Anglo-Saxons: 449-1066

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Anglo-Saxons: 449-1066
History
• Roman
occupation: 55B.C
to A.D 409.
• Came with Julius
Caesar-stayed
400 years.
• Created a
government
• Built defensive walls
• Built roads.
• When they left they
took their
governmentEngland open to
invasion
Anglo-Saxon invasion
• Angles and Saxon
(Germany/Dutch)
took over-imposed
language and
warrior culture.
• Brought loyalty to
communities
• Saw religion as grim
• Storytellers (scopes)
important
• Scopes told the
history through
songs
• Divided into clans
until King Alfred
the Great of
Wessex in the
ninteth century.
Spread of Christianity
• Christianity
introduces to
Britain during
Roman
occupation
• 5th century
became dominate
religion
• By 7th century
Paganism
almost extinct
William the Conqueror
• Crossed English
Channel in 1066
• Defeated AngloSaxon armies
(Battle of Hastings)
• Ended Anglo-Saxon
culture in England.
The British Legacy
• British gradually create
political system of (by
the people for the
people)
• US would not be what
it is today without
British Common law,
government and
language.
• Great Britain
invaded/settled many
times
• Each invader formed
formed what Britain is
today
The Spirit of the Celts
• Celts-tall blonde warrior
, Brythons,Britons.
• Britian came from the
words Brythons,and
Britons.
• Animism-Latin word for
spirit.
• Priests (druids) acted as
intermediates for Gods
an people.
• Britons have long hair,
shaved bodies, and dye
their bodies for a more
terrifying appearance in
battle.
The Celtic Heroes/Heroines
 Sir Thomas Malory
gathered legends
together and made the
Le Morte d’Arthur-which
was about a king who
became the embodiment
if British Values
 Celtic legends are full of
strong women such as
Queen Maeve of
Connacht
 Celtic tales let magic and
imagination rule
Anglo-Saxon’s Sweep Ashore
• The attack came forth the north
during the cluration of the 5th
century
• The invaders consisted of Angles
and Saxons tribe members
• They settled the greater part of
Britain and from there took the
name of Engla Land.
• The celts were newcomers to
England but it wasn’t easy for
them, so they moved to wales.
A light from Ireland
• In 432 the whole Celtic
Ireland was converted to
Christianity by a
Romanized Britain named
Patrick
• 432 to 750 Ireland
experienced a Golden Age
• Irish monks founded
monasteries that became
sanctuaries of learning for
refugee scholars from
Europe and England
Anglo-Saxon Life
• 1939 in Suffolk, England
an enormous ship grave
was discovered.
• Which represents the
burial of a Great King or
noble warrior.
• Reminded them of King
Beowulfs grave.
The Romans
• Caesar invades Britain
in 55 B.C.
• Conquers Celts
• Provided a military for
Anglo-Saxons
• Built roads (still used
today) and defensive
wall (73 miles long)
• Christianity becomes
unifying force
• Celts religion to vanish
• Romans evacuated from
Britain in A.D. 409
• Left everything behind
but a central
government


Fame and success
was gained from
loyalty to the leader
Beowulf gained his
respect by
defeating the
monster who tried
to kill King
Hrothgar
Social Influences
• Based on warfare
• Women Rights after
Norman Conquest in
1066
• Morgengifu (morning
gift) of money and land
• Women had personal
control over gift
• Women abbesses
controlled large doublehouses
• Hild most famous
abbesses
Anglo-Saxon Religion
• Each god had a purpose
• Were more concerned with
ethics than with mysticism.
• Warrior gods/like
mythology
• From Germany
• Earthy virtues of bravery,
loyalty, generosity, and
friendship.
The Bards
• Cummunal Hallprovided shelter for
Scopes to tell stories.
• Scopes-was also called
Bards or story tellers.
• Sang of Gods and
heroes.
Hope in Immortal Verse

Anglo – Saxton lit.
contains work in
same elegiac,(
mournful, strain)

For non-Christian A-S
only fame and
commemoration in
poetry provide
defense against death
The Christian Monasteries
• Monasteries served as
center of learning
• Preserved literature
such as Beowulf
• Monks assigned to
monastery copied
manuscripts by hand
• Scriptoriums writing
room) had makeshift
walls.
The rise of the English Language
• Latin was only
language in England till
King Alfred
• Alfred instituted Anglo
– Saxon chronicle,
covered earliest days
until 1154
Fast Facts
• King Alfred of Wessex unite Anglo-Saxons in
England, late ninth century
• Scopes (poets) old stories in early British
culture
• Christian monks copy ancient manuscripts
Major Works-Beowulf
– archetype-good
vs. evil
– Main character’s:
Beowulf-Hero
– Next
Click on the title to play the trailer.
from Beowulf
Characteristics of an Epic
An epic, a long narrative poem that traces the adventures of a
great hero, has the power to transport you to another time and
place.
Beowulf takes you to the
Anglo-Saxon period and
the land of the Danes and
the Geats, where a
mighty warrior battles
fantastic monsters.
Characteristics of an Epic
As you read the poem, note some of the following characteristics
of epic poetry:
• The hero is a legendary figure
who performs deeds requiring
incredible courage and strength.
• The hero embodies character
traits that reflect lofty ideals.
Characteristics of an Epic
• The poet uses formal diction and
a serious tone.
• The poem reflect timeless
values and universal themes.
Friendship
Good vs. Evil
Reading Old English Poetry
Old English poetry is marked by
a strong rhythm that is easy to
chant or sing.
Here are some of the techniques
used in an Old English poem:
• alliteration, or the repetition of
consonant sounds at the beginning
of words, which helps unify the lines
So mankind’s enemy continued his crimes
Reading Old English Poetry
• caesura, or a pause dividing each line,
with each part having two accented
syllables to help maintain the rhythm of
the lines
˘ ΄ ˘ ˘ ΄ ˘
΄˘ ΄ ˘
He took what he wanted, // all the treasures
Reading Old English Poetry
• kenning, a metaphorical compound
word or phrase substituted for a noun
or name, which enhances meaning—
for example, “mankind’s enemy” used
in place of “Grendel”
As you read Beowulf, note examples of
these techniques and consider their effect
on rhythm and meaning in the poem.
affliction
gorge
The vocabulary words in the box on the right help
convey the monstrous forces Beowulf faces in the
epic. Choose a word from the list that has the same
definition as each numbered item.
infamous
lair
livid
loathsome
1. claw
[talon]
purge
talon
2. burden
[affliction]
3. notorious
[infamous]
4. cram
[gorge]
affliction n. a force that oppresses or causes suffering
gorge v. to stuff with food; glut
infamous adj. having a very bad reputation
lair n. the den or resting place of a wild animal
livid adj. discolored from being bruised
loathsome adj. disgusting
purge v. to cleanse or rid of something undesirable
talon n. a claw

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