bibelot ethnology trousseau What’s in a Word? cynosure oenophile malign Vocabulary Development for Grades K-3 peremptory veciferous effluvium induce Vocabulary What does vocabulary instruction look like at your school? What is Vocabulary Instruction? The teaching and development of students’ understanding of word meanings Presentation Goals Part One – Making the Case Current research pertaining to vocabulary development and instruction Part Two – Principles of Effective Instruction Examine the underlining principles of best practices in effective vocabulary instruction Part Three – Instructional Strategies Examine models for delivering vocabulary instruction in the classroom setting Professional Reading A Focus on Vocabulary A Focus on Vocabulary What is Vocabulary The Importance of Vocabulary to Reading Comprehension Making the Case Average child from a welfare family hears about 3 million words a year vs. 11 million from a professional family (Hart & Risley, 1995). – By age 4, the gap in words heard grows to 13 vs. 45 million – Children from a professional family spoke more words than parents in a welfare family Making the Case Facts Children enter school with a listening vocabulary ranging between 2500 to 5000. Students from economically disadvantaged backgrounds enter school knowing fewer words (Stanovich, 1986). First graders from higher SES groups know twice as many words as lower SES children (Grater & Slater, 1987). College entrants need about 11 to 14,000 root words (meter in thermometer or centimeter). Making the Case Facts Vocabulary knowledge is closely related to reading comprehension and academic achievement (Chall, Jacobs, & Baldwin, 1990; Graves 2000). Limited vocabulary is a major factor in the achievement gap (Biemiller, 1999, 2004; Chall, Jacobs, & Baldwin, 1990; Hart & Risley, 1995). Making the Case Closing the Vocabulary Gap Students who enter kindergarten with limited vocabulary typically lose ground each year they are in school (Chall, et al. 1990). In 1st and 2nd grade, children need to learn 800+ words per year, about 2 per day. Children need to learn 2,000 to 3,000 new words each year from 3rd grade onward, about 6-8 per day. Making the Case Children need to encounter a word about 12 times before they know it well enough to improve their comprehension. To keep up, a child needs to learn at a rate of 2000-3000 words per year from third grade on. To close the gap, they need to exceed that. Making the Case How Important is Vocabulary? _____ was absent yesterday because he was playing football. He was hurt in the growing area. _____ has been absent because he had two teeth taken off his face. _____ will not be in school cuz he has an acre in his side. Please excuse _____ from P.E. a few days, yesterday she fell off a tree and misplaced her hip. Please excuse _____ from school because he has very loose vowels. Making the Case Vocabulary “Vocabulary knowledge is a powerful predictor of reading comprehension” (McKeown, 2009). Making the Case Vocabulary/Comprehension A Flannerby Barp for Nall Nall was so plamper. She was larping to the flannerby with Charkle. She would grunk a flannerby barp so she could crooch out carples. Charkle lanted her gib out the nep. “Parps, Charkle,” jibbed Nall plamperly. “Now we can crooch out carples together!” pifed Charkle trigly. 1. 2. Who are the characters in the story? Answer the following questions by writing a complete sentence: a. b. 3. Where were they larping? Why did she want to grunk a flannerby barp? A good title for this story would be: a. b. c. d. “Nall and Charkle Together” “Larping to the Flannerby” “Lanting Nall Grunk a Flannerby Barp” “Grunking a Flannerby Barp” No access to meaning because we didn't get the vocabulary... Making the Case Vocabulary/Comprehension Chlorecyclizine hydrochloride is an antihistamine which is related structurally to cyclizine and meclizine. A combination with hydrocortisone acetate provides anti-inflammatory, antipruritic, and anesthetic properties. It blocks the actions of histamine, antagonizes allergic manifestation, and anestetizes free nerve endings that mediate pain. The combination provides dual and additive effects to combat antigen-antibody reaction. No access to meaning because we didn't get the vocabulary... Making the Case Vocabulary/Comprehension Connection Vocabulary Knowledge Topic Knowledge Reading Comprehension Discussion Based on what you’ve just read, why is it important to include vocabulary development as a part of daily instruction? Professional Reading A Focus on Vocabulary (page 3) How Many Words Do Students Need to Know? What Does It Mean to “Know” a Word? Principles of Effective Instruction The old way Explicit instruction of necessary words Memorization of word lists Predetermined lists from publishing companies However Isolated instruction of individual words is ineffective Principles of Effective Instruction In other Words Students have to USE new language in order to learn it. Principles of Effective Instruction Implicit • Wide Reading • Conversation Explicit • Multiple Exposure to a Word • Explicit Instruction in Word Analysis • Building Academic Vocabulary Vocabulary Casserole Ingredients Needed: 20 words no one has ever heard before in his life 1 dictionary with very confusing definitions 1 matching test to be distributed by Friday 1 teacher who wants students to be quiet on Mondays copying words Put 20 words on chalkboard. Have students copy then look up in dictionary. Make students write all the definitions. For a little spice, require that students write words in sentences. Leave alone all week. Top with a boring test on Friday. Perishable. This casserole will be forgotten by Saturday afternoon. Serves: No one. Adapted from When Kids Can’t Read, What Teachers Can Do by Kylene Beers Principles of Effective Instruction Instruction needs to go beyond getting students to associate words with their definitions. Principles of Effective Instruction • Knowing a word CANNOT be equated with knowing a definition. • Knowing a word means being able to do things with it: to recognize it in connected speech or in print, to access its meaning, to pronounce it, and to be able to do these things within a fraction of a second (Stahl and Fairbanks, 1986). Vocabulary Treat Ingredients Needed: 5-10 great words that you really could use 1 thesaurus Markers and chart paper 1 game like Jeopardy or BINGO 1 teacher who thinks learning is supposed to be fun Mix 5 to 10 words into the classroom. Have students test each word for flavor. Toss with a thesaurus to find other words that mean the same. Write student friendly definitions on chart paper and let us draw pictures of words to remind us what they mean. Stir all week by a teacher who thinks learning is supposed to be fun. Top with a cool game on Fridays like Jeopardy or BINGO. Serves: Many Adapted from When Kids Can’t Read, What Teachers Can Do by Kylene Beers Professional Reading A Focus on Vocabulary (page 10) Intentional, Explicit Instruction Choosing Words for Instruction Importance Usefulness and Frequency Teaching Specific Words Principles of Effective Instruction How to Select Words Beck, McKeown, Kucan Beck, et al. (2002) suggest that for instructional purposes, teachers should ignore Tier One and Tier Three words and concentrate on Tier Two words. Their argument is that most students already know Tier One words and that Tier Three words should be taught at point of contact., or as they occur in reading. Tier 1: the most basic words; require little instructional attention (happy, baby, walk) Tier 2: high frequency; found across a variety of domains (absurd, fortunate, merchant) Tier 3: lower frequency; often domain specific (isotope, refinery, peninsula) Principles of Effective Instruction How to Select Words Marzano Marzano's vision of vocabulary instruction has similarities with Beck et al., but while Beck et al. suggest teaching words that students will encounter often and across domains, Marzano recommends teaching subject-specific terms to enhance academic success. He writes that "Beck, McKeown, and Kucan's focus on tier-two words as the appropriate target of vocabulary instruction" is a mistake (88). He stresses that "subject-specific terms are the best target for direct vocabulary instruction" (IRA/NCTE, 2010). Principles of Effective Instruction How to Select Words • How useful is the word? Will students see it in other texts? • How does the word relate to other words, or to ideas that students know or have been learning? Does it directly relate to a topic of study in the classroom? • What does the word bring to a text or situation? Principles of Effective Instruction Provide opportunities for: Strategy 1 – Wide Independent Reading Strategy 2 – Multiple Exposure to a Word Strategy 3 – Explicit Instruction in Word Analysis Strategy 4 – Developing Word Consciousness Strategy 5 – Building Academic Vocabulary Discussion Are your teachers familiar with the latest principles of effective vocabulary instruction or are they teaching vocabulary the same way in which they were taught? What is your evidence? Professional Reading A Focus on Vocabulary (pages 6-8) Incidental Word Learning Through Oral Language Oral Language Experiences at Home Oral Language Experiences at School Incidental Word Learning Though Teacher Read Alouds Discussion What need do you see for oral language development based on the analysis of your school’s EDW data? How are teachers fostering oral language development through language experiences? Are they making incidental word learning a part of their oral language instruction? Instructional Strategies Strategy 1: Wide Independent Reading Proficient readers read 3 times as many words per week as less proficient students. Add 25 minutes of reading per day = students learn an extra 1,000 words per year. Instructional Strategies Strategy 1: Wide Independent Reading Promote Extensive Reading in the Classroom Regular time for free reading Encourage students to choose their own material and to read widely and a lot Variety of fiction and non-fiction materials at each student’s independent reading level Listening books, created recordings, student buddy reading and discussions Make the experience pleasurable Instructional Strategies Strategy 1: Wide Independent Reading Extensive Reading • Krashen contends that almost any reading will result in vocabulary growth. • Others contend that students must read text that are not below their instructional level to result in vocabulary growth. Instructional Strategies Strategy 2: Multiple Exposures to a Word There is great improvement in vocabulary when students encounter vocabulary words often (National Reading Panel, 2000). According to Stahl (2005), students probably have to see a word more than once to place it firmly in their long term memories. “This does not mean mere repetition or drill of the word,” but seeing the word in different and multiple contexts. In other words, it is important that vocabulary instruction provide students with opportunities to encounter words repeatedly and in more than one context. (Diamond & Gutlohn, 2006) Professional Reading A Focus on Vocabulary (pages 12-14) Teaching Unknown Words: Synonyms Teaching Multiple-Meaning Words: Semantic Maps Teaching Words for New and Complex Concepts Teaching Independent Word-Learning Strategies Using Dictionaries Before Moving On Think About The Upcoming Activity In groups, design a mini-pd based on how to deliver direct instruction of words, as recommended by Beck, Mckeown, and Kucan. Chart out your plans/agenda. Share out your ideas with the whole group. Instructional Strategies Direct Instruction of Words Contextualize the word within the story. • "In the story, Lisa was reluctant to leave ...." Have the children say the word. • " Say the word - reluctant" Provide (teacher or student) a student-friendly explanation or description of the word. • "Reluctant means you are not sure you want to do something." • Versus a definition. o Reluctant - 1. Striving against; opposed in desire; unwilling disinclined; loth, loath. Instructional Strategies Direct Instruction of Words Present examples of the word used in contexts different from the story context • Someone might be reluctant to eat a food that he or she never had before. • Students provide an example. Instructional Strategies Direct Instruction of Words Generate Examples • Tell about something you would be reluctant to do. Try to use reluctant when you tell about it. • You could start by saying something like. “I would be reluctant to ___” Answering Questions/Giving Reasons • Why might a person be reluctant to eat a new food? • Why might a child be reluctant to come here? • Show me how a reluctant broccoli eater would look? Beck, McKeown, and Kucan, 2002 Activity In groups, design a mini-pd or lesson based on how to deliver direct instruction of words, as recommended by Beck, Mckeown, and Kucan. Chart out your plans/agenda. Share out your ideas with the whole group. Instructional Strategies Strategy 3: Explicit Instruction in Word Analysis Contextual and Morphemic Professional Reading A Focus on Vocabulary Identifying and Using Context Clues (page 15) Instructional Strategies Strategy 3: Explicit Instruction in Word Analysis (Contextual) OPPOSITE/CONTRAST Underline the two words or phrases in contrast to one another, then make a guess. Even though I studied for hours, I flunked the test. My last apartment was really small, but my new one is quite spacious. Instructional Strategies Strategy 3: Explicit Instruction in Word Analysis (Contextual) CAUSE AND EFFECT Look for cue words (because, so) then make a guess. Because we lingered too long at the restaurant, we missed the beginning of the movie. The door was ajar, so the dog got out of the house. Instructional Strategies Strategy 3: Explicit Instruction in Word Analysis (Contextual) EXAMPLES IN THE TEXT The baboon, like other apes, is a very social animal. Instructional Strategies Strategy 3: Explicit Instruction in Word Analysis (Contextual) SYNONYMS OR PARAPHRASES (found elsewhere in the sentence or paragraph) Samuel was deaf, but he didn't let his handicap get in the way of his success. Sally's flower garden included dozens of marigolds, which she tended with great care. Instructional Strategies Strategy 3: Explicit Instruction in Word Analysis (Contextual) RECOGNIZING DEFINITIONS (common in college textbooks, newspaper & magazine articles) Many children of normal intelligence have great difficulty learning how to read, write, or work with numbers. Often thought of as "underachievers," such children are said to have a learning disability, a disorder that interferes in some way with school achievement. Professional Reading A Focus on Vocabulary Instruction (pages 15-17) Using Word Part Clues/Morphology Prefixes and Suffixes That Account for Approximately 75% of Affixed Words Instructional Strategies Strategy 3: Explicit Instruction in Word Analysis (Morphemic) Teach root words and affixes. Root words are morphemes (units of meaning) Begin with free morphemes like port because their meaning is accessible. Move to extensions (porter, airport, import). Instructional Strategies Strategy 3: Explicit Instruction in Word Analysis (Morphemic) Understanding the morphological basis of affixes is critical to word knowledge. Re-, dis-, un-, and im- account for over half of all words with prefixes -s/-es, -ed, and –ing account for 65% of all words with suffixes (Cunningham 2002) Instructional Strategies Strategy 4: Developing Word Consciousness “Word consciousness is an awareness of and interest in words, their meanings, and their power” (Anderson & Nagy, 1992; Nagy & Scott, 2000; Graves & Watts-Taffe, 2002). Professional Reading A Focus on Vocabulary (page 17) Developing Word Consciousness What About Computer-Related Instruction? Building Word Consciousness Word Jars Word Shows Rich Words Instructional Strategies Strategy 5: Building Academic Vocabulary “So much of what we do outside of narrative is tied to vocabulary—a water table is different from a math table is different from tabling a motion.” D. Alvermann Instructional Strategies Strategy 5: Building Academic Vocabulary What is Academic Vocabulary? Academic vocabulary refers to the specialized, high-utility words used in the classroom Academic vocabulary includes high-use academic words (e.g., analyze, summarize, evaluate, formula, respond, specify) Academic language includes the vocabulary, grammar & syntax necessary to competently discuss a topic Before Moving On Think About The Upcoming Activity In groups, design a mini-pd based on Six Steps to Better Vocabulary Instruction by Robert J Marzano. Chart out your plans/agenda. Share out your ideas with the whole group. Professional Reading Six Steps to Better Vocabulary Instruction by Robert J Marzano Instructional Strategies Marzano’s Six Step Process 1. Provide a description, explanation, or example of the new term. 2. Ask students to restate the description, explanation, or example in their own words. 3. Ask students to construct a picture, pictograph, or symbolic representation of the term. Instructional Strategies Marzano’s Six Step Process 4. Engage students periodically in activities that help them add to their knowledge of the terms in their vocabulary notebooks. 5. Periodically ask students to discuss the terms with one another. 6. Involve students periodically in games that enable them to play with terms. Activity In groups, design a mini-pd based on Six Steps to Better Vocabulary Instruction by Robert J Marzano. Chart out your plans/agenda. Share out your ideas with the whole group. ELL Students Professional Reading A Focus on Vocabulary (pages 18-20) Instruction for English Language Learners Teaching About Cognates 10 Common English Words and Their Latin and Spanish Equivalents Thirty-Five Ways to Integrate Vocabulary Instruction Interactive Read Aloud and Literature Discussion Shared Reading Guided Reading Independent Reading Word Study Writing Workshop (Fountas & Pinnell, 2006) Discussion How can you encourage/ensure that vocabulary instruction is integrated into the components of a balanced literacy program? Activity Brainstorm with your group how you can use the 35 Ways to Integrate Vocabulary Instruction sheet during walkthroughs, learning team meetings, etc. Conclusion How are you going to bring an awareness of the importance of vocabulary development to your school?