Cox (1998)- A desire to fulfil a need
Sage (1974)- The internal mechanisms which
arouse and direct behaviour
Sage (1974)- The direction and intensity of
ones effort
‘The effort administered towards a goal or
desired behaviour’ (Allen, 2013)
Trait Centred
Motivation comes from within regarding the situation
 Situation Centred
The situation determines the level of motivation,
which also shapes your behaviour
 Interactional View
It is a combination of both a persons trait and the
situation that affects the level of motivation shown
Motivation can influence your:
- Selection and preference for an activity
- Persistence
- Effort levels
- Performance levels relative to your ability level
It is seen as a personality factor and
describes our persistence to keep
striving for success… Our level of
Yet… some people are driven
to success and have NO fear of
failure, whilst some people are
driven to succeed due to a
DEEP fear of failure.
‘I do not play to win; I play
to fight against the idea of
losing’ (Eric Cantona, 1997)
McClelland and Atkinson:
Achievement Motivation= need to achieve (nACH)- need
to avoid failure (naF)
• If nACH outweighs our naF= high in achievement motivation
• If naF outweighs our nACH= low in achievement motivation
• This will influence our behaviour in sport and the challenges we seek.
How will being high or low in achievement
motivation affect a sportspersons behaviour/
- Choose competitive
- Choose opponents
close to their skill level
and present a
Low (high fear of failure):
- Choose opponents of much
higher/lower skill level
- Avoid situations that present
personal challenges
- If probability of success is high, tends to weaken the need to achieve as
reward is low
- If probability of success is low, then need to avoid failure is low
The reasons we give for an outcome are called
Performers capability
Physical and mental effort
Problems posed by the task
Attributed to chance (weather)
They affect:
- Motivation Levels
- Process of understanding
in order to learn from our
- Will affect our future
expectations of success
and failure
Reasons for Success:
‘I played well today, the training is paying off’
‘I was lucky to get away with that one’
‘I tried like mad in the final set- that’s what pulled me
Reasons for Failure:
‘I can’t play this game- it’s impossible’
‘I didn’t get the rub of the green today’
‘I was really lazy today’
Research findings:
1) Winners: take responsibility for their success and usually give internal
attributions to make themselves feel better ‘I am more talented’
2) Losers: give external attributions for their failures and try to either enhance or
protect their ego ‘the referee was against me’
Intrinsic motivation involves gaining selfsatisfaction, pride and a feeling of
It often involves overcoming a particular
challenge or simply gaining enjoyment from
Extrinsic motivation involves the performer
receiving some form of reward from others, often
as a form of reward from others.
Can be tangible or intangible
Tangible – are real can be touched (Money/
Intangible – Words, status e.g applause
The use of extrinsic motivation must be monitored carefully.
If overused, it may lead to the performer only participating if they
will be externally rewarded.
This will reduce intrinsic motivation and may lead to a drop in
How would the various
of motivation (intrinsic and extrinsic)
affect sports performance???
When talking about the effect on sports performance,
make your views and back it up with the information
you have researched/gathered from various sources…
Remember there is NOT a wrong answer- unless it is
NOT backed up with theories and findings!!!!
For P2, learners must describe the factors
that affect the motivation of athletes.
This must include a definition
Grading criterion M1 links to criteria P1
and P2, requiring learners to explain the
effects of personality and
motivation on sports performance.
motivation, along with a
description of views of
motivation, motivation
types, theories of
motivation and
how motivation affects sports
Grading criterion D1 builds on M1, and
requires learners to evaluate the effects of
personality and motivation
on sports performance. This means
learners must make a judgement based on
each of the effects that they
have described/explained (criteria P1, P2
and M1).

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