What`s in a Word Coaches` Edition

Report
bibelot
ethnology
trousseau
What’s in a Word? cynosure
oenophile
malign
Vocabulary Development for
Grades K-3
peremptory
veciferous
effluvium
induce
Vocabulary
What does vocabulary instruction
look like at your school?
What is Vocabulary Instruction?
The teaching and development of students’
understanding of word meanings
Presentation Goals
Part One – Making the Case
Current research pertaining to vocabulary
development and instruction
Part Two – Principles of Effective Instruction
 Examine the underlining principles of best practices
in effective vocabulary instruction
Part Three – Instructional Strategies
Examine models for delivering vocabulary
instruction in the classroom setting
Professional Reading
A Focus on Vocabulary
 A Focus on Vocabulary
 What is Vocabulary
 The Importance of Vocabulary to Reading
Comprehension
Making the Case
Average child from a welfare family hears
about 3 million words a year vs. 11 million
from a professional family (Hart & Risley,
1995).
– By age 4, the gap in words heard grows to 13 vs.
45 million
– Children from a professional family spoke more
words than parents in a welfare family
Making the Case
Facts
 Children enter school with a listening vocabulary ranging
between 2500 to 5000.
 Students from economically disadvantaged backgrounds
enter school knowing fewer words (Stanovich, 1986).
 First graders from higher SES groups know twice as many
words as lower SES children (Grater & Slater, 1987).
 College entrants need about 11 to 14,000 root words
(meter in thermometer or centimeter).
Making the Case
Facts
Vocabulary knowledge is closely related to
reading comprehension and academic
achievement (Chall, Jacobs, & Baldwin, 1990;
Graves 2000).
Limited vocabulary is a major factor in the
achievement gap (Biemiller, 1999, 2004; Chall,
Jacobs, & Baldwin, 1990; Hart & Risley, 1995).
Making the Case
Closing the Vocabulary Gap
 Students who enter kindergarten with limited
vocabulary typically lose ground each year they
are in school (Chall, et al. 1990).
 In 1st and 2nd grade, children need to learn 800+
words per year, about 2 per day.
 Children need to learn 2,000 to 3,000 new words
each year from 3rd grade onward, about 6-8 per
day.
Making the Case
Children need to encounter a word about 12
times before they know it well enough to
improve their comprehension.
To keep up, a child needs to learn at a rate of
2000-3000 words per year from third grade
on. To close the gap, they need to exceed
that.
Making the Case
How Important is Vocabulary?
 _____ was absent yesterday because he was playing football. He was
hurt in the growing area.
 _____ has been absent because he had two teeth taken off his face.
 _____ will not be in school cuz he has an acre in his side.
 Please excuse _____ from P.E. a few days, yesterday she fell off a tree
and misplaced her hip.
 Please excuse _____ from school because he has very loose vowels.
Making the Case
Vocabulary
“Vocabulary knowledge is a powerful predictor
of reading comprehension” (McKeown, 2009).
Making the Case
Vocabulary/Comprehension
A Flannerby Barp for Nall
Nall was so plamper. She was larping to the flannerby with Charkle. She
would grunk a flannerby barp so she could crooch out carples. Charkle lanted
her gib out the nep.
“Parps, Charkle,” jibbed Nall plamperly.
“Now we can crooch out carples together!” pifed Charkle trigly.
1.
2.
Who are the characters in the story?
Answer the following questions by writing a complete sentence:
a.
b.
3.
Where were they larping?
Why did she want to grunk a flannerby barp?
A good title for this story would be:
a.
b.
c.
d.
“Nall and Charkle Together”
“Larping to the Flannerby”
“Lanting Nall Grunk a Flannerby Barp”
“Grunking a Flannerby Barp”
 No access to meaning because we didn't get the vocabulary...
Making the Case
Vocabulary/Comprehension
 Chlorecyclizine hydrochloride is an antihistamine which is
related structurally to cyclizine and meclizine. A combination
with hydrocortisone acetate provides anti-inflammatory,
antipruritic, and anesthetic properties. It blocks the actions
of histamine, antagonizes allergic manifestation, and
anestetizes free nerve endings that mediate pain. The
combination provides dual and additive effects to combat
antigen-antibody reaction.
 No access to meaning because we didn't get the vocabulary...
Making the Case
Vocabulary/Comprehension Connection
Vocabulary Knowledge
Topic Knowledge
Reading Comprehension
Discussion
Based on what you’ve just read, why is it
important to include vocabulary development
as a part of daily instruction?
Professional Reading
A Focus on Vocabulary (page 3)
How Many Words Do Students Need to Know?
What Does It Mean to “Know” a Word?
Principles of Effective Instruction
The old way
 Explicit instruction of necessary words
 Memorization of word lists
 Predetermined lists from publishing companies
However
 Isolated instruction of individual words is
ineffective
Principles of Effective Instruction
In other Words
Students have to USE new language in order to
learn it.
Principles of Effective Instruction
Implicit
• Wide Reading
• Conversation
Explicit
• Multiple Exposure to a Word
• Explicit Instruction in Word Analysis
• Building Academic Vocabulary
Vocabulary Casserole
Ingredients Needed:
20 words no one has ever heard before in his life
1 dictionary with very confusing definitions
1 matching test to be distributed by Friday
1 teacher who wants students to be quiet on Mondays copying words
Put 20 words on chalkboard. Have students copy then look up in dictionary.
Make students write all the definitions. For a little spice, require that
students write words in sentences. Leave alone all week. Top with a
boring test on Friday.
Perishable. This casserole will be forgotten by Saturday afternoon.
Serves: No one.
Adapted from When Kids Can’t Read, What Teachers Can Do by Kylene Beers
Principles of Effective Instruction
Instruction needs to go beyond getting students
to associate words with their definitions.
Principles of Effective Instruction
• Knowing a word CANNOT be equated with
knowing a definition.
• Knowing a word means being able to do
things with it: to recognize it in connected
speech or in print, to access its meaning, to
pronounce it, and to be able to do these
things within a fraction of a second (Stahl and
Fairbanks, 1986).
Vocabulary Treat
Ingredients Needed:
5-10 great words that you really could use
1 thesaurus
Markers and chart paper
1 game like Jeopardy or BINGO
1 teacher who thinks learning is supposed to be fun
Mix 5 to 10 words into the classroom. Have students test each word for
flavor. Toss with a thesaurus to find other words that mean the same.
Write student friendly definitions on chart paper and let us draw
pictures of words to remind us what they mean. Stir all week by a
teacher who thinks learning is supposed to be fun. Top with a cool game
on Fridays like Jeopardy or BINGO.
Serves: Many
Adapted from When Kids Can’t Read, What Teachers Can Do by Kylene Beers
Professional Reading
A Focus on Vocabulary (page 10)
Intentional, Explicit Instruction
Choosing Words for Instruction
Importance
Usefulness and Frequency
Teaching Specific
Words
Principles of Effective Instruction
How to Select Words
Beck, McKeown, Kucan
Beck, et al. (2002) suggest that for instructional purposes, teachers
should ignore Tier One and Tier Three words and concentrate on Tier
Two words. Their argument is that most students already know Tier One
words and that Tier Three words should be taught at point of contact., or
as they occur in reading.
 Tier 1: the most basic words; require little instructional attention (happy,
baby, walk)
 Tier 2: high frequency; found across a variety of domains (absurd,
fortunate, merchant)
 Tier 3: lower frequency; often domain specific (isotope, refinery,
peninsula)
Principles of Effective Instruction
How to Select Words
Marzano
Marzano's vision of vocabulary instruction has
similarities with Beck et al., but while Beck et al.
suggest teaching words that students will encounter
often and across domains, Marzano recommends
teaching subject-specific terms to enhance academic
success. He writes that "Beck, McKeown, and Kucan's
focus on tier-two words as the appropriate target of
vocabulary instruction" is a mistake (88). He stresses
that "subject-specific terms are the best target for
direct vocabulary instruction" (IRA/NCTE, 2010).
Principles of Effective Instruction
How to Select Words
• How useful is the word? Will students see it
in other texts?
• How does the word relate to other words, or
to ideas that students know or have been
learning? Does it directly relate to a topic of
study in the classroom?
• What does the word bring to a text or
situation?
Principles of Effective Instruction
Provide opportunities for:
 Strategy 1
– Wide Independent Reading
 Strategy 2
– Multiple Exposure to a Word
 Strategy 3
– Explicit Instruction in Word Analysis
 Strategy 4
– Developing Word Consciousness
 Strategy 5
– Building Academic Vocabulary
Discussion
Are your teachers familiar with the latest
principles of effective vocabulary instruction
or are they teaching vocabulary the same way
in which they were taught? What is your
evidence?
Professional Reading
A Focus on Vocabulary (pages 6-8)
Incidental Word Learning Through Oral
Language
Oral Language Experiences at Home
Oral Language Experiences at School
Incidental Word Learning Though Teacher
Read Alouds
Discussion
What need do you see for oral language
development based on the analysis of your
school’s EDW data?
How are teachers fostering oral language
development through language experiences?
Are they making incidental word learning a part
of their oral language instruction?
Instructional Strategies
Strategy 1: Wide Independent Reading
Proficient readers read 3 times as many words
per week as less proficient students.
Add 25 minutes of reading per day = students
learn an extra 1,000 words per year.
Instructional Strategies
Strategy 1: Wide Independent Reading
Promote Extensive Reading in the Classroom
 Regular time for free reading
 Encourage students to choose their own material
and to read widely and a lot
 Variety of fiction and non-fiction materials at
each student’s independent reading level
 Listening books, created recordings, student
buddy reading and discussions
 Make the experience pleasurable
Instructional Strategies
Strategy 1: Wide Independent Reading
Extensive Reading
• Krashen contends that almost any reading will
result in vocabulary growth.
• Others contend that students must read text that
are not below their instructional level to result in
vocabulary growth.
Instructional Strategies
Strategy 2: Multiple Exposures to a Word
There is great improvement in vocabulary when students
encounter vocabulary words often (National Reading Panel,
2000). According to Stahl (2005), students probably have
to see a word more than once to place it firmly in their long
term memories. “This does not mean mere repetition or
drill of the word,” but seeing the word in different and
multiple contexts. In other words, it is important that
vocabulary instruction provide students with opportunities
to encounter words repeatedly and in more than one
context. (Diamond & Gutlohn, 2006)
Professional Reading
A Focus on Vocabulary (pages 12-14)
 Teaching Unknown Words: Synonyms
 Teaching Multiple-Meaning Words: Semantic
Maps
 Teaching Words for New and Complex Concepts
 Teaching Independent Word-Learning Strategies
 Using Dictionaries
Before Moving On Think About
The Upcoming Activity
In groups, design a mini-pd based on how to
deliver direct instruction of words, as
recommended by Beck, Mckeown, and Kucan.
Chart out your plans/agenda.
Share out your ideas with the whole group.
Instructional Strategies
Direct Instruction of Words
 Contextualize the word within the story.
• "In the story, Lisa was reluctant to leave ...."
 Have the children say the word.
• " Say the word - reluctant"
 Provide (teacher or student) a student-friendly
explanation or description of the word.
• "Reluctant means you are not sure you want to do
something."
• Versus a definition.
o
Reluctant - 1. Striving against; opposed in desire; unwilling
disinclined; loth, loath.
Instructional Strategies
Direct Instruction of Words
 Present examples of the word used in
contexts different from the story context
• Someone might be reluctant to eat a food that
he or she never had before.
• Students provide an example.
Instructional Strategies
Direct Instruction of Words
 Generate Examples
• Tell about something you would be reluctant to do. Try
to use reluctant when you tell about it.
• You could start by saying something like. “I would be
reluctant to ___”
 Answering Questions/Giving Reasons
• Why might a person be reluctant to eat a new food?
• Why might a child be reluctant to come here?
• Show me how a reluctant broccoli eater would look?
Beck, McKeown, and Kucan, 2002
Activity
In groups, design a mini-pd or lesson based on
how to deliver direct instruction of words, as
recommended by Beck, Mckeown, and Kucan.
Chart out your plans/agenda.
Share out your ideas with the whole group.
Instructional Strategies
Strategy 3: Explicit Instruction in Word Analysis
Contextual and Morphemic
Professional Reading
A Focus on Vocabulary
Identifying and Using Context Clues (page 15)
Instructional Strategies
Strategy 3: Explicit Instruction in Word Analysis
(Contextual)
OPPOSITE/CONTRAST
 Underline the two words or phrases in contrast to one
another, then make a guess.
 Even though I studied for hours, I flunked the test.
 My last apartment was really small, but my new one is
quite spacious.
Instructional Strategies
Strategy 3: Explicit Instruction in Word Analysis
(Contextual)
CAUSE AND EFFECT
 Look for cue words (because, so) then make
a guess.
 Because we lingered too long at the
restaurant, we missed the beginning of the
movie.
 The door was ajar, so the dog got out of the
house.
Instructional Strategies
Strategy 3: Explicit Instruction in Word Analysis
(Contextual)
EXAMPLES IN THE TEXT
The baboon, like other apes, is a very
social animal.
Instructional Strategies
Strategy 3: Explicit Instruction in Word Analysis
(Contextual)
SYNONYMS OR PARAPHRASES (found elsewhere in the
sentence or paragraph)
 Samuel was deaf, but he didn't let his
handicap get in the way of his success.
 Sally's flower garden included dozens
of marigolds, which she tended with
great care.
Instructional Strategies
Strategy 3: Explicit Instruction in Word Analysis
(Contextual)
RECOGNIZING DEFINITIONS (common in college textbooks, newspaper &
magazine articles)
 Many children of normal intelligence have
great difficulty learning how to read, write,
or work with numbers. Often thought of as
"underachievers," such children are said to
have a learning disability, a disorder that
interferes in some way with school
achievement.
Professional Reading
A Focus on Vocabulary Instruction (pages 15-17)
Using Word Part Clues/Morphology
Prefixes and Suffixes That Account for
Approximately 75% of Affixed Words
Instructional Strategies
Strategy 3: Explicit Instruction in Word Analysis
(Morphemic)
 Teach root words and affixes.
 Root words are morphemes (units of
meaning)
 Begin with free morphemes like port
because their meaning is accessible.
 Move to extensions (porter, airport,
import).
Instructional Strategies
Strategy 3: Explicit Instruction in Word Analysis
(Morphemic)
 Understanding the morphological basis of
affixes is critical to word knowledge.
 Re-, dis-, un-, and im- account for over
half of all words with prefixes
 -s/-es, -ed, and –ing account for 65% of
all words with suffixes (Cunningham 2002)
Instructional Strategies
Strategy 4: Developing Word Consciousness
“Word consciousness is an awareness of and
interest in words, their meanings, and their
power” (Anderson & Nagy, 1992; Nagy &
Scott, 2000; Graves & Watts-Taffe, 2002).
Professional Reading
A Focus on Vocabulary (page 17)
Developing Word Consciousness
What About Computer-Related Instruction?
Building Word Consciousness
Word Jars
Word Shows
Rich Words
Instructional Strategies
Strategy 5: Building Academic Vocabulary
“So much of what we do outside of narrative is
tied to vocabulary—a water table is different
from a math table is different from
tabling a motion.”
D. Alvermann
Instructional Strategies
Strategy 5: Building Academic Vocabulary
What is Academic Vocabulary?
Academic vocabulary refers to the specialized,
high-utility words used in the classroom
Academic vocabulary includes high-use academic
words (e.g., analyze, summarize, evaluate,
formula, respond, specify)
Academic language includes the vocabulary,
grammar & syntax necessary to competently
discuss a topic
Before Moving On Think About
The Upcoming Activity
In groups, design a mini-pd based on Six Steps
to Better Vocabulary Instruction by Robert J
Marzano.
Chart out your plans/agenda.
Share out your ideas with the whole group.
Professional Reading
Six Steps to Better Vocabulary Instruction by
Robert J Marzano
Instructional Strategies
Marzano’s Six Step Process
 1. Provide a description, explanation, or example
of the new term.
 2. Ask students to restate the description,
explanation, or example in their own words.
 3. Ask students to construct a picture, pictograph,
or symbolic representation of the term.
Instructional Strategies
Marzano’s Six Step Process
 4. Engage students periodically in activities that help
them add to their knowledge of the terms in their
vocabulary notebooks.
 5. Periodically ask students to discuss the terms with
one another.
 6. Involve students periodically in games that enable
them to play with terms.
Activity
In groups, design a mini-pd based on Six Steps
to Better Vocabulary Instruction by Robert J
Marzano.
Chart out your plans/agenda.
Share out your ideas with the whole group.
ELL Students
Professional Reading
A Focus on Vocabulary (pages 18-20)
Instruction for English Language Learners
Teaching About Cognates
10 Common English Words and Their Latin
and Spanish Equivalents
Thirty-Five Ways to Integrate
Vocabulary Instruction
Interactive Read Aloud and Literature
Discussion
Shared Reading
Guided Reading
Independent Reading
Word Study
Writing Workshop
(Fountas & Pinnell, 2006)
Discussion
How can you encourage/ensure that
vocabulary instruction is integrated
into the components of a balanced
literacy program?
Activity
Brainstorm with your group how you can use
the 35 Ways to Integrate Vocabulary
Instruction sheet during walkthroughs,
learning team meetings, etc.
Conclusion
How are you going to bring an
awareness of the importance of
vocabulary development to your
school?

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