WWII - Mr. Zittle`s Classroom

WWII (1939 – 1945)
"Never in the field of human
conflict, has so much, been owed
by so many, to so few!"
Winston Churchill - September 1940
• 48a - explain A. Philip Randolph's proposed march on Washington, D.C.
and President Franklin D. Roosevelt's response
• 48b - explain the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor and the internment of
• 48c - explain major events including the Lend-Lease program, the Battle of
Midway, the Normandy Invasion, the Battle of Iwo Jima, the Battle of the
Bulge, the fall of Berlin, and the bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki
• 48d - describe war mobilization, as indicated by rationing, war bond drives,
war-time conversion, and the role of minority groups in war industries
• 48e - evaluate the role of women and other minorities in the military during
World War II
• 48f - describe Los Alamos and the scientific, economic, and military
implications of developing the atomic bomb (Manhattan Project)
• 48g - compare the geographic locations of the European Theater and the
Pacific Theater and the difficulties the U.S. faced in delivering weapons,
food, and medical supplies to troops
What is the first word that comes to
What do we want to learn?
Why did we win?
Important battles
Major players
Who was affected?
How did it affect the home front?
WWII Quick Hits
• 1939-1945 (U.S. directly involved starting in 1941)
• The most destructive and deadly conflict in the
history of humankind (40-70M+ dead)
• The Nazi Holocaust was responsible for the genocide
of 6M Jews
• The war set the stage for a new age of U.S.
prosperity and power
• The aftermath of the war also created the World’s
first superpowers and set the conditions for the Cold
• Failures of the World War I Peace
• Treaty of Versailles causes anger, resentment
in Europe
• Germany resents blame for war, loss of colonies,
border territories
• New democracies flounder under social,
economic problems
• Dictators rise; driven by nationalism, desire for
more territory
With a partner…
• Summarize the causes of WWII
Totalitarian Dictators in Europe
Benito Mussolini
“Il Duce”
Adolph Hitler
“The Fuhrer”
Joseph Stalin
Fascist Party
•Extreme nationalism
•Militaristic expansion
•Charismatic leader
•Private property w/strong
govt controls
Nazi Party
•Extreme nationalism and
•Militaristic expansion
•Strong leader
•Private property w/strong
govt controls
Communist Party
•Worldwide spread of
•Revolution by workers
•State ownership of property
and control all means of
The Rise of Nazism
1. What were the
conditions in
Germany that
left it
vulnerable to
1. What book did
Hitler write
that outlined
his vision?
1. How was Hitler
able to take
over control of
The Nazi Party… a closer look
• Adolf Hitler leader of National Socialist German
Workers’ Party
• Mein Kampf—basic beliefs of Nazism, based on
extreme nationalism
• Wants to unite German-speaking people, enforce
racial “purification”
• 1932, 6 million unemployed; many men join Hitler’s
private army
• Nazis become strongest political party; Hitler named
• Third Reich established
What are these propaganda posters trying to say?
Meanwhile in Japan…
• 1931, Nationalist military leaders seize Manchuria
• Militarists take control of Japanese government
The U.S. Responds Cautiously
• Americans Cling to Isolationism
• 1935 Neutrality Acts try to keep U.S. out of
future wars
- outlaws arms sales, loans to nations at war
German Military Machine on the
• 1938: Germany takes over Austria (peacefully)
and Czechoslovakia
▫ Appeasement – giving up principles to pacify
and aggressor
"Hitler accepts the ovation of the Reichstag after announcing the `peaceful'
acquisition of Austria. It set the stage to annex the Czechoslovakian
Sudetenland, largely inhabited by a German- speaking population." Berlin,
March 1938. 208-N-39843.
Things get serious…
Blitzkrieg in Poland
• Sept. 1939, Hitler
overruns Poland in
blitzkrieg, lightning
• Germany annexes
western Poland;
U.S.S.R. attacks,
annexes east
• France, Britain
declare war on
World War II begins
France falls and Britain fights on…
• The Battle of Britain (1940)
• Battle of Britain—German planes bomb British
• Hitler calls off invasion of Britain
• Germans, British continue to bomb each other’s
The Holocaust
• Hitler’s Final Solution—slavery, genocide of
“inferior” groups
▫ Genocide—deliberate, systematic killing of an
entire population
▫ Target Jews, gypsies, freemasons, Jehovah’s
Witnesses, unfit Germans
▫ Nazi death squads round up Jews, shoot them
As we view the pictures, write down
the first word that pops into your head
for each.
The Holocaust
• http://player.discoveryeducation.com/index.cf
FDR Elected to Record 3rd Term
A growing concern…
• The Lend-Lease Plan
• FDR tells nation if Britain falls, Axis powers free
to conquer world
- U.S. must become “arsenal of democracy”
• By late 1940, Britain has no more cash to buy
U.S. arms
• 1941 Lend-Lease Act—U.S. to lend or lease
supplies for defense
Atlantic Charter signed… the sides are
• Allied Powers
The Netherlands
… and many others
• Axis Powers
… and many others
Japan Attacks The U.S.
• The Attack on Pearl Harbor
December 7, 1941 Japanese attack Pearl Harbor
2,403 Americans killed; 1,178 wounded
Over 300 aircraft, 21 ships destroyed or damaged
Kamikaze – suicide pilots
What do you think the U.S. reaction
• http://player.discoveryeducation.com/index.cf
President Franklin D. Roosevelt signing the Declaration of War against Japan,
December 8, 1941.
•What was the name of the party in control of Germany?
•What is a totalitarian dictatorship?
•What is an allegiance to one’s country called?
•What was each side called in the war?
•What do is the systematic extermination of a race called?
•Where was the U.S. attacked on December 7, 1941?
•What were the acts called to keep the U.S. out of war?
Short story…
• You are a U.S. citizen on December 7,
1941…what is your reaction to the attack on
Pearl Harbor?
▫ Describe what happened.
▫ Describe how you felt.
Things are getting serious….
The U.S. Mobilizes for Total War
• Selective Service and the GI
• After Pearl Harbor, 5 million men
volunteer for military service
• 10 million more drafted to meet
needs of two-front war
• European Theater
• Pacific Theater
Dramatic Contributions
• 300,000 Mexican Americans join armed forces
• 1 million African Americans serve; live, work in
segregated units
• 13,000 Chinese Americans and 33,000 Japanese
Americans serve
• 25,000 Native Americans enlist
• Navaho language use as code in Pacific
Tuskegee Airman
A Production Miracle
• The Industrial Response
Factories convert from civilian to war production
Shipyards, defense plants expand, new ones built
Produce ships, arms rapidly
Labor’s Contribution
• Nearly 18 million workers in war industries;
6 million are women (Rosie the Riveter)
• A. Philip Randolph, head of Brotherhood of
Sleeping Car Porters
▫ Organizes march on D.C. to protest minority
discrimination in war effort; FDR executive order
forbids discrimination
Women in the Military
• Women’s Auxiliary Corps (WACS).
• Women Accepted for Voluntary Emergency
Service (WAVES).
The Federal Government Takes Control
• War Production Board (WPB) says which
companies convert production
• Rationing—fixed allotments of goods needed
by military
• War bonds – Government borrows money from
individual citizens to finance war efforts
With a partner…
• Summarize the attitude of people on the home
Battle of Stalingrad
• Hitler wants to capture Caucasus oil fields and
destroy Stalingrad
• Soviets defeat Germans in bitter winter campaign
- Over 230,000 Germans, 1,100,000 Soviets die
• Battle a turning point: Soviet army begins to
move towards Germany
• http://player.discoveryeducation.com/index.cfm?g
Updates from the front…
• The North African Front
• General Dwight D. Eisenhower commands
invasion of North Africa
• Afrika Korps, led by General Erwin Rommel,
surrenders May 1943
• The Italian Campaign
• Allies decide will accept only unconditional
surrender from Axis
• Summer 1943, capture Sicily; Mussolini forced to
D-Day – June 6, 1944
• Eisenhower directs Allied invasion of France at the
beaches of Normandy from Britain
• Largest amphibious invasion of all-time
5000 vessel armada
150,ooo men
30,ooo vehicles
13,000 men dropped in by 800 planes
300 more planes dropped more than 13,000 bombs
By nightfall on June 6, more than 9,000 Allied soldiers
were dead or wounded, but more than 100,000 had
made it ashore.
D-Day – June 6, 1944
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Roosevelt elected to 4th term
The Allies liberate Europe
• Battle of the Bulge (16 December 1944 – 25
January 1945) – last German offensive
▫ Fought in Belgium, Luxembourg, and Germany
▫ 800,000 men involved in Allied side
▫ Deadliest battle in WWII for U.S. with 19,000 KIA
• Allies liberate Nazi death camps
• http://player.discoveryeducation.com/index.cf
The Allies liberate Europe (cont).
• Unconditional Surrender
• April 1945, Soviet army storms Berlin; Hitler
commits suicide
• Eisenhower accepts unconditional surrender of
German Reich
• May 8, 1945, V-E Day: Victory in Europe Day
• http://player.discoveryeducation.com/index.cfm?gui
Roosevelt’s Death
• FDR dies April 12; Vice President Harry S. Truman
becomes president
• http://player.discoveryeducation.com/index.cfm?guid
• What are the two theaters of WWII?
• What were the names of African-American
airmen that served in WWII?
• What were sold to the public to help fund the
• What was the Invasion of Normandy also called?
• What battle was a major turning point and first
major Nazi defeat?
• What is rationing?
Activity – Write a letter
• Choose a person that you identify with during WWII
▫ Examples
 Tuskegee airman
 A soldier storming the beaches of Normandy
 A female working to build aircrafts and trying to support her
family while her husband is away at war
• Write a letter to someone that you are close to explaining
your thoughts on the war and how you feel about your
role in the war
• Start out by writing “Dear, ________. I am writing this
letter to tell you…”
• Your letter should be 1-2 paragraphs with at least 5
sentences per paragraph.
June 5, 1944
Dear Mom,
I am writing this letter to tell you how scared I am.
We are one day away from the most ambitious
military action in history. We are storming the
beaches of Normandy and will encounter heavy Nazi
resistance. I am scared to death and want to tell you
how much I love you and Dad. Please pray for me
and my comrades.
The Pacific
Island Hopping
• http://player.discoveryeducation.com/index.cf
The Pacific
• The Battle of Midway
• Allies break Japanese code, win Battle of
Midway, stop Japan again – turning point
• Allies advance island by island to Japan
• Island hoping
• http://player.discoveryeducation.com/index.cfm?gui
The Pacific (cont.)
• Iwo Jima
• Iwo Jima critical as base from which planes can
reach Japan
• 6,000 marines die taking island; of 20,700
Japanese, 200 survive
Iwo Jima
The Atomic Bomb Ends the War
• The Manhattan Project
▫ J. Robert Oppenheimer is research director of Manhattan
▫ July 1945, atomic bomb tested in New Mexico desert (Los
• August 6, Hiroshima, major military center, destroyed by
• 3 days later, bomb dropped on city of Nagasaki
• August 14, 1945 Japan surrenders (V-J Day)
• Within the first two to four months of the bombings, the
acute effects killed 90,000–166,000 people in Hiroshima
and 60,000–80,000 in Nagasaki, with roughly half of the
deaths in each city occurring on the first day.
The explosion generated heat estimated at 7,000 °F and winds that
were estimated at 624 mph.
Atomic bomb
• The night was hot, and it seemed even hotter because of the fires against the sky, but the
younger of the two girls Mr. Tanimoto and the priests had rescued complained to Father
Kleinsorge that she was cold. He covered her with his jacket. She and her older sister had
been in the salt water of the river for a couple of hours before being rescued. The younger
one had huge, raw flash burns on her body; the salt water must have been excruciatingly
painful to her. She began to shiver heavily, and again said it was cold. Father Kleinsorge
borrowed a blanket from someone nearby and wrapped her up, but she shook more and
more, and said again, "I am so cold," and then she suddenly stopped shivering and was
Mr. Tanimoto found about twenty men and women in the sandpit. He drove the boat onto
the bank and urged them to get aboard. They did not move and he realized that they were
too weak to lift themselves. He reached down and took a woman by the hands, but her skin
slipped off in huge, glovelike pieces. He was so sickened by this that he had to sit down for
a moment. Then he got out into the water and, though a small man, lifted several of the
men and women, who were naked, into his boat. Their backs and breasts were clammy, and
he remembered uneasily what the great burns he had seen during the day had been like:
yellow at first, then red and swollen, with the skin sloughed off, and finally, in the evening,
suppurated and smelly. With the tide risen, his bamboo pole was now too short and he had
to paddle most of the way across with it. On the other side, at a higher spit, he lifted the
slimy living bodies out and carried them up the slope away from the tide. He had to keep
consciously repeating to himself, "These are human beings."
What is Truman’s justification for the
use of the Atomic bomb?
You are Harry Truman… what would
you do?
• Stuff to think about…
▫ Estimate of American casualties for an invasion of
Japan were incredibly high
▫ Conventional bombing was killing many civilians
because the technology at the time was not as
accurate as today
▫ The Japanese had vowed not to surrender… mass
suicides on islands
Was Truman justified?
Why not?
• What was the name of the secret project to
develop the bomb? Where was it tested?
• What two Japanese cities did the U.S. use the
atomic bomb on?
• What day ended the war on all fronts?
Internment of Japanese Americans
• Hawaii governor forced to order internment
(confinement) of Japanese
• 1942 FDR signs removal of Japanese Americans
in four states
• U.S. Army forces 110,000 Japanese Americans
into prison camps
The Aftermath and Rebuilding…
Yalta Conference
• February 1945, FDR, Churchill, Stalin meet in
- discuss post-war world
• FDR, Churchill concession: temporarily divide
Germany into 4 parts
• Stalin promises free elections in Eastern Europe;
will fight Japan
• FDR gets support for conference to establish
United Nations
Rebuilding continues….
• Nuremberg trials—24 Nazi leaders tried,
- charged with crimes against humanity, against
the peace, war crimes
• Establish principle that people responsible for
own actions in war
Occupation of Japan
• MacArthur commands U.S. occupation forces in
• Over 1,100 Japanese tried, sentenced
• MacArthur reshapes Japan’s economy,
▫ U.S. helps write Japanese Constitution that
prohibits the Japanese from waging war
More from the Home Front…
A time of great prosperity
• Economic Gains
• Defense industries boom, unemployment falls to
1.2% in 1944
- average pay rises 10% during war
• Farmers prosper from rising crop prices, increase
in production
- many pay off mortgages
• Percentage of women in work force rises to 35%
Social Adjustments
• Families adjust to fathers in military; mothers rear
children alone
• Families must get to know each other again after
fathers return
• Many couples rushed to marry before husband
goes overseas
• 1944 GI Bill of Rights or Servicemen’s
Readjustment Act:
- pays education; loan guarantees for homes,
new businesses
• Name the cities bombed in early August 1945.
• What was the major result of the Yalta
• What was the air/sea battle that was a major
turning point for the allied forces in the Pacific?
• What were the social and economic results of
WWII at home?
• Get together in groups of two
• Choose one issue:
▫ Use of Atomic bomb on Japan
▫ Japanese Internment
• Discuss the issue with your partner and decide whether your
group is for/against the use of the bomb or Japanese
▫ Start by dividing a sheet of paper into two columns: Pro and con
▫ List reasons for and against your issue in the appropriate column
(5 min)
▫ Discuss and agree on whether you are for/against the action of
the U.S. and why.
▫ Write down 2-3 main reasons why you arrived at your conclusion
and then present them to the class

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