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Here are a few notes about this presentation. It was developed as part of an activity about Tsunami Hazard Mitigation and Engineering, call Tsunamis and Sand Bins. It contains three sections: tsunamis and modeling, civil engineering and the engineering design cycle. Each of these sections is meant to introduce the topic and provide an overview. Any section of this presentation maybe delivered separately or removed from the presentation as it relates to the teaching goals. Slides can be added for increased content. Please use this a start for your teaching, modify it as necessary. It is meant to be a “living” document. However the author and her sources should be acknowledged if you distribute this presentation . If you have questions or comment please contact [email protected] or 541-737-3665 Surviving Tsunamis on the Oregon Coast Coastal Engineers Think Inside the Box Part 1 – Tsunami and Research at the NEES Tsunami Facility What is a Tsunami? Means “Harbor Wave” in Japanese It a sudden and dramatic rise in sea level, resulting in a very fast and damaging flood. Credit: USGS Tsunami Before and After Community in Japan before (above) and after(below) the Feb 2011 tsunami Credit: Dailymail.com Stages of a Tsunami Generation Propagation Inundation Credit:NOAA Credit: EPA How are tsunamis created? How do they move through the ocean? What happens when they hit land? How are Tsunamis Generated? How are Tsunamis Generated? •Subduction Zone Earthquakes •Landslides •Volcanoes •Glaciers Tsunami Generation Subduction Zone Earthquakes (video click on the image) Illustration of Tsunami Generation by Subduction Zone (USGS) Tsunamis Generation •Landslides – Volcanoes –Glaciers Lituya Bay 1958 in Alaska – source Tsunamis Generation •Landslides – Volcanoes –Glaciers Aysen in Chile in 2007– source: Fritz Tsunami Propagation (video) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Lo5uH1UJF4A&feature=share&list=TL NBfeCOmN_0BDPbxUSX6M4jJyHm0bz9Hx Click on link to go to NOAA’s YouTube video of a narrated animation of the March 11, 2011 Honshu, Japan tsunami propagation (NOAA Center for Tsunami Research) Tsunami Inundation Large amount of water floods into a land area usually above sea level – this is measured in feet (or meters) above sea level Credit: Dan Cox Tsunamis in Oregon 30 min Cascadia Subduction Zone 1 in 7 chance in the next 50 years Dynamic Tsunami Hazard Map Video courtesy of : Dr. Harry Yeh Oregon State University & Dr. Katada Gunma University, Japan Typical waves at Seaside: 6 ft high every 7 sec. Credit: Dan Cox Demonstration of Cascadia subduction zone tsunami Credit: Dan Cox “Wave Force Potential” Numerical Calculations Courtesy of Dr. Patrick Lynett, USC 1:6 Scale Residential Building Courtesy of: Drs. J. Van de Lindt, Colorado State Univ. & R. Gupta, Oregon State University Near Prototype Scale Wall Credit: Dan Cox Part 2 Introduction to Civil and Coastal Engineering What is Engineering?? What is Engineering?? Engineering = Math+Science+creativity = problem solving Engineers – Design solutions to problems Engineers – Innovate (make new things/ solve problems) Engineers –work in teams What is Civil Engineering Civil engineering is a discipline that deals with the design, construction, and maintenance of the physical and naturally built environment. (Wikipedia) Civil Engineers work on? Source: Jan Drewes Civil Engineers work on? Buildings Roads Rivers Sanitation Systems Parks Bridges Towns Dams Subways Safety A major goal of all of civil engineering is to provide safety for the users of the infrastructure. This can mean: Safety A major goal of all of civil engineering is to provide safety for the users of the infrastructure. This can mean: Designing buildings to withstand loads from wind or earthquakes Designing bridges to withstand loading from large heavy trucks or high winds Planning highway/freeway systems to provide adequate evacuation routes Coastal Engineering Source: http://www.teignbridge.gov.uk/media/images/9/s/TEIGN_ESTUARY_large_image.jpg Coastal Engineering The goal of Coastal Engineering is to protect civil infrastructure from coastal processes. Erosion Source: Armand Thibault Storms Credit: Steve Earley Hurricanes Gilchrist Texas after Hurricane Ike in 2008, (credit: the guardian) Japan March 2011 Tsunami Credit: Kyodo/AP Part 3. Engineering Design Cycle Engineers think inside the box and the engineering design cycle How to think and work like an engineer Thinking inside the box Budget Time Tsunami forces Building Code The Engineering Design Process 1. Define the problem 2. Gather information 3. Generate multiple solutions 4. Analyze and choose a solution 5. Implement the solution 6. Evaluate the solution Define the Problem 1. Define the problem 2. Gather information 3. Generate multiple solutions 4. Analyze and choose a solution Start by defining your problem. Be specific. Make sure everyone on your team agrees with the problem statement 5. Implement the solution 6. Evaluate the solution Gather Information 1. Define the problem 2. Gather information What are the constraints on your design? Write them down Hint: Some constraints include Materials Time Wave Height Budget 3. Generate multiple solutions 4. Analyze and choose a solution 5. Implement the solution 6. Evaluate the solution Gather Information 1. Define the problem 2. Gather information 3. Generate multiple solutions 4. Analyze and choose a solution What does your proposed solution have to do? What forces does it have to resist to stay safe? What kinds of designs are most likely to resist those forces? 5. Implement the solution 6. Evaluate the solution Generate Multiple Solutions 1. Define the problem 2. Gather information 3. Generate multiple solutions 4. Analyze and choose a solution Decide how you will judge your ideas! What criteria will you use to make a decision on a design? Try different designs, test them in your minitsunami sand bin Record your results 5. Implement the solution 6. Evaluate the solution Analyze and Choose a Solution 1. Define the problem 2. Gather information 3. Generate multiple solutions 4. Analyze and choose a solution Use the criteria you defined to choose one design 5. Implement the solution 6. Evaluate the solution Implement the solution 1. Define the problem 2. Gather information 3. Generate multiple solutions 4. Analyze and choose a solution Now the fun starts! Build your chosen design! Record your design performance to report 5. Implement the solution 6. Evaluate the solution Remember… Design is an Iterative Process You can make changes as you go But you have TIME constraints to implement your design! 6. Evaluate the solution 1. Define the problem 5. Implement the solution 2. Gather information 4. Analyze and choose a solution 3. Generate multiple solutions Acknowledgments I would like to thank the following people for their contributions to this presentation Dr. Dan Cox, Oregon State University Deanna Lyons, Oregon State University I would like to thank the following organizations for their fiscal support that made is presentation possible: The National Science Foundation The Network for Earthquake Engineering Simulation Oregon Sea Grant