Role of NGOs in Rural Development

Report
Role of Civil Society / NGOs+
in Rural Development
87th Foundation Course for Central Civil
Services, IES, ISS, and IFS Officer Trainees
Dr. MCR HRD Institute of AP
2nd November 2012
Dr. N. Sai Bhaskar Reddy,
CEO, GEO http://e-geo.org
Civil Society
"the arena, outside of the
family, the state, and the
market where people
associate to advance
common interests."
SPIRIT – KNOW - ACT
SPIRIT
ACT
KNOW
GOVERNMENT / PUBLIC
CONTRACTORS / PRIVATE
CSOs
In the History
During the second half of the 19th century,
nationalist consciousness spread across
India and self-help emerged as the
primary focus of sociopolitical
movements.
Numerous organizations were established
during this period, including the
 Friend-in-Need Society (1858),
Prathana Samaj (1864),
 Satya Shodhan Samaj (1873),
 Arya Samaj (1875),
 the National Council for Women in
India (1875), and
 the Indian National Conference
(1887).
Types of Organisations
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Registered charities,
development nongovernmental
organizations,
community groups,
women's organizations,
faith-based, religious
and spiritual
organizations,
professional
associations,






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trade unions,
self-help groups,
social movements,
business associations,
Coalitions advocacy
groups.
Indigenous people’s
organizations,
Academeic
Defining Non-Governmental Organisations
One survey found 48 different terms and acronyms. Here is a
sample:
BINGOs
BONGOs
CBOs
CSOs
Big International NGOs
Business Organized NGOs
Community Based Organizations
Civil Society Organizations
ENGOs
GONGOs
IPOs
GROs
GSCOs
NPOs
VOs
Environmental NGOs
Government Organized NGOs
Indigenous Peoples Organizations
Grassroots Organizations
Global Social Change Organizations
Nonprofit Organizations
Voluntary Organizations
In short, there is no agreed terminology
for describing the NGO sector.
NGOs are not:
Part of government,
Organized primarily
for private profit.
NGOs
By definition, it is an organization that is not
directly related to government. The World
Health Organization first made the term
NGO popular back in 1945.
There are more than 50,000
international INGO’s.
In the United States there are over 2
million NGO’s
1-2 million in India. There is a marked
increase in the numbers of NGO
organizations worldwide.
NGOs / Voluntary Service
Though the term NGO became popular in
India only in the 1980s, the voluntary
sector has an older tradition.
Since independence from the British in 1947,
the voluntary sector had a lot of respect in
the minds of people - first, because the
father of the nation Mahatma Gandhi was
an active participant; and second because
India has always had the tradition of
honouring those who have made some
sacrifice to help others.
Voluntary Organizations - Gandhiji
In independent India, the initial role played
by the voluntary organizations started by
Gandhi and his disciples was to fill in the
gaps left by the government in the
development process. The volunteers
organized handloom weavers in
villages to form cooperatives through
which they could market their products
directly in the cities, and thus get a better
price.
Traditional
Traditional development NGOs, who went
into a village or a group of villages and ran
literacy programmes, crËches for children
and clinics, encouraged farmers to
experiment with new crops and
livestock breeds that would bring more
money, helped the weavers and other
village artisans market their products and
so on
Research / Advocacy / Legal
The second group of NGOs were those
who researched a particular subject in
depth, and then lobbied with the
government or with industry or
petitioned the courts for improvements
in the lives of the citizens, as far as that
particular subject was concerned.
Eg: CSE
Activists
In the third group were those
volunteers who saw themselves
more as activists than other NGOs
did. They petitioned the bureaucrats,
they alerted the media whenever
they found something wrong and so
on. Eg: NBA
NGOs, civil society, or major groups?
“Major Groups” is a
term that was
introduced in Agenda
21, agreed by
governments at the
Rio Earth Summit.
It describes nine
sectors of society
identified as having a
significant role in
sustainable
development:
◦ women
◦ children and youth
◦ indigenous people
◦ NGOs
◦ Local authorities
◦ Workers and trade
unions
◦ business and industry
◦ the scientific and
technical community
◦ farmers
Stakeholders: Yet another term!
Stakeholders:
Those who have an interest in a
particular decision, either as
individuals or representatives of a
group. This includes people who
influence a decision, or can
influence it, as well as those
affected by it.
Advantages of NGOs
Less pressure from change in politics
 Small scale projects

◦ More community involvement
◦ Can be individually tailored to meet specific
community needs
◦ Higher “success” rate
◦ Less bureaucratic

A more “human” face
Disadvantages of NGOs
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Constant funding difficulties
Possible lack of legitimacy
Difficult to regulate
◦ Can lack transparency and accountability

Can be ineffective due to lack of
coordination
Development Organization
Inter-relationship
Specific
Project /
Issue
NGOs in Intergovernmental Processes
4 important functions:
 Setting agendas
 Negotiating outcomes
 Conferring legitimacy
 Implementing solutions
NGOs in India
The PRIA survey reveals that
26.5% of NGOs are engaged in religious
activities
21.3% work in the area of community
and/or social service.
About one in five NGOs works in
education
7.9% are active in the fields of sports and
culture.
6.6% work in the health sector.
NGOs are also the source and centre of
social justice to the marginalised
members of society in developing
countries or failed states.
@ CSE
With the retreat of the state and the
growing power of
corporations, NGOs are shifting their
attention away from governments and
towards big business…
@ CSE
Role of NGOs in UN

CBD Alliance, MOP6 / COP11, CBD 2012
◦ Setting agendas
◦ Negotiating outcomes (by proposing
alternative language and solutions)
◦ Conferring legitimacy
◦ Implementing solutions
◦ Sometimes, a choice has to be made about
working ‘inside’ or ‘outside’ official processes.
Both have pro’s and con’s, and the decision
needs to be taken carefully.
“Look to the Future. Accept the Challenges.
Society fails if the citizen is not engaged.
“Setting an agenda for change is not a
burden. It’s a responsibility. And an opportunity to
change for good”
Ref: http://www..............

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