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CHANCE
ENCOUNTER
Chapter Twenty
VOCABULARIA
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Vocab List
Verbs
Adverbs
maneo, manere, mansi, mansus-to remain
paulisper-for a short time
mitto, mittere, misi, missus-to send
numquam-never
volo, velle, volui-to want, wish
antea-before
dico, dicere, dixi, dictus-to say
Preposition
post-after
 In hanc cauponam-into this inn
neco, necare, necavi, necatus-to kill
 narro, narrare, narravi, narratus-to tell
Adjectives
narratus, -a, -um-told
Conjunction
medius, -a, -um-middle
enim-for
optimus, -a, -um-best
Noun Phrase
media nox-midnight
 Dum…devorant-While…were devouring
 Vir optime-sir
Nouns
fabula, -ae, f.-story
miles, militis, m.-soldier
Interrogative
Licetne nobis…? Is it allowed for us…?
 Cur non…istis? Why didn’t you go?
Imperative
Esto! All right!
Workbook Activity 20G
To what Latin word are all of the following English
words related?______________
1. Dictate
A.
B.
2. Dictionary
3. Predict
4. Edict
5. Indict
Etymology
MEDIUS
MILES
OPTIMUS
FABULA
NARRATUS
1. The ______________ of the story was difficult.
2. Our ______________forces won a great victory in
battle.
3. An ______________ person always looks on the
bright side.
4. The ______________ divided the highway.
5. The book of Aesop’s ______________ teaches
lessons with morals to help children develop
strong character.
Constructing Derivatives
1. Postpone
2. Post-Secondary
3. Postnatal
4. Postorbital
5. Postprandial
6. Post mortem
7. Post partum
8. Postscript
9. Posthumous
Chance Encounter: Lines 1-11
Ubi Cornelia et mater cubitum ierunt,
Marcus et Sextus cum Cornelio manserunt.
Cum Cornelio cenare et post cenam ad
mediam noctem vigilare in animo
FABULA
habuerunt, nam omnia videre
et omnia audire voluerunt.
Marcus, “Esurio, pater,” inquit. “Esurisne
tu quoque, Sexte?”
“Ita vero!” respondit Sextus.
“Semper esuritis, tu et Marcus!”
FABULA
exclamavit Cornelius.
“Licetne nobis,” inquit Marcus, “hic
cenare?”
Paulisper tacebat pater, sed tandem,
“Esto!” inquit. “Tibi et Sexto licet hic cenare.
Post cenam tamen necesse est statim cubitum
ire.”
Riserunt pueri quod laeti erant.
FABULA
“Gaudemus, pater,” inquit Marcus, “quod nos
in cubiculum non statim misisti. Voluimus
enim hic manere et alios viatores spectare.”
Chance Encounter: Lines 12-25
Tum Cornelius cauponem iussit cibum parare.
Brevi tempore servus cibum ad eos portavit. Dum
pueri cibum devorant, subito intravit miles
quidam. Cornelium attente spectavit.
“Salve, vir optime!” inquit. “Salvete,
FABULA
pueri! Cur vos in hanc cauponam
intravistis? Cur non ad villam hospitis
istis? Nonne tu es senator Romanus?”
“Senator Romanus sum,” respondit
Cornelius. “Nos in hanc cauponam intravimus
quod raeda nostra in fossa haeret immobilis.
In agris nocte manere nolebamus, sed
numquam antea in caupona pernoctavimus.
FABULA
Certe in agris pernoctare est periculosum.”
Tum miles, “Etiam in caupona
pernoctavimus. Certe in agris pernoctare est
periculosum.”
“Cur hoc nobis dicis?” rogavit Cornelius.
“Estne hic caupo homo scelestus? De
FABULA
Apollodoro quid audivisti?”
“De Apollodoro nihil audivi, sed semper
est periculosum in caupona pernoctare. Vosne
audivistis illam fabulam de caupone narratam?
Ille caupo hospitem necavit.”
“Minime!” inquit Cornelius. “Illam
FABULA
fabulam non audivi. Cur igitur nobis illam non
narras dum cenamus?”
Forms: Consolidation of Perfect
Tense
 Most common verb tense
 SINGLE COMPLETED ACT
 Formation:
 3rd PP - final i + perfect tense personal endings
PERSON SINGULAR PLURAL
1st
-i
-imus
2nd
-isti
-istis
3rd
-it
-erunt
portavi portavimus
portavisti portavistis
portavit portaverunt
timui timuimus
timuisti timuistis
timuit timuerunt
dixi diximus
dixisti dixistis
dixit dixerunt
fui fuimus
fuisti fuistis
fuit fuerunt
veni venimus
venisti venustis
venit venerunt
Workbook Activity 20A: Fill In
1.
PRESENT
mittis
2.
IMPERFECT
mittebas
tenebant
3.
4.
audivimus
peto
5.
habebatis
6.
gemis
7.
est
8.
iaciebam
9.
10
.
PERFECT
misisti
intravimus
iubebant
Practicing Perfect
custodio
habeo
neco
specto
1st Sing
2nd Sing
3rd Sing
1st Pl
2nd Pl
3rd Pl
appareo
1st Sing
2nd Sing
3rd Sing
1st Pl
2nd Pl
3rd Pl
devoro
terreo
dormio
Translate
1. spectavimus
6. misimus
11. haesi
2. gemuerunt
7. discessistis
12. iussimus
3. necavi
8. dormivit
13. necavistis
4. erravit
9. petiverunt
14. erraverunt
5. tenuisti
10. intravisti
15. discessit
Change from perfect to
imperfect
1. spectavimus
6. misimus
11. haesi
2. gemuerunt
7. discessistis
12. iussimus
3. necavi
8. dormivit
13. necavistis
4. erravit
9. petiverunt
14. erraverunt
5. tenuisti
10. intravisti
15. discessit
Change from perfect to present
1. spectavimus
6. misimus
11. haesi
2. gemuerunt
7. discessistis
12. iussimus
3. necavi
8. dormivit
13. necavistis
4. erravit
9. petiverunt
14. erraverunt
5. tenuisti
10. intravisti
15. discessit
Give the Latin for:
1. I told
6. She guarded
11. They spoke
2. He saw
7. He groaned
12. She prepared
3. We ran
8. They killed
13. You all had
4. They walked
5. You slept
9. We sent
10. I led
14. They did
15. He threw
Book Activity 20B
1. Ego libero in horto petiv________; tu eos in silva
inven________.
2. Ubi tunica Sexti in ramis haerebat, nos omnes
ris________.
3. Quo iit Cornelia? Ego et Marcus patrem hoc
rogav________, sed ille nihil respond________.
4. Quamquam Sextus fuit molestus, servi eum non
verberv________.
5. Ubi heri fu________, Marce et Cornelia? Pater et mater
nos iuss________ hic manere.
6. Postquam vos cenav________, cubitum ire
volu________.
7. Heri nos in urbe eramus, sed matrem ibi non
vid________.
8. “Unde ven________, amici?” rogav________ caupo.
“Quo nunc itis?”
9. Tune Cornelium vid________, ubi tu Romam
adven________? Ego certe eum non vid________.
10. Ille, postquam haec audiv________, e caupona se
praecipitav________.
Building the Meaning
Subordinate Clauses with the Conjunction dum
Examples with subordinate clauses introduced by the conjunction dum:
Dum Cornelii cenant, miles fabulam narrat.Sub & Main Clauses=Present Tense
While the Cornelii eat dinner, the soldier tells a story.
Dum Cornelii cenabant, miles fabulam narrabat. Sub & Main Clauses=Imperfect Tense
While the Cornelii were eating dinner, the soldier was telling a story.
Actions are taking place at the same time, or over the same period of time in the past.
Dum pueri cibum devorant, subito intravit miles quidam.
While the boys were devouring their food, a certain soldier suddenly entered.
Now the verb in the subordinate clause is in present tense, and the verb of the main clause is
in the perfect tense. The subordinate clause describes an action that was continuing over a
period of time in the past when SUDDENLY a single, simple action occurred.
Latin uses the present tense in clauses starting with dum when the main clause is in the
perfect tense.
Translate as while…were verbing…
Building the Meaning
Uses of the Infinitive
 The infinitive is a form of the verb without person or
number, giving its basic meaning.
 The present infinitive form gives you the PRESENT STEM
and enables you to identify the CONJUGATION of the
verb.
 (1st-are, 2nd-ēre, 3rd-ere, 4th-ire)
A. COMPLEMENTARY INFINITIVES:
Verbs which imply ANOTHER ACTION OF THE SAME
SUBJECT to complete their meaning take the infinitive.
 Examples:
Marcus arbores ascendere non vult.
Marcus does not want to climb trees.
Multi viatores ad meam cauponam venire solent.
Many travelers are accustomed to come to my inn.
B. INFINITIVE WITH IMPERSONALS:
Necesse est and licet are said to be impersonal because the subject IT is supplied.
The infinitives are actually the grammatical subjects.

Examples:
Nobis necesse est statim discedere. It is necessary for us to leave immediately.
Vobis licet hic cenare. It is permitted for you to dine here.
C. INFINITIVE AS SUBJECT OF THE VERB EST:
Infinitive is used as a verbal noun and it neuter in gender.

Examples:
Certe in agris pernoctare est periculosum.
To spend the night in the fields is certainly dangerous.
D. ACCUSATIVE AND INFINITIVE WITH VERBS LIKE DOCERE AND IUBERE:

Examples:
Aurelia Corneliam docet villam curare.
Aurelia teaches Cornelia (how) to take care of the country house.
Ancillam iubet alias tunicas et stolas et pallas in cistam ponere.
She orders a slave-woman to put other tunics and stolas and pallas into a chest.
Book Activity 20C
Line #
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
Infinitive
Use
Book Activity 20D
TRANSLATION
1. Cur, Marce et Sexte, ad mediam noctem vigilare
in animo habetis?
2. Omnia videre et audire volumes quod
numquam antea in caupona pernoctavimus.
3. Dum pueri in caupona erant, dormire nolebant.
4. Cur voluisti hic pernoctare, Marce?
5. Cur in caupona pernoctavistis, pueri? Licetne
filio senatoris in cauponam intrare?
6. Cornelius servum in cubiculum ire iussit.
7. In via percontare periculosum est.
8. Dum Cornelius et pueri cenant, intravit miles
quidam.
9. Vobis in caupona cenare licet.
10. Ego et tu cubitum ire noluimus.
EXPLANATION
Workbook Activity 20C
1. Flavia et Cornelia cubitum iverunt, sed Marcus et Sextus cum Cornelio
___________________.
(stayed)
2. Ad mediam noctem ___________________ in animo habuerunt.(to stay
awake)
3. Marcus et Sextus esuriunt et Marcus rogat, “___________________
___________________ hic cenare?” (May we)
4. ___________________ tacebat pater.
(For a short time)
5. Tandem, “___________________!” inquit.
(“All right!”)
6. Riserunt pueri quod laeti erant. Voluerunt ___________________ ibi
cenare et alios viatores spectare.
(for)
7. Dum pueri cibum ___________________, subito intravit
___________________
___________________. (devour) (a certain soldier)
8. “Salve, ___________________ ___________________,” inquit. (sir)
9. “Cur vos ___________________ ___________________
___________________ intravistis?” (into this inn)
10. “Quod raeda nostra in fossa ___________________
___________________,” respondet Cornelius. (is stuck fast)
Recycling Bin
CASE
cenam (2)
pater (8)
pueri (10)
viatores (11)
tempore (12)
hospitis (15)
fossa (17)
agris (17)
cauponem (23)
hospitem (23)
NUMBER
Roman Hospitality
 http://dsc.discovery.com/news/briefs/200411
29/romanreststop.html
 http://visitingtheancients.com/blog/2010/07/a
ncient-roman-restaurants-taverns-and-inns/
Building the Meaning
Principal Parts

AMO:
1st person singular, present tense=I love, I am loving, I do love

AMARE:
present infinitive=to love, to be loving

AMAVI:
1st person singular, perfect tense=I loved, I did love, I have loved

AMATUS, A, UM:
perfect passive participle (verbal adjective)=having been loved,
loved
Present Infinitive Perfect
1st Conj.
2nd Conj.
3rd Conj.
-io
4th Conj.
amo
habeo
mitto
iacio
audio
amare
habēre
mittere
iacere
audire
Perfect
Meaning
Passive of the Verb
Participle
amavi amatus
To love
habui habitus
To have
misi
missus
To send
ieci
iactus
To throw
audivi auditus
To hear
Workbook Activity 20B
1st Sing. Present
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
Rides, risisti
Faciunt, fecerunt
Cadimus, cecidimus
Statis, stetistis
Venis, venisti
Dicunt, dixerunt
Concidimus, concidimus
Fugiunt, fugerunt
Ascendit, ascendit
Ponitis, posuistis
Vides, vidisti
Extrahit, extraxit
Movent, moverunt
Tradunt, tradiderunt
Surgis, surrexisti
Scribis, scripsisti
Deverto, deverti
Excipiunt, exceperunt
Adiuvas, adiuvisti
Sedet, sedit
Conspicio, conspexi
Legunt, legerunt
Gerit, gessit
Reprehendunt, reprehenderunt
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
Quiescent, quieverunt
Consulimus, consuluimus
Currit, cucurrit
Respondes, respondisti
Repellitis, reppulistis
Arripiunt, arripuerunt
Agimus, egimus
Estis, fuistis
Present Infinitive
1st Sing. Perfect
History: The Early Republic
 After the monarchy:
 Lucius Junius Brutus and Lucius Tarquinius
Collatinus-First Consuls of new republic
 Rome expanded physically through military
conquests to all of Italy south of the Rubicon
River
 Political growth
 Adaptation of the constitution
 Not formal-set of practices and policies
The Consuls and the Magistrates
 Consuls
 Two leaders elected to a 1 year term
 Leaders of the civil government and generals of the
Roman army
 Assured that no one person could have unlimited power
 Other officers named to assist consuls
 Elected annually
 Two or more individuals with same title and shared duties




Praetors: directed judicial system
Aediles: supervised commerce and public works
Tribunes: championed lower classes
Quaestors: handeled financial matters
 As Rome increased, number of people holding
offices increased
 Censors: chosen every 5 years to revise list of
Senate and carry out census to assign citizens to
classes
 Dictator: position appointed in times of
emergency for a 6 month period
 Cincinnatus
 Cursus Honorum: Political Ladder
 Election as quaestor, appointment to Senate, praetor,
consul, and censor; may become aedile after quaestor
before becoming a praetor
 Comitia centuriata: Centuriate assembly
 Originated in the army
 Passed laws, ratified treaties, issued declarations of war, elected





consuls, praetors, aediles, censors, and priests of religion
Citizen assigned to voting block in assembly by wealth
Equites-made up the 18 richest of 193 centuries
Next richest were 80 centuries of infantry or foot soldiers
Bottom ranking were citizens with no land in one century
Each century had one vote
 Comitia tributa: Tribal assembly
 Outgrowth of the Council of Plebians
 Issued plebicites which were like laws
 Elected aediles and tribunes who had power of veto on laws
which were unjust to plebians
 Senate
 Advisory council of former magistrates
 Controlled finances and foreign policy
 Major influence
The Citizen Army




Needed to survive continual battles with neighboring states
plebeians-provided man power and wanted equality as citizens
Wealthy plebeians wanted equality with patricians
Forced changes
 Organized mass strikes and refused to perform their military service
 Leadership
 Tribunes
 Twelve Tables
 Legal practices which were codified and written on bronze tablets
 Guaranteed every Roman citizen the right to justice
 Tribal assembly became official to pass plebiscites and elect aediles
and tribunes
 Right to hold office allowed plebians to become senators
 Fairly representative government
 Tribal assembly equal to laws passed by Centuriate assembly
 New ruling class of senatorial aristocracy of patricians and wealthy
plebians
The Conquest of Italy
 First victories
 Neighbors: Sabines, Aequi, and Volsci (mountains)
 Etruscans (across Tiber from north)
 Latins (south)
 390: Gauls invaded Italy from the north, occupied all
Rome except Capitoline Hill
 Rome led by Camillus and chased
out invaders
 Standing army then formed-legions
armed with spears and short swords,
arranged in units or maniples
 Established camps with fixed plans
and a growing network of roads
 New opponents
 Samnites and Greek cities in southern Italy
 Pyrrhus, king of the Greek nation of Epirus, invited to
assist fellow Greeks
 Brought elephants to Italy,
only won by losing a lot of men
 Pyrrhic victories at Heraclea in
280 and Ausculum in 279
 “One more victory like this,
and we shall be truly ruined.”
 Rome left master of Italy
 Rome formed alliances with
cities they won
 Gave military allegiance and
control of foreign policy
 Offered citizenship to many
neighbors
Mythology: Atlas
 Atlas was a second generation Titan.
He personified the quality of
endurance. His father was the Titan
Iapetus and his mother was either
Klymene or Asia. His children were
The Pleiades, Calypso, Maera, Dione,
and The Hesperides.
 Atlas led the Titans in a rebellion
against Zeus and was punished by
being condemned to bear the
heavens upon his shoulders. He also
instructed mankind in the art of
astronomy. This was used by sailors
for navigation, and by farmers to
measure the seasons. These
functions created Atlas as the god
who turns heaven on its axis and
causes the stars to revolve.
Atlas and Hercules
 During the labors of Hercules,
Prometheus advised Hercules not to
go after the apples himself, but rather
to relieve Atlas of the celestial sphere and dispatch him. So when
Hercules reached Atlas, he remembered Prometheus’ advice and took over
the sphere. Atlas picked three apples from the garden of the Hesperides,
then returned to Hercules. Not wanting to hold up the sphere, he told
Hercules that he should carry the applies back to Eurystheus, and that
Hercules could hold up the sky in his place. Hercules agreed, but by a trick
gave the sphere back to Atlas. On the advice of Prometheus, he asked Atlas
to take the sky while he put a cushion on his head. Hearing this, Atlas set
the apples down on the ground, and relieved Hercules of the sphere. Thus
Hercules picked them up and left. Some say, however, that
he did not take the apples from Atlas, but
killed the Drakon that guarded them, and
picked them himself. Some also say that he built
two great pillars at the ends of the earth to help
relieve the Titan of his burden. Returning with
the apples he gave them to Eurystheus who
made a present of them to Hercules. But Athena
retrieved them from him and took them back, for
it was not permitted by diving law to locate
them anywhere else.
How
Atlas
was
turned
to
stone…
From Ovid: “Now at dusk, fearing to trust the night, he [Perseus flying on winged sandals]
landed on the far Hesperian shore, the realm of Atlas, seeking rest awhile . . . Atlas
Iapetionides (son of Iapetos) surpassed all men in giant size. He ruled the world’s last lands
and that far sea that greets the panting horses of the sun and welcomed their tired wheels.
A thousand herds roamed on his pastures and a thousand flocks, unchecked, untroubled by
a neighbour’s bounds; and there were trees whose glittering leaves of gold clothed golden
apples under golden boughs. `Good friend’, Perseus addressed him, `if renown of lineage
may count, I take my line from Juppiter [Zeus], my father; or if deeds can win your
admiration, mine you will admire. I ask for rest and lodging.’ But the giant recalled the
oracle which Themis Parnasia had given : `Atlas, a time shall come when from your tree the
gold shall be despoiled, and of that spoil a son of Jove shall boast.’ In fear he had walled his
orchards all around with massive ramparts and for guardian set an enormous Draco; and
drove off all strangers from the borders of his realm. To Perseus too `Away! Begone!’ he
cried, `Or you shall find no joy in that renown your lies invent, no joy in Juppiter [Zeus].’, and
added force to threats, as Perseus tried fair words at first, then bravely grappled him. But
when he found his strength surpassed (for who could match the strength of Atlas?) `Very
well!’ he taunted, `If you rate my thanks so low, accept a gift!’ and turned his face away and
on his left held out the loathsome head, Medusa’s head. Atlas, so huge, became a mountain;
beard and hair were changed to forests, shoulders were cliffs, hands ridges; where his head
had lately been, the soaring summit rose; his bones were turned to stone. Then each part
grew beyond all measure (so the gods ordained) and on his shoulders rested the whole vault
of heaven with all the innumerable stars."

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