Roshini Jayaweera - Institute of Policy Studies

Report
Roshini Jayaweera
Research Officer, Institute of Policy Studies of Sri Lanka
Introduction
Objective
Why should
migration be
a main
concern ?
Policies and
Proposals
Conclusion
Process of assessing
the implications of
migration in any
goal planned in
development and
poverty reduction
strategy
Broader
development
strategy
Coordination
among
different
institutions
Mainstreaming
Migration into
Development

Gaps in
existing
legislative
and policy
frameworks
Funding and
technical
assistance
The outflow of Sri Lankan workers has shown an
increasing trend
A surge in inflows of remittances
There is a significant impact of migration and remittances
on development
‘Migration policies’ and ‘development policies’ have been
treated separately
Migration needs to be mainstreamed into
Development Agenda
Answer 6 Questions
Global Migration Group (2010), Mainstreaming
Migration into Development Planning: A Handbook
for Policy Makers and practitioners, IOM
Does the country have large stocks of migrants?/What have recent patterns of migration been?
What sorts of experiences are migrants having?
Are there sizeable financial transfers or remittances from migrants?
Are there any possible effects, positive or negative, of these migration trends?
Is migration a prominent issue in public or political debates?
Is there political will/interest in harnessing migration for development?

To what extent, migration has already been
incorporated into Sri Lankan development
agenda
Departures for Foreign Employment, by
Gender (%), (1986-2011)

Sri Lanka has a large
stock of migrants.

This stock comprises of
both men and women.
Source: Annual Statistics Handbook of Foreign Employment, 2011, SLBFE.
Departures for Foreign Employment by Age Group (2007-2011)
Majority of Sri Lankan migrant workers are young.
Source: Annual Statistics Handbook of Foreign Employment, 2011, SLBFE.
Departures for Foreign Employment by
Manpower Groups (1994-2010)

The major market for
Sri Lankan labour is
the Middle East.

Unskilled labour
migration is a
prominent feature
relevant to Sri Lankan
out-migration.
Source: Annual Statistics Handbook of Foreign Employment, 2010,
SLBFE.



Malaysia, Jordan, and K.S.A, can be identified as riskier countries
Migration experience does not affect men and women in the
same way.
◦ In 2011, more than 9000 complaints.
◦ Nonpayment of agreed wage and the breach of employment contract.
◦ Of both, the majority of complaints came from female migrant workers.
◦ Nonpayment of agreed wage - almost 80 % of complaints from female
migrant workers
◦ Breach of contracts - 58 % from female.
◦ Another considerable percentage (15 per cent) of complaints is about
physical and sexual harassment, and 96 per cent of total complaints are
from female migrant workers.
100
90
% of complaints
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
Nature of Complaints
male
female
Total
Source: Annual Statistics Handbook of Foreign
Employment, 2011, SLBFE.
Remittances Inflows to Sri Lanka by
Region (2005-2011)
Trends in Remittance Inflows
(% of GDP)- 1990-2010
9
5000
8
4000
7
%6
U
3000 S
o5
f
$
4
G
D
P3
2000 M
n
2
1000
1
0
0
Year
Remittances
As a % of GDP
Source: Central Bank Annual Report, Various Issues.
Inflow of Remittances> FDI & ODA
Less Volatility
Counter-Cyclical Role
% of GDP
1991-1994
1995-1999
2000-2004
2005-2010
Domestic Savings
16.5
17.3
16
17.2
National Savings
20.5
21.4
21
22.6
Total Investment
19.9
25.4
23.7
27.1
Source: Central Bank of Sri Lanka, various
issues.
Number of Migrants
Unemployment
Domestic
Demand for
Carpenters/
Masons
12%
increase in
nominal
wages
Shortages
of
Carpenters
Source: Central Bank of Sri Lanka , Annual Report,
Distribution of Remittance Receiving
Households by Expenditure Deciles
1st
100


Higher expenditure on
food, non-food,
education, health,
durable goods, and
housing
Return is lower
10th
2nd
80
60
40
9th
3rd
20
0
8th
4th
7th
5th
6th
% of HHs receiving remittances
Remittances as a % of Total HH income
Source: MFEPW (2011)

There is a political will and interest in harnessing
migration for development
 Establishment of the Ministry of Foreign Employment
Promotion and Welfare
Recruitment
Policies
and
Proposals
Remittances
Return Reintegration




National Migration Policy in Sri Lanka
Signing of MOUs bilateral and agreements
Welfare programmes for migrant workers
Human Resource Development



Well-developed financial system
MFEPW introduced special debit cards for
migrant workers
Bilateral agreements/MoUs
?

Migration was identified as an important development issue when the ‘Mahinda
Chintana: Vision for the Future’. It aims
◦
increase male migration by 50 per cent.
◦
to secure more than 50,000 employment opportunities in several countries including Korea,
Japan, and Libya;
◦
to expand the opportunities for those with skills in specialized fields such as nursing,
nautical services, accountancy, IT, banking, and engineering to enter the international
labour market;
◦
to maintain a foreign employment provident fund for all migrant workers.
◦
It suggests improvement in the level of diaspora engagement in development activities and
returnee reintegration.
◦
to establish a dedicated bureau in order to identify and resolve problems faced by Sri
Lankans living in abroad and create a conducive environment in Sri Lanka for them to live
upon their return to Sri Lanka
◦
to create an attractive bonus scheme for Sri Lankans who send their foreign exchange to Sri
Lanka.

There are sufficient policies that have been
implemented by the government
◦ to increase the number of migrants
◦ to increase the volume of remittance
◦ to protect migrant workers

However, there are some aspects of migration
which have been neglected by these polices.
◦ stimulation of investment of remittance
◦ stimulation of sound remittance management
◦ returnee reintegration
Stimulate Invetment
• Introduction of SME
programmes
• Microfinance facilities to
start self-employment
• tax breaks on imports of
capital goods
Remittance
Management
• financial education
Thank You

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