent their land being split by new roads to support the shopping centre.
Despite the seemingly prominent negative impacts of out of town shopping centres, it’s not to suggest that they are in no way
beneficial. They contribute greatly to the local employment opportunities; Merry Hill & the Trafford Centre produce opportunities
for chefs, store workers, cleaners and various other roles. The Trafford centre currently employs 7,000 people from a local
workforce. Furthermore, with the average spend being £100, and 27 million yearly visitors, there is much stimulation for the local
economy. Merry Hill similarly employs 2,700 locals and has 21 million visitors per year. The easy access of both sites and, in fact,, all
out of town shopping centre sites, means that customers don’t have to compete with CBD traffic, a positive impact of the
development as it allows for easy access for consumers and reduces city congestion for commuters.
Conclusively, out of town shopping developments bring wealth to an area and provide jobs. But similarly, they can take that from other
surrounding areas. But I feel it important to note that the negative impacts are generally on rival shopping areas and where areas are
willing to redevelop, such as the Touchwood centre, success can still be achieved despite their existence. Impacts are generally
positive for consumers, who get to walk around, out of the weather in an area that’s easier to access than the CBD, evidence shows
that 24% of the Trafford Centre visitors visit once a week and just under 40% visiting once or twice a month. To the greater public
though greater traffic congestion and damage to the countryside often takes place. You could even go so far as to say the greater
sphere of influence for out of town developments means transport generates more pollution, leaving a greater carbon footprint which
could potentially contribute to the greenhouse effect
Sphere of Influence
2013 Exam Question
• Suggest the impact that an out of town
shopping centre may have had on the
traditional CBD of Plymouth or any
other named city you have studied in a
developed country.
6
Lesson Review
• Name two out of town shopping centres
in Edinburgh.
• Describe two benefits of out of town
shopping centres.
• Describe two problems of out of town
shopping centres.
WE WILL
• Consider the characteristics of
residential areas.
Area of Low Cost Housing
• This zone contains mainly less
expensive, often older houses.
• Since it is closest to the industrial zone,
the houses would have been used to
house the workers of zone 2.
Area of Medium Cost Housing
• As some people became more affluent they
found that they could afford to move further
way from the centre into areas where the
problems of zone 3 (traffic
congestion/pollution) were reduced.
• Housing in this zone is of a better quality,
less densely built with a better layout of
streets, more garden areas, less traffic and
less pollution.
• This is clearly identifiable on OS. Maps
Area of High Cost Housing
• As more of the population could afford to move even
further away from the city centre and the cost of
travel reduced, a further zone of housing emerged.
• This area consists of low density, high cost housing
such as bungalows, detached and semi-detached
houses.
• These are most likely to be located on the periphery
of major settlements.
•
All of the zones grow outwards from the centre of
the city.
Case Study Poster
In pairs develop an Edinburgh case study
poster. You should include a variety of
materials – maps, pictures and written
information.
• Edinburgh – Site and Situation
• Edinburgh - CBD
• Edinburgh – Industrial/Inner city (Leith)
Activity
• Label urban models with description and
photographs
• Apply models to Glasgow/Edinburgh
WE WILL
• Understand what the function of a
settlement is.
• Give map evidence to suggest the likely
function of a settlement (e.g. industrial
town or holiday resort)
Function
• Although most settlements offer a variety of functions
depending on size, occasionally one function may tend to
dominate within particular settlements.
• This has led to descriptions of towns such as mining
towns, textile towns, ports, resorts, university towns,
cathedral towns, market towns and garrison towns.
• These are just a few examples of the many settlements
which have one dominant function.
• In addition to these there are other towns which are
classified as ‘dormitory’ settlements. These are located
on the outskirts of major towns and cities.
• The majority of people who reside in these settlements
do not work in the place where they live. They actually
commute on a daily basis to work elsewhere, usually in the
nearest town or city.
Types of Functions and
Functional Zones
• Residential
• Transport
• Industrial
• Medical
• Service
• Financial
• Administrative
• Public Services
• Educational
• Entertainment
• Religious
Edinburgh’s Function
• Commercial, legal and religious centre
• Capital city, centre of Government
• International /national banking, insurance & financial
centre
• Educational & cultural centre
• Commercial / retail centre
• International tourist & conference centre
• Industrial centre (although declining)
Activity
• Make a timeline of Edinburgh’s changing
function using page 332 of the Higher
textbook.
1585
Foundation of
Edinburgh
University
Map activity
• Using the York 2010 map identify
features to help describe the function
of York (you must use 6 figure grid
references)
Map Evidence
Tourist Centre
Tourist information centre, (599,521)(601,516) Bird
sanctuary (583543) railway museum (590520)
Castle(607514)
Service Centre
Industrial
Chy Works (605538)
Educational
University, (618504)
Religious
Church (601,518) (609,511)
Entertainment
Activity
• Stations activity – pupils move round
different tables with OS maps and key
information and have to complete table
on function of each town/city
WE WILL
• Consider traffic problems and the
measures taken to reduce such
problems.
What traffic problems might Edinburgh
face?
What could be done to reduce such
problems?
Ring road around
city centre.
Pedestrianised
areas in the
centre.
Use of
roundabouts to
improve flow.
Strategies to
tackle transport
problems
One way
systems.
Bus lanes/improved
public transport
Park and
ride
schemes.
Parking
restrictions
and fines.
Multi-storey car
parks.
Edinburgh City Bypass
A720 Edinburgh City Bypass Trunk
Road
Pedestrianised
areas in the
centre.
Bypass/Ring
road around city
centre.
Park and ride
schemes.
A720 road, 21 km A1 towards north-east England, the A702 towards north-west England, the M8 through the Central Belt
towards Glasgow, the A7 through south-east Scotland and north-west England as well as the A8 leading to the M9 for Stirling and
the Forth Road Bridge. The road is dual carriageway standard throughout
Hermiston Park and Ride
Ingliston Park and Ride
Free parking bus every 5 minutes to Edinburgh city centre at peak times. CCTV protected.
Parking
restrictions and
fines.
George Street in the ‘New Town’ permit parking. Edinburgh is spilt into two zones. The original zone around the city centre is
called the Centre Controlled Parking Zone (CPZ). Parking is allowed from 8.30 to 18.30, Mon to Sat. Tickets must be purchased.
Outside area is called Peripheral Parking Zone. Parking form 8.30 to 17.30, Mon to Sat. CPZ is used to reduce long term parking.
Can now pay for parking on the phone. In 2008 the collected £7 million in parking fines. Around £11 per head.
Multi-storey car
parks.
To the North East of Princes Street there is St James on Elder Street open 24 hours and has 254 spaces
St James on Leith Street open 24 hours and has 280 spaces
To the East of Princes Street there is Calton Street open Mon-Fri (7:30am to 7:30pm) and Sat (10pm to 5pm) and has 40 spaces
Waverly behind Waverly Station closes at midnight and has 350 spaces
Edinburgh St James Centre – Leith Walk £19 a day
Waverly Station (short stay) – Free
Waverly Station (long stay) - £18
Bus
lanes/improved
public transport
A8 – Glasgow road – Maybury to Princes Street, A900 – Leith walk – Leith to Princes Street, A702 – Lothian road – Leven Street
to Hayemarket, A70 – Slateford road – Inglis Green to Hayemarket, A71 – Calder road – City bypass to Ardmillan.
improved public
transport trams
One way
systems.
Exam Style Question
• “Traffic congestion is now a major
problem facing many cities in EMDCs”.
• Describe and explain schemes which
have been introduced to reduce
problems of traffic management in any
named city you have studied in an EMDC.
8
WE WILL
• Describe and contrast features of the
urban landscape of selected areas
(urban zones)
• Explain why the environments of
particular zones are so different
• Comment on the likely quality of the
environment
Activity
• Group activity – each group focus on a
land use zone in Glasgow or Edinburgh
and decide on method to share
information with rest of class
New Towns
• These are settlements which have been
planned and built since the late 1940s/1950s
and often have their own councils. By 1966, 5
new towns had been constructed in Scotland.
East Kilbride
Glenrothes
Cumbernauld
Livingston
Irvine.
East Kilbride
• With green belts restricting the building of new houses,
the only solution was to create new towns outside major
cities. As Glasgow was the biggest problem, the first new
town was planned at East Kilbride. Work was started in
1947 and the town grew rapidly. Houses were built with
attached Gardens and all the modern facilities lacking in
the slums. Blocks of flats were built beside open spaces.
• East Kilbride was designed with six neighbourhoods around
the city centre, each with its own shops, community
buildings and play areas. The town's main roads were built
as ring roads so that it would be safe for children to play
and walk to school. The town centre was built to house the
main shopping areas, cinemas, sports centres, pubs and
clubs.
http://rls.org.uk/database/record
Glenrothes
• The next new town project was at Glenrothes
in Fife, situated on the East Coast to relieve
housing problems in Edinburgh and Dundee.
The development of large coal mines after
the war were expected to provide employment
in the area but there were fewer jobs than
expected.
• Glenrothes had to develop new industries and
has become a centre for electronics
manufacturing, earning it the nickname
"Silicon Glen" after Silicon Valley in America.
Cumbernauld
• It was back to Glasgow for the next new
town, built at 15 miles to the North and East
of the city. Planners designed a town centre
to house all of Cumbernauld's shops and
amenities and then designed the town's
housing so that everyone would have easy
access to the centre. Walkways intended to
keep pedestrians away from traffic in the
town centre were designed. Cumbernauld has
very low figures for traffic accidents.
Livingston
• The next new town to be proposed was
Livingston, beside the M8 and the rail
link in the central corridor between
Edinburgh and Glasgow. The town was
situated next to the River Almond.
Proposals were put forward for the new
town by the Department of Health in
1961.
Irvine
• The last of the New Towns built in Scotland
was Irvine on the Ayrshire Coast. The new
town had to incorporate the old towns of
Irvine and Kilwinning. It was also the only new
town built on the coast and the Irvine
Development Corporation decided to put the
location to good use by building a Beach Park
on reclaimed industrial land at the sea front.
The park was opened by the Queen in 1979.
Town:
Location (near)
Population
When first built:
Now:
Why was the town
built?
Industries
Facilities
Transport Links
Problems
• http://www.bbc.co.uk/britainfromabove
/stories/buildingbritain/newtown.shtml
Activity
• In groups research one new town and
develop a case study information sheet
to make a class poster ‘New Towns’.
WE WILL
• Suggest the impact of new
developments in particular urban zones
• Describe the problems caused by new
developments
Activity
• Pupils to pick one recent development
and in groups write a short report on its
success.
New Developments
• Gap sites
• New housing developments
• Green Belt
• South west edge – waterfront
edinburgh
• http://www.edinburgharchitecture.co.uk
/soco_edinburgh.htm
• http://www.waterfront-ed.com/
Activity
• Pupils pick one city and make poster
presentation showing factors which
have affected growth.
Activity
• Cooperative learning activity – pass a
question each group writes question and
marking scheme then passes on to next
group who can add information or
corrections.
Map Work
WE WILL
• Identify the different land-use zones
from the CBD to the suburbs, using map
evidence to justify your decisions and
describe the site of the particular
urban zones
• Account for the location of the zones
within the town
Identifying Site Factors – OS
maps
• Contour lines (or lack of them) will indicate the
flatness or steepness of the land. Nearness to a
water source such as a river or a stream can clearly
be seen.
• The accessibility of the original site will also be fairly
evident from the number of roads in the area.
• If the site is on the meander of a river, this may
have offered protection from potential attack.
Similarly, fortifications on high land will indicate thee
past influence of defence as an important factor.
• Mines or quarries (sometimes currently disused) will
indicate the past or current presence of raw
materials.
Edinburgh’s CBD
Several
Tourist
attractions
Grid iron
street pattern
Lack of
open space
Bus
station
Main
Railway
station
Tourist
info.
Many
churches
Oldest part
of city
Activity
• Using an OS map locate the main
features of the CBD (with grid ref) and
explain why these features indicate it is
the CBD.
The Industrial Zone
• Normally the sites of industrial areas have certain
common features such as flat land and accessibility
in terms of roads, rivers, canals and possibly
motorways. The older industrial areas are normally
located close to the CBD.
• This zone should contain a range of manufacturing
industries including, for example, textiles,
engineering and food-processing.
• This zone will contain large blocks of buildings,
often with the name ‘works’ beside them.
• These may also be found along the side of
roads and railway lines with several of the
largest industries having small railway tracks
leading to from the main line into the works.
• If there is a river, there will be various
industrial units along the banks, including
warehouses, docks, perhaps shipbuilding, oil
refineries and power stations.
• Various industrial areas may be found in a
variety of locations throughout the
settlement.
• Newer industrial areas may be seen either on the outskirts – in the
area known as the ‘rural-urban fringe’ – in industrial estates or
nearer the city centre in redeveloped sites in former older
industries.
• Land values are lower in these areas, although the sites must be
located near major route networks (motorways) for access for raw
materials and finished products.
• Industries will be modern and contained in newer buildings with
wider streets, perhaps lined with trees.
• The buildings in areas of new industry will be made up of smaller
units than the large factories in the older zone.
• Instead of textile factories, engineering works or iron and steel
works typical of the older zone, new industries will be based on
perhaps electronics, small-scale manufacturing such as clothes
making, window manufacturers and stationery supplies.
2010
• Study OS Map Extract number 1788/105: York
(separate item), and Map Q4.
• (a) What map evidence suggests that the Central
Business District of York lies within Area A?
6
Answer
• Densely packed, irregular street pattern.
• Transport centres eg bus station and railway
station.
• Bridging points across River Ouse.
• Historical buildings eg The Minster, Castle.
• Important buildings eg information centre,
churches and Town Hall.
• Evidence of inner ring road.
• Route convergence.
2010
• (b) For either Area B or Area C, explain
the advantages of its location and
environment for its residents.
6
Answer
Area B (suburban housing area –
Rawcliffe).
Area C (commuter village –
Copmanthorpe).
• Access to A19 for commuting
to CBD.
• Near park and ride for
commuting, and National cycle
route.
• Modern design of cul-de-sacs
and crescents for privacy and
preventing through traffic,
and roundabouts at access
points.
• Services including a church for
local use.
• Near industrial estate
GR593553 for employment.
• Tourist facility to east ie
Nature Reserve, and caravan
site.
• Attractive environment ie
small lake, on edge of town
near farmland.
• 6km from centre of York for
shopping, work and
entertainment.
• Nearby sliproad onto A64, ideal
for commuters.
• Small, quiet village with a few
services eg post office, public
house, church.
• Leisure facility to north ie golf
course.
• Environmentally attractive with
Ebor Way going through the
village and Askham Bogs Nature
Reserve to the north.
• Surrounded on three sides by
farmland.
2010
• (c) Using map evidence, explain why the
southward expansion of York into Area
D may create land use conflicts.
7
Answer
• National walking and cycle trail.
• New shopping centre − expansion may be restricted.
• Leisure facilities eg racecourse, golf course.
• Various farms eg White House farm.
• A64 bypass.
• Accommodation including Manor Hotel, caravan and
camping site GR600476.
2007
• Describe the urban
environment of Area A
and explain its
location.
4 (8 by new marking)
(b) For either Area B or
Area C, explain the
advantages of the
residential environment.
3 (6 by new marking)
ANSWER a
Area A
• Grid iron street pattern.
• Transport centres eg bus station, railway station.
• Bridging point.
• Important buildings eg cathedral, museum, churches,
information centres.
• Congested urban landscape with many small streets and
higher buildings.
• Explanations may refer to accessible location, crossing
point on river and early ecclesiastical function.
• Accept defensive function if linked to The Commandery
• Assess out of 8 marks with up to 6 for description.
ANSWER b
Area B (suburban housing
area)
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Access to motorway/A class roads
for commuting eg M5 and A4538.
Well designed road system with
roundabouts for free flow and culde-sacs for safety and privacy.
Pleasant environment with woodland
and open spaces.
Services available including churches
and nearby schools.
Leisure facilities including a golf
course.
Less densely populated compared to
centre.
Probably detached or semi-detached
housing.
Area C (Callow End)
•
•
•
•
•
•
Quiet commuter village.
5 kilometres from CBD.
Village services including post
office, pub, 2 churches.
Surrounded by countryside
including farmland and orchards.
B4424 goes through village and
connects with A449 into
Worcester.
Probably a variety of old and
new rural housing.
2006 b
Meadowhall shopping centre (GR 3990, 3991) is one of the largest
regional indoor shopping centres in the UK.
With aid of map evidence, describe and explain the advantages of
its location.
4 (8 by current marking
ANSWER:

out of town location means rates and rents are lower, allowing for a larger floor
area and cheaper prices etc

large, flat level site easier to build on and suitable for large, modern retail
outlets as well as leaving space for future expansion – also space for car parking

highly accessible – next to and visible from M1 motorway intersection – for easy
delivery of goods and for access for shoppers

at the junction of several rail lines (railway station at 390912 – also adjacent bus
station) which allows easy access from Sheffield conurbation and other urban
centres in South Yorkshire – huge potential market
2006 c
• Suggest the impact which Meadowhall
Shopping Centre may have had on the
traditional Central Business District of
Sheffield
3 (6 by current marking
Urban Tournament
Urban Tournament
• Your groups (each of 4) will compete in
the urban tournament.
• Give each person in your team a number
1-4
• All number ones gather at same table,
number two…
• At the new table each member will be
given a number 1 - 4
• Each member will be asked a question in
turn. For every correct answer you win a
point for your ‘home’ team
1 – read the question
2 – answer
3 – helper
4 – recorder
1 – Recorder
2 – read the question
3 – answer
4 - helper
1 – Helper
2 – Recorder
3 – Read the question
4 - Answer
1 – answer
2 – helper
3 – recorder
4 – read the question
Return score cards
• When the each person at the table have
tried to answer 5 questions cut persons
score card and give it to them to take
back to their ‘home’ team.
Team Scores
• Now you are back with your home team
record each members total mark on the
Record sheet and total your groups
mark.
Which team had the highest score?
Graffiti Boards
• Cooperative learning activity – graffiti
boards for key section in topic
Site and Situation
CBD
Inner City
Suburbs
Traffic
Retail
New Towns
Bus lanes - A900 – Leith walk – Leith
to Princes Street
Park and Ride - Hermiston Park and
Ride
Parking permits/restrictions - George
Street in the ‘New Town’ permit
parking
Edinburgh St James Centre – Leith
Walk £19 a day
Edinburgh bypass – A720
Function
Timed Questions
• For a named city which you have studied in
the Developed World, explain the ways in
which its site and situation contributed to
its growth.
6
• Describe and explain the main urban
landscape characteristics of the inner
city.
6
•
•
•
Study Reference diagram A – Land Use Changes in a City.
‘Land use changes greatly as you move from the city centre outwards to
the edge of the city.’
Describe and analyse the diagram below. Does the evidence support
this statement?
Land Use Changes in a City
City Centre
Roads and Streets
Offices
Shops
Transport
Manufacturing
Residential
Other
2 ½ km from City
Centre
Edge of City
•
Examples of at least two land uses must be described and explained
for full marks. Eg transport facilities account for about 14% of the land
use in the CBD, but only around 5% in the other two zones – 2 marks
•
A general statement, eg much greater in CBD than other zones – 1 mark
•
Explanations of this should receive 1 mark for simple statement, eg
because routes meet there, to 2 marks for fuller explanations, eg all
the main roads and railway lines converge on the CBD and large bus and
railway stations are found in the city centre.
•
Residential land use, shops and offices lend themselves to a similar
method of description and explanations.
•
Assess out of 8 if no reference to figures from diagram
• Transition zone, first developed in the 19th century
• mixture of old and newer buildings (recent regeneration
to encourage more people to live there)
• high density of tenement or terraced housing
• high-rise flats
• derelict land and waste around
• redevelopment occurring
• new houses of mixed type
• lack of greenery and open space
• environmental improvements exist in some areas

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