IACBE Annual Conference and Assembly Meeting April 8-11, 2014 Hyatt Regency Mission Bay , San Diego, CA N E L S O N A LTA M I R A N O , P H . D . BEN RADHAKRISHNAN, M.S.,MBA JAMES J. JAUREZ, PH.D. DEEPER LEARNING It is a ‘process through which an individual becomes capable of taking what was learned in one situation and applying it to new situations (NRC Report 2012).’ Through deeper learning the individual gains expertise in a particular area of k nowledge and is c apable of k nowing ‘how, w h y, a n d w h e n t o a p p l y t h i s k n o w l e d g e t o answer questions and solve problems. (NRC Report 2012)’ GAMES IN CLASS AND DEEPER LEARNING DOUBLE-AUCTION MARKET GAME Buyers & Sellers Fun, simple,flexible 5-7 Rounds Engagement Market shocks Deeper Learning DEBRIEFING SECTION BENEFITS AND COSTS PLAYING G AMES Professor designs the game Professor provides logistics including game engine Professor motivates students to play it Professor runs the game Professor runs debriefing Risk: students don’t get it! GAME DESIGN METHODOLOGY Students design the game Professor empowered to teach economics with GDM tools Professor facilitates transfer of knowledge into new situations Students provides logistics Students do the debriefing Risk: students like it too much! PRINCIPLES OF MICROECONOMICS AND GDM GAME PAPER OBJECTIVES understand economics at a deep level learn how to differentiate theoretical results from real situations gain excel skills, team working skills and game creation skills reinforce writing and presentation skills Deliverables (1) Game paper in word (2) Game engine in excel (3) Game presentation in power point. 5 to 10 page long without including the pages for the title, references and appendixes. Sections: A. Abstract B. Instructions C. Game Board and Excel Engine D. Microeconomics Debriefing Section E. References F. Appendix G. Attachments COPYRIGHT © NATIONAL UNIVERSITY 5 MODULES PER WEEK AND CLOS Tue Thu Fri Sun W1 Demand-Supply; Market Equilibrium; Opportunity Cost Session 1 Excel Basics Session 2 Excel D/S Office Hour Exam1 Group members W2 Consumption and Production Decisions Session 3 Excel Elasticity, Consumption Session 4 Excel Profit, Costs Office Hour Game Description Exam2 Comment on Game Description W3 Competitive and Non-Competitive Markets Session 5 Excel Perfect Competition Session 6 Excel Monopoly 30’ Advising Office Hour Assignment W4 Labor Market and Government Intervention Session 7 Session 8 Game Presentations Office Hour Exam3 COPYRIGHT © NATIONAL UNIVERSITY 6 PAPER RUBRIC AND GRADING ITEMS Paper (50 points) Content: Structure: Style: Game Board and Engine (20 points) Game Board Design and Integration with Engine: Engine Design: Engine Formulas that express game rules: Engine Formulas that calculate winners: Powerpoint (10 points) Content direct to the point: Design for slides: Self Evaluation: 10 points Peer Evaluation: 10 points Activities and Assignments Grade Live Session Attendance 8% Weekly Discussion 8% Group Game Assignment 20% Group Presentation (Individual Grade) 5% Exam 1 18 % Exam 2 18 % Exam 3 and learning outcomes 23 % Total 100 % Extra Credit: Comment on Game Description COPYRIGHT © NATIONAL UNIVERSITY 2% 7 Demand in Traditional Texts GDM: TEACHING AND FACILITATING Interactive Demand in Excel STUDENT DEEPER LEARNING EXAMPLE: FISHING GAME ENGINE AND DEEPER LEARNING SUSTAINABILITY CONCEPTS WITH GAMES Attributes of Games in General for students Makes learning fun Less stressful Active learning (as opposed to passive learning) Engaged in learning Participative, collaborative, innovative/creative Teamwork Concepts become easier to understand and practical Innovate/create a game, Demonstration and Quantification Randomness and Unknown Environments Applying the known concepts to new situations LEARNING SUSTAINABILITY CONCEPTS WITH GAMES Sustainability concepts Recent subject-matter in higher education Getting recognition as a matter of ‘survival’ for the planet and its beings Modern Sustainability Definition in 1987 (UN’s Brundtland’s report) "Sustainable development is development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs” Modern Interpretation in 3 Es: Environment, Economics and Equity(Social Justice) Not easy for students to understand the concept of 3 Es The inter-relationships of the 3 Es SUSTAINABILITY CONCEPTS WITH GAMES Sustainability and Student Created Games Student teams to design/create/play games tied to the course outcomes Students can also adopt any existing game Course Learning Outcomes (CLO) linking game outcomes: Develop critical thinking concepts and Tools which will be used in the course, including the different measurement unit systems used for Sustainability Explore, evaluate the improvements and changes required to achieve sustainability Game attributes support these CLOs qualitatively and quantitatively Critical thinking for game objective, rules and quantification (game engine) helps students to turn the definitions (qualitative) to seeing actual real results SUSTAINABILITY CONCEPTS WITH GAMES Sustainability Games Home or commercial building water, energy management Use actual home or building actual information (or standards available from EPA) for the engine LEED Certification – demonstrate key aspects of obtaining LEED points without really having to spend money, but doing it in a fun way LEED is not an easy process and this makes good training tool as well Food impacts on environment and changes Commercial landscaping Waste Management games All games need an engine (usually Excel) with immediate outputs (charts, numbers) Game board, as required FACULTY EXAMPLE: LEARNING SUSTAINABILITY CONCEPTS WITH GAMES Game Board Dashboard & Engine STUDENT EXAMPLE: LEARNING SUSTAINABILITY CONCEPTS WITH GAMES Game Board Engine LEARNING SUSTAINABILITY CONCEPTS WITH GAMES n. Game creation, playing , demonstration is an effective method of learning SUS 601 Introduction to Sustainability - Student Feedback Survey on GDM SUS601 - Survey Feedback on Game Creation & Play 6.00 5.00 Rating - 5 Most Favorable Sample Size = 25 Questions Relating to GDM Rate the following attributes for the Game design and creation activity (rating 1 to 5, with 5 being most favorable): a. Increased student Motivation b. Increased student depth of learning c. Increased student engagement d. Increased team collaboration and communication e. Increased ‘inter’ and ‘intra’ team positive competition f. Increased student creativity and imagination g. Learning was fun through ‘game creation and play’ h. Expect better retention of learned material through game creation and playing i. Games help to demonstrate difficult sustainability concepts j. Increased tools knowledge and skills (PowerPoint, spreadsheet, game website research, etc.) k. Game ‘creation and play’ improved student critical thinking skills l. Team presentation & game demo is an effective method to communicate with the class m. The Game theory videos and tools at www.nucatalyst.com was effective and useful 4.34 4.20 4.32 4.32 4.16 4.56 4.44 4.32 4.32 4.28 4.16 4.60 4.12 4.00 3.63 3.00 2.00 1.41 1.00 1.03 0.90 1.04 0.85 0.90 0.77 0.80 0.98 0.90 0.90 0.95 0.95 0.58 0.00 6a 6b 6c 6d 6e 6f 6g 6h 6i 6j 6k 6l Specific Game Related Qs (details on the right side) Ave Rating Std Dev Student Feedback 6m 6n FOUR PHASES OF STUDENT BUILT GAMES Phase 1: Elements, Ideation, and Planning • Learn Design through play • Outlining course targets/concepts for game integration • Game teams, titles, and descriptions Phase 2: Early Implementation and Game Construction • Defining objectives of the student built game • Fleshing out characters and objects in the proposed game, based on course concepts • Design game assets with approachable tools • Initial Playtest and feedback Phase 3: Advanced Implementation and Game Shaping • Outline rule sets and feedback systems • Refine game assets and game tracking • Iterative Playtest and improvements Phase 4: Completion, Reporting, and Presenting Game Designs • Final/Game Design Document as a Scholarly Document • Completed Game Assets, Boards, and Playable Pieces • Example Gameplay and Live Presentation GOING TO WAR! UNDERSTANDING CHARACTER DEVELOPMENT AND BALANCE OF PLAY POWERPOINT AS A GRAPHIC DESIGN TOOL FOR NON-GRAPHIC DESIGN STUDENTS Basic Radio Simulation Game Procedure Cycle Data from Game Inputted to Simulator Player Executes Game Strategy Simulator Output Player Decision To Game Interaction LITERATURE GAMEPLAY Faculty and administrators in higher education have been seeking innovative ways to engage and motivate students in STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics) disciplines (Shaffer, 2008). Game play and mini games have been used to help reach students and assist in learning the fundamentals of these disciplines (Prensky, 2008). By providing fault tolerant environments and the environment to approach content at the students own pace, games provide a vehicle for students to experiment and approach course concepts through a sandbox of play. Games have been shown to have a number of distinct benefits when applied to education (Gee, 2007; Linder, 2012): Fault tolerant (iterate to solution/fail forward) Opportunity for continual feedback Tools within the game have many purposes Builds on prior knowledge and allows for progressing to new levels Players are rewarded for persistence Players can work at your own pace GAME DESIGN, TEACHING, AND LEARNING Formative Continual Feedback Fault Tolerant Project Based Through providing the fault tolerant environment, games provide a chance for students to make mistakes in a safe setting (McGonigal, 2011). These educational settings encourage students to try again or “fail forward” when met with obstacles (Shaffer, 2008). Games often provide continual feedback, through the screen in video games or status in physical games. This formative and summative assessment of player progress is helpful in correcting ideas and strategies in the game (Gee, 2007). Game in education leverage this feature to provide real time assessment of learning and the ability to correct misunderstandings Games provide this or confusions with course opportunity to iterate through content embedded in the a problem, by allowing game (Lim, 2008). players to build strategies or test boundaries in the game without the fear of failing (Prensky, 2001). Even if the student does not reach an objective, they can try again until they succeed. Skills/Tools Practical Real World The ability of games to provide complex environments and a variety of objects means they can give players exposure to many tools and topics to explore (Linder, 2012; Sheldon, 2011). As with STEM disciplines, these complex systems are often difficult to demonstrate, however the games can provide a visual representation of concepts and relationships between objects and topics (Kapp, 2012). Students learn to employ various tools within the game just as they would in the real world in order to problem solve and seek answers to challenges in the course and game (Kapp, 2012). Prior Knowledge Leveling Up Games are flexible, but also allow for progress to be measured as players’ progress from one level to another (Linder, 2012; Ray & Coulter, 2010). Similar to traditional educational environments, game play promotes and rewards the gaining of experience and advancement towards higher levels of expertise (Rogers, 2010). This “leveling up” provides motivational queues and a consistent monitoring or feedback of academic progress, which is highly desirable in engaging continued play and in assessing the student performance (Prensky, 2008; Rogers, 2010) Game Design and Play Persistence And Pace This leveling and feedback also promotes students remain persistent in seeking or achieving goals within the educational games (Kapp, 2012). Persistence is the hallmark of gamers and is often times the very attribute that is lacking in STEM students (Shaffer, 2008). In order to engage and understand complex concepts in STEM, students must remain persistent through the process and combine the right building blocks in order to achieve the desired outcomes for the course (Jaurez, Fu, Uhlig, & Viswanathan, 2010). Game environments reward such persistency and levels within the game act as these stepping stones towards knowledge transfer and scaffolding of ideas (Sheldon, 2011). GAME DESIGN, TEACHING, AND LEARNING Skills/Tools Practical Real World Formative Continual Feedback Prior Knowledge Leveling Up Persistence And Pace Fault Tolerant Project Based Process Methods R Matlab Excel Statistics Analysis Formulas Unity Heuristics Phase 1: Behaviorist Focus Codes GAME DESIGN, TEACHING, AND LEARNING Formative Continual Feedback Fault Tolerant Project Based Skills/Tools Practical Real World Prior Knowledge Leveling Up Persistence And Pace Phase 2: Cognitivist Focus • Student begin to apply learned course concepts to known situations. • Common solutions use of skill, relationships, and content… testing models, schema, transfers of knowledge, content frameworks • Example: Elasticity simulation, water usage simulation, computer ethics case dilemma… GAME DESIGN, TEACHING, AND LEARNING Formative Continual Feedback Skills/Tools Practical Real World Fault Tolerant Project Based Prior Knowledge Leveling Up Persistence And Pace Phase 3 and 4: Social Constructivist • Student begin to apply known course concepts to unknown situations. • Uncommon solutions: use of complex systems, interrelation between advanced content… • Examining, designing, and testing against fragile gaming systems – enquiry and discovery, capturing the nuances of mastery of course concepts, and team iteration/evolution of system • Example: Game simulation of competing forces, leveling, designing environments for tactics and strategy, and managing world building GAME DESIGN, TEACHING, AND LEARNING Formative Continual Feedback Fault Tolerant Project Based Skills/Tools Practical Real World Prior Knowledge Leveling Up Persistence And Pace All Phases: Constructionist • Students build, build, build.... Making tangible objects and manipulation of materials • Experimental problem based learning occurs at every phase as students design maps, characters, cards, digital assets, models, rule sheets, procedures, objectives, challenges… • Systems and subsystems where students construct situations, problems, implications, and need payoff of each component (utility) GAME DESIGN, TEACHING, AND LEARNING Formative Continual Feedback Skills/Tools Practical Real World Prior Knowledge Leveling Up Persistence And Pace Fault Tolerant Project Based All Phases: Constructionist Phase 3 and 4: Social Constructivist Phase 2: Cognitivist Focus Phase 1: Behaviorist Focus TOOLS FOR GAME DESIGN Construction of Universal and Economics Tools for Student Built Games: • Web based resources (Research Wiki, Repository of articles) • Course concept card constructors – Characters and objects of the discipline • Game play card constructors – Worlds, maps, legends, and game flow frameworks • Rule sheet templates and references – quick sheet, relationship definitions, and gameplay procedure outlines • Game engine bridge frameworks – templates and connectors for common GDM game engines (Matlab, Excel, R, etc..) • Presentation Builders – workflows to represent and report gameplay for presentation of final games • Reusable Game Storage And Compliance Pattern – Establishing game archival and retrieval standard and structures NUNUKE.COM (RESOURCES AND CONTACT) Questions and Answer? Nelson Altamirano Ben Radhakrishnan James J. Jaurez James J. Jaurez, PhD is an Assistant Professor with National University’s School of Engineering, Technology, and Media. Dr. Jaurez teaches courses in Computer Science, Educational and Instructional Technology, and Digital Media Design programs, which has lead him to pioneer a fusion of the education and computing technology disciplines. As lead researcher and co-PI on Hewlett Packard Technology for Teaching – Higher Education – Leadership Grant 2008 and Catalyst Grant 2010, Dr Jaurez has worked extensively in Game Design Methodology as a novel teaching framework for STEM+ courses. A PhD from Nova Southeastern University, his dissertation work is in Research and Development in the discipline of Computing Technology in Education. As board member for an organization called Learning for Life, Dr. Jaurez also uses video game technology to inspire juvenile court system kids in the area of science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM). His aim is to encourage academic and professional career paths in gaming, and inspire "at risk" youth to enroll in college. Dr. Jaurez also sits on the board of his local church and assists with outreach programs and ministries. Ben D Radhakrishnan is a Faculty-Instructor in the School of Engineering, Technology and Media (SETM). He is the Lead Faculty for MS Sustainability Management Program in SETM. He develops and teaches Engineering and Sustainability Management graduate level courses. Ben has taught Sustainability workshops in Los Angeles (Army) and San Diego (SDGE). His special interests and research include promoting Leadership in Sustainability Practices, energy management of Data Centers and to establish Sustainable strategies for enterprises. He is an Affiliate Researcher at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA, focusing on the energy efficiency of IT Equipment in a Data Centers. Ben Radhakrishnan holds M.Tech, MS and M.B.A degrees, and Sustainable Business Practices Certification from UCSD. Ben’s hobbies include Photography & Videography, travelling and hiking.