Becca Shonsey DPT 774 Put yourself in his shoes Imagine feeling weak Imagine being told nothing is wrong Imagine a month goes by and you start to get leg numbness 1 week passes and you can’t walk Each step of the way something changes PURPOSE Our prime purpose in this life is to help others. And if you can't help them, at least don't hurt them. ~Dalai Lama Help you help your patient with a spinal compression and lymphoma in acute care Objectives The student will be able to identify the signs and symptoms of spinal tumor compression The student will be able to differentiate between spinal tumor signs and lymphoma signs The student will be able to develop a treatment plan for a patient with cancer in an acute care setting The student will be able to determine the prognosis of a patient with both a spinal tumor and lymphoma Patient History 42 year old white male Homeless 12 pack of beer each week 25 packs of cigarettes a year Mid thoracic and abdominal pain, decreased renal function (April) CT on chest, abdomen and pelvis (April)no significant findings Pt reports: 1 week ago LE numbness, 48 hours ago LE weakness Examination PIP: Progressive weakness and inability to walk HR: 82 Oxygen Saturation: 94% BP: 140/77 Negative: hypotension, fever, chills, sweat, weight loss, nausea, vomiting, headache, facial paresis, spinal tenderness with palpation Examination Positive: Renal function decrease Numbness below nipples to saddle Reflexes 3+ UE strength 5/5 LE Strength : ○ Bilateral hip flexion 2/5 ○ Bilateral knee extension 3/5 ○ R dorsiflexion and plantarflexion 2/5 ○ L dorsiflexion and plantarflexion 4/5 Knowing spinal compression 15% of all CNS tumors are primary spinal tumors3 Spinal cord tumors Primary are rare? Compress the cord and surrounding nerves Sx: pain or numbness in back, arms or legsX Decreased ms strengthX Loss of bowel or bladder control (sometimes)X Physiotherapy Functional Mobile Profile (PFMP): 26/63 The intra-rater reliability ICC=.99 and inter-rater reliability ICC= .97 in acute care setting1 Quick and easy to perform Has been used on patients following surgery of the spine2 Higher score means higher function/ independence Evaluation Weakness, numbness, renal decrease = possible spinal tumor Decreased independence with bed mobility, sit to stand and walking according to PFMP Further examination: MRI thoracic and lumbar ○ Mid thoracic dorsal and right lateral mass ○ At T7 Treatments Medically: Immediate surgery performed followed by radiation ○ Review of patients with spinal cord compression. 46% after surgery were able to walk and 49% after radiation4 Treatments Physical Therapy (Day 2) Increase mobility ○ At an oncology unit the policy was changed to have PTs see pts within the 1st 48 hours. Pts were getting up sooner and ambulating. The results were a 14% decrease in patient length of stay within 1 year5 Increase ambulation ○ Increase strength ○ Gait training Case series of 79 patients with spinal cord compression treated by radiation with 9 receiving an operation. Median age of 60 years. The collaborative team determined that walking was the most important factor. 90% of patients who walked before radiation walked after radiation6 Changes Day 4: medication decreased and patient has increased R LE numbness, patient returned to max A for all activities, another MRI Day 5: Oncology reports no MRI changes Day 6: PET/CT = lymphoma axillary, groin and behind the heart Refused PT Lymphoma7 56,000 people in the US each year Signs and symptoms Painless/swollen lymph nodes Unexplained weight loss Fever Night sweats Chest pain Weakness and FatigueX Abdominal or back painX Re-examination and evaluation Pt feels pins and needles Decreased proprioception/ foot slap Min A with most ADLs and mobility (PFMP 46/63) Strength L Hip flexion and knee extension 3/5 L dorsiflexion and plantaflexion 3+/5 R Hip flexion and knee extension 3-/5 R dorsiflexion and plantarflexion 3/5 Possible discharge New treatment (Day 7-9) Gait training/ walking A systematic review of cancer patients reported that studies have found a decrease in symptoms and increase in function with patients participating in a walking program8 Wheelchair training A retrospective cohort study looking at 83 patients post spinal surgery. Therapy included respiratory exercises, bed mobility, sit to stand, walking in the room and hall, stairs and wheelchair ambulation. Those patients in their 40s and had operations at one level had the most significant increase in PFMP scores (P<0.05) with wheelchair locomotion, bed mobility and walking2 Day 10: Discharge to transitional care unit and then to Washington with father to begin chemotherapy PFMP 52/63 Prognosis Poor In a case series all three patients had spinal tumors removed surgically followed by radiation. A 61 year old died after 6 months, a 23 year old after 1 year and a 51 year old after 11 months9 A retrospective cohort study reported on 60 patients whose mean survival was 3-4 months10 Drinker, smoker, lymphoma, uninsured Summary Important to recognize signs of spinal tumor compression and cancer In acute care focus on patient function More research needs to be done on the best treatment in acute care In the future a quality of life outcome measure may be useful Your understanding Your patient with back pain comes in and reports progressive weakness in their UE, having difficulty urinating, and having numbness Refer them to get tested (MRI, PET, CT) A patient is in the hospital with cancer and is going through radiation. Do you walk them or let them rest in bed all day? Walk them while monitoring symptoms References 1. Brosseau L, Laferriere L, Couroux N, Marion M, Theriault J. Intra- and inter-rater reliability and facorial validity studies of the physiotherapy functional mobility profile (PFMP) in acute care patients. Physiotherapy Theory and Practice. 1998;15:147-154. 2. Yildirim Y, Kara B, Arda M. Evaluation of patients with spinal operation according to functional mobility. Neuro Rehabil. 2009;24: 341-347. 3. Class notes and expert opinions of Julia Osbourne, PT, CLT-LANA. 4. Prasad D, Schiff D. Malignant spinal-cord compression. Lancet Oncol. 2005;6:15-24. 5. Crannell C, Stone E. Bedside physical therapy project to prevent deconditioning in hospitalized patients with cancer. Oncol Nurs Forum. 2008;35(3):343-345. 6. Kovner F, et al. Radiation therapy of metastatic spinal compression: Multidisciplinary team diagnosis and treatment. J Neuro Oncol. 1999; 42:85-92. 7. Non-Hodgkins Lymphomas Page. Available at: http://www.medicinenet.com/non-hodgkins_lymphomas/page3.htm. Accessed July 3, 2010. 8. Visovsky C. Exercise and cancer recovery. J Issues in Nursing. 2005;10(2):1-8. 9. Arnold P. Floyd H, Anderson K, Newell K. Surgical management of carcinoid tumors metastatic to the spine: resort of three cases. Clin Nuerol Neurosurg. 2010;112:443-445. 10. Guo Y, Young B, Palmer J, Mun Y, Bruera E. Prognostic factors for survival in metastatic spinal cord compression: a retrospective study in a rehabilitation setting. Am J Phys Med Rehabil. 2003;82:665-668. QUESTIONS ??????????????