The Sagittal Plane and Body Directions (cont`d)

Report
Medical Language
Second Edition
CHAPTER
2
The Body in Health and
Disease
Medical Language, Second Edition
Susan Turley
Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc.
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Learning Objectives
1. Describe approaches used to organize
information about the human body.
2. Identify body directions, body cavities,
body systems, and medical specialties.
3. Describe various categories of diseases.
4. Describe techniques used to perform a
physical examination.
Medical Language, Second Edition
Susan Turley
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Learning Objectives
5. Describe categories of healthcare
professionals and settings in which
health care is provided.
6. Give the medical meaning of word parts
related to the body, health, and disease.
7. Build medical words about the body,
health, and disease from word parts and
divide and define words.
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Susan Turley
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Learning Objectives
8. Spell and pronounce medical words
about the body, health, and disease.
9. Dive deeper into the body, health, and
disease by reviewing the activities at the
end of this chapter and online at Medical
Terminology Interactive.
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Multimedia Directory
Slide 21
Slide 50
Slide 57
Slide 72
Slide 90
Slide 92
Slide 93
Slide 94
Slide 95
Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Video
Introduction to Body Systems Animation
Hand Hygiene and Gloving Video
Physical Examination Video
Health Information Management Video 1
Health Information Management Video 2
Health Information Management Video 3
Health Information Management Video 4
Health Information Management Video 5
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The Body in Health
• Seven different approaches for studying
the body:
– Body planes and body directions approach
– Body cavities approach
– Quadrants and regions approach
– Anatomy and physiology approach
– Microscopic-to-macroscopic approach
– Body systems approach
– Medical specialties approach
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Figure 2-1 Human body in anatomical position
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Body Planes and Body Directions
Approach
• When the human body is in anatomical
position, it can be studied by dividing it
with planes.
• A plane is an imaginary flat surface, like a
plate of glass.
• Three body planes: coronal plane, sagittal
plane, and transverse plane.
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Figure 2-3 Coronal and sagittal sutures of the cranium
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Coronal plane
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Sagittal plane
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Transverse plane
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Body Planes and Body Directions
Approach (cont’d)
• These body planes divide the body into
front and back, right and left, and top and
bottom sections.
• Body directions represent movement away
from or toward those planes.
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The Coronal Plane and Body
Directions
• The coronal plane (or frontal plane) is a
vertical plane that divides the body into
front and back sections.
• The coronal plane is named for the
coronal suture in the cranium.
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The Coronal Plane and Body
Directions (cont’d)
• The front of the
body is the
anterior or
ventral section.
• The back of the
body is the
posterior or
dorsal section.
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Figure 2-5 Posteroanterior direction
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The Coronal Plane and Body
Directions (cont’d)
• Lying with the anterior section of the body
down is being in the prone position.
• Lying with the posterior section of the body
down is being in the dorsal or supine
position.
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The Sagittal Plane and Body
Directions
• A vertical plane that divides the body into
right and left sections.
• Named for the sagittal suture in the
cranium.
• If this plane divides the body at the midline
into equal right and left sections, then it is
a midsagittal plane.
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The Sagittal Plane and Body
Directions (cont'd)
• If this plane divides the body anywhere to
the left or right of the midline, it is a
parasagittal plane.
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The Sagittal Plane and Body
Directions (cont’d)
• Moving from the side of the body toward
the midline is moving in a medial direction,
or medially.
• Moving from the midline toward the side of
the body is moving in a lateral direction, or
laterally.
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Figure 2-6 Sagittal plane
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Figure 2-7 Midsagittal view of the head on an MRI scan
(DR Unique/Custom Medical Stock Photo, Inc.)
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MRI Video
Click on the screenshot to view a video on the topic of MRI.
There may be a brief delay before the video starts playing.
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Figure 2-8 Medial and lateral are directional opposites
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The Transverse Plane and Body
Directions
• Horizontal plane that divides the body into
top and bottom sections.
• The upper half of the body is the superior
section, and the lower half is the inferior
section.
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Figure 2-9 Transverse plane
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The Transverse Plane and Body
Directions (cont’d)
• Moving toward the head is moving in a
superior direction, or superiorly.
– This is also the cephalad direction.
• Moving toward the tailbone is moving in an
inferior direction, or inferiorly.
– This is also the caudad direction.
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Other Body Directions and
Positions
• Moving from the body toward the end of a
limb (arm or leg) is moving in a distal
direction, or distally.
• Moving from the end of a limb toward
where it is attached to the body is moving
in a proximal direction, or proximally.
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Figure 2-10 Superior and inferior parts
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Figure 2-11 Cephalad and caudad directions
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Figure 2-12 Distal and proximal directions
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Other Body Directions and
Positions (cont’d)
• Structures on the surface of the body are
superficial or external structures.
• Structures below the surface and inside
the body are deep or internal structures.
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Figure 2-13 External and internal positions
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Body Cavities Approach
• The human body can be studied according
to its body cavities and their internal
organs.
• A cavity is a hollow space that is
surrounded by bones or muscles.
• The cranial cavity lies within and is
protected by the cranium.
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Body Cavities Approach (cont’d)
• The spinal cavity or spinal canal is a
continuation of the cranial cavity as it
travels down the midline of the back.
• The spinal cavity lies within and is
protected by the bones (vertebrae) of the
spinal column.
• The spinal cavity contains the spinal cord,
the spinal nerves, and spinal fluid.
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Body Cavities Approach (cont’d)
• The thoracic cavity lies within the chest
and is protected by the breastbone
(sternum) anteriorly, the ribs laterally, and
the spinal column posteriorly.
• The inferior border of the thoracic cavity is
the large, muscular diaphragm that
functions during respiration.
• The thoracic cavity contains the lungs.
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Body Cavities Approach (cont’d)
• The abdominal cavity lies within the
abdomen and is protected by the bones of
the spinal column posteriorly.
• The pelvic cavity is a continuation of the
abdominal cavity and lies within and is
protected by the pelvic bones anteriorly
and laterally.
• These two cavities are often referred to as
the abdominopelvic cavity.
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Figure 2-14 Body cavities
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Quadrants and Regions
Approach
• The human body can be studied according
to its quadrants and regions.
• The anterior surface of the abdominopelvic
area can be divided into four quadrants or
nine regions.
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Quadrants and Regions
Approach (cont’d)
• The four quadrants include:
– Right upper quadrant (RUQ).
– Left upper quadrant (LUQ).
– Left lower quadrant (LLQ).
– Right lower quadrant (RLQ).
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Figure 2-15 Quadrants of the abdominopelvic area
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Quadrants and Regions
Approach (cont’d)
• The nine regions include the:
–
–
–
–
–
–
Right and left hypochondriac regions.
Epigastric region.
Right and left lumbar regions.
Umbilical region.
Right and left inguinal or iliac regions.
Hypogastric region.
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Figure 2-16 Regions of the abdominopelvic area
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Anatomy and Physiology
Approach
• Anatomy is the study of the structures of
the human body.
• Physiology is the study of the function of
those structures.
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Microscopic-to-Macroscopic
Approach
• Most cells and cellular structures are
microscopic in size and can be seen only
through a microscope.
• Some cells, such as a female ovum, are
large enough to be seen with the naked
eye.
• Cells combine to form tissues, and tissues
combine to form organs.
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Figure 2-17 Using a microscope to study the human body
(microscope: Custom Medical Stock Photo, Inc.; heart muscle: Michael Abbey/Photo
Researchers, Inc.
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Microscopic-to-Macroscopic
Approach (cont’d)
• Tissues and organs are macroscopic, that
is, they can be seen with the naked eye.
• Organs combine to form a body system.
• The human body contains several different
body systems.
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Body Systems Approach
• The human body can be studied according
to its various organs and how they function
together in a body system.
– Gastrointestinal (Gl) system
– Respiratory system
– Cardiovascular (CV) system
– Blood
– Lymphatic system
– Integumentary system
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Body Systems Approach (cont’d)
• The human body can be studied according
to its various organs and how they function
together in a body system.
– Skeletal system
– Muscular system
– Nervous system
– Urinary system
– Male genital and reproductive system
– Female genital and reproductive system
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Body Systems Approach (cont’d)
• The human body can be studied according
to its various organs and how they function
together in a body system.
– Endocrine system
– Eyes
– Ears, nose, and throat (ENT) system
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Medical Specialties Approach
• The human body can be studied according
to the medical specialties that make up the
practice of medicine.
• Each medical specialty includes the
anatomy, physiology, diseases, diagnostic
tests, medical and surgical procedures,
and drugs for that body system.
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Introduction to Body Systems
Animation
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Other Medical Specialties
• Other medical specialties that are not
directly related to a body system include
the following:
Medical Specialty
Description
psychiatry
study and treatment of the mind
oncology
study and treatment of cancer
radiology and nuclear
medicine
use of x-rays, sound waves, and other
forms of radiation and energy to
diagnose and treat disease
dentistry
study and treatment of the teeth and
gums
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Other Medical Specialties
(cont’d)
Medical Specialty
Description
dietetics
study and use of nutrition, nutrients, and
diet
pharmacology
study of drugs used as medicines
neonatology
study and treatment of newborn infants
pediatrics
study and treatment of infants and children
geriatrics
study and treatment of the elderly
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The Body in Disease
• Preventive medicine is the healthcare
specialty that focuses on keeping a person
healthy and preventing disease.
• Much of medical language deals with
diseases and how they are diagnosed and
treated.
• Disease is any change in the normal
structure or function of the body.
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The Body in Disease (cont’d)
• The etiology is the cause or origin of a
disease.
• In most cases, the cause of a disease is
known or can be discovered through
medical testing. In some cases, the exact
cause of a disease is never completely
understood.
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Disease Categories
•
•
•
•
•
•
Congenital
Degenerative
Environmental
Hereditary
Iatrogenic
Idiopathic
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Disease Categories (cont’d)
•
•
•
•
Infectious
Neoplastic
Nosocomial
Nutritional
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Hand Hygiene and Gloving Video
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Onset, Course, and Outcome of
Disease
• The onset of disease is often noticed
because of symptoms and/or signs.
• A symptom is any deviation from health
that is perceived or felt by the patient.
• When a symptom can be seen or detected
by others, it is known as a sign.
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Onset, Course, and Outcome of
Disease (cont’d)
• Symptomatology is the clinical picture of
all the patient’s symptoms and signs.
• A syndrome is a set of symptoms and
signs associated with, and characteristic
of, one particular disease.
• Patients who are asymptomatic (showing
no symptoms or signs) can still have a
disease, but it can only be detected by
medical tests.
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Onset, Course, and Outcome of
Disease (cont’d)
• The physician takes a history and
performs a physical examination.
• For the history of the present illness, the
physician asks the patient in detail about
the location, onset, duration, and severity
of the symptoms.
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Onset, Course, and Outcome of
Disease (cont’d)
• The physician also asks about the
patient’s past medical history, past
surgical history, family history, social
history, and history of allergies to drugs.
• After taking the patient’s history, the
physician performs a physical examination
to look for signs of disease.
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Onset, Course, and Outcome of
Disease (cont’d)
• The physician uses the following
techniques (as needed) during the
physical examination: inspection,
palpation, auscultation, and percussion.
• After taking the patient’s history and
performing the physical examination, the
physician makes a diagnosis that identifies
the nature and cause of the disease or
condition.
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Figure 2-18 Inspection
(S. O’Brien/Custom Medical Stock Photo, Inc.)
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Figure 2-19 Palpation
(Michal Heron/Pearson Education/PH College)
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Figure 2-20 Auscultation
(Corbis RF)
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Figure 2-21 Percussion
(Michal Heron/Pearson Education/PH College)
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Onset, Course, and Outcome of
Disease (cont’d)
• If the physician cannot make a diagnosis,
the patient is scheduled to undergo further
diagnostic tests or referred to a specialist.
• Symptoms and signs may be:
– Acute (sudden and severe)
– Subacute (less severe in intensity), or
– Chronic (continuing for 3 months or more)
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Onset, Course, and Outcome of
Disease (cont’d)
• An exacerbation is a sudden worsening in
the severity of the symptoms or signs.
• A sequela is an abnormal condition or
complication that arises because of the
original disease and remains after the
original disease has resolved.
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Onset, Course, and Outcome of
Disease (cont’d)
• Remission is a temporary improvement in
the symptoms and signs of a disease
without the underlying disease being
cured.
• A relapse or recurrence is a return of the
original symptoms and signs of the
disease.
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Onset, Course, and Outcome of
Disease (cont’d)
• The physician prescribes drugs or orders
some type of therapy for the patient.
• If the treatment is therapeutic, the
symptoms or signs of the disease
disappear.
• A disease that is refractory (resistant) to
treatment is one that does not respond to
treatment.
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Onset, Course, and Outcome of
Disease (cont’d)
• Certain diseases that cannot be treated
with drugs or therapy may require surgery.
• The prognosis is the predicted outcome of
a disease.
• The course of a disease can have one of
three outcomes:
– Recuperation or recovery
– Disability
– Terminal illness
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Physical Examination Video
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techniques.
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Healthcare Professionals and
Healthcare Settings
• Physician
– The leader of the healthcare team who
examines the patient, orders tests, diagnoses
diseases, and treats diseases by prescribing
drugs or therapy.
– Surgeons are physicians who complete
additional training in surgery.
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Healthcare Professionals and
Healthcare Settings (cont’d)
• Physician
– Primary care physicians (PCPs) specialize in
family practice or pediatrics.
– A physician who is on the medical staff of a
hospital and admits a patient to the hospital is
known as the attending physician.
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Healthcare Professionals and
Healthcare Settings (cont’d)
• Physician Extenders
– PEs are healthcare professionals who work
under the supervision of a physician (M.D. or
D.O.).
– PEs examine, diagnose, and treat patients
and prescribe medications.
– Physician extenders include physician’s
assistants (PAs), nurse practitioners (NPs),
certified nurse midwives (CNMs), and certified
registered nurse anesthetists (CRNAs).
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Healthcare Professionals and
Healthcare Settings (cont’d)
• Nurse
– Examines patients, makes nursing diagnoses,
and administers treatments or drugs ordered
by the physician.
– Often gives hands-on care and focuses on the
physical and emotional needs of the patient
and the family.
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Healthcare Professionals and
Healthcare Settings (cont’d)
• Allied Health Professionals
– Technologists
– Technicians
– Therapists
– Dietitians
– Medical assistants
– Phlebotomists
– Dental hygienists
– Audiologists
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Healthcare Settings
• Hospital
– A hospital provides care for acutely ill patients
who require medical or surgical care for
longer than 24 hours.
– A physician must write an order in the
patient’s medical record to admit or discharge
the patient.
– A patient in the hospital is an inpatient.
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Healthcare Settings
• Hospital
– Ancillary departments in the hospital provide
additional types of services and include
radiology, physical therapy, dietary,
emergency, clinical laboratory, and pharmacy.
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Healthcare Settings (cont’d)
• Physician’s Office
– Most frequently used healthcare setting.
– A single physician (or group of physicians)
maintains an office where patients are seen,
diagnosed, treated, and counseled.
– Some offices have their own laboratory and
x-ray equipment for performing diagnostic
tests.
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Healthcare Settings (cont’d)
• Physician’s Office
– Seriously ill patients who cannot be quickly
diagnosed or adequately treated in the office
are sent to a hospital.
Medical Language, Second Edition
Susan Turley
Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Healthcare Settings (cont’d)
• Clinic
– Provides healthcare services for just one type
of patient or one type of disease.
– For example, a well-baby clinic provides care
to newborn infants.
– Outpatient clinics are located in a hospital and
their patients (outpatients) are not admitted to
the hospital and do not stay overnight in the
clinic.
Medical Language, Second Edition
Susan Turley
Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Healthcare Settings (cont’d)
• Ambulatory Surgery Center (ASC)
– An ASC is a facility where minor surgery is
performed and the patient does not stay
overnight.
Medical Language, Second Edition
Susan Turley
Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Healthcare Settings (cont’d)
• Long-Term-Care Facility
– A residential facility for elderly or disabled
persons who are unable to care for
themselves
– Provides 24-hour nursing care
– Persons in long-term care facilities are
residents rather than patients.
Medical Language, Second Edition
Susan Turley
Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Healthcare Settings (cont’d)
• Skilled Nursing Facility (SNF)
– Long-term care facility that provides a high
level of medical and nursing care for patients
recently discharged from the hospital.
Medical Language, Second Edition
Susan Turley
Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Healthcare Settings (cont’d)
• Home Health Agency
– Provides a range of healthcare services to
persons (clients) in their homes when they are
unable to come to a physician’s office or clinic
and do not want to live in a long-term care
facility.
Medical Language, Second Edition
Susan Turley
Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Figure 2-22 Home Health Nurse
(Andy Levin/Photo Researchers, Inc.)
Medical Language, Second Edition
Susan Turley
Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Healthcare Settings (cont’d)
• Hospice
– A facility for patients who are dying from a
terminal illness
– Their physicians have certified that they have
less than 6 months to live
– Hospice services include:
 Palliative care
 Counseling
 Emotional support for the patient and family
Medical Language, Second Edition
Susan Turley
Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Abbreviations
Medical Language, Second Edition
Susan Turley
Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Health Information Management
Video
Click on the screenshot to view a video on the topic of health information management.
Medical Language, Second Edition
Susan Turley
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Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Health Information Management
Video
Click on the screenshot to view a video on the topic of professional organizations and health
information management.
Medical Language, Second Edition
Susan Turley
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Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Health Information Management
Video
Click on the screenshot to view a video on the topic of medical terminology and health information
management.
Medical Language, Second Edition
Susan Turley
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Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Health Information Management
Video
Click on the screenshot to view a video on the topic of education and health information
management.
Medical Language, Second Edition
Susan Turley
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Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Health Information Management
Video
Click on the screenshot to view a video on the topic of ethical situations and health information
management.
Medical Language, Second Edition
Susan Turley
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Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.

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