The Objectives Model

Report
CURRICULUM
PROCEDURE
Videos\How will you teach me in the 21st century .avi
THE CURRICULUM PROCESS
The development of a curriculum involves the
developer in decisions about the nature
and appropriateness of the
substantive elements, e.g. the:
outcomes
 content
 method
 assessment strategies

These decisions are made in relation to the
context in which the curriculum will operate.
A CONTINUUM OF CURRICULUM MODELS
Rational/objectives models:
Ralph Tyler
Hilda Taba
Tyler's Objective Model
(also called the Rational Model)
This model takes curriculum
as a means of aiming
toward an educational
objective.
Therefore, this model is also called
means–objective model.
http://ged550.wikispaces.com/Tyler's+Objective+Model
E.g.
With the K to 12 Health curriculum, a
learner should be able to achieve,
sustain and promote lifelong and
wellness.
The program’s rich and challenging
learning experiences promote the
development of the macro skills of
practicing desirable health habits.
It answers the following questions:
• What is the object of education?
• What teaching experience that we
have to provide in order to achieve
educational object?
• How to effectively organize the
educational experience?
• How can we know whether these objects
have achieved? (How to evaluate? )
The Objectives Model:
Cons of the Tyler Model
The objective has a
behavioural
orientation.
Behavioural objectives have many
advantages if applied to curriculum
design, but they have some
limitations on execution.
For example, they do not apply to all subjects or
the design of a subject’s content.
Unacceptable verbs are as follow:
to know,
to understand,
to really understand,
to appreciate,
to fully appreciate,
to grasp the significance of,
to enjoy,
to believe and
to have faith in.
Building behavioural objectives
a very long time
and a very tedious
process.
takes
Besides,
this
model
narrows the span of
knowledge and skills
which the students must
actually be familiar with.
Pros of the Tyler Model
Notable for being the 1st model of
objectives for teaching.
Examples of the acceptable verbs
are:
(Students will be able) to write, to
recite, to identify, to differentiate,
to solve, to construct, to list, to
compare and to contrast, etc
A CONTINUUM OF CURRICULUM MODELS
Cyclical models:
Wheeler
Nichols
What is cyclic model of curriculum?
Cyclical
elements
rational
models;
Model
includes
from
both
the
and
dynamic
But is basically an extension of the
rational models which are essentially
logical and sequential in approach.
http://wiki.answers.com/Q/What_is_cyclic_model_of_curriculum#ixzz1zol9OHHn
In the Cyclical Models,
curriculum is a
continuous
cycle responding to the
changes within
education where any new
information or practice will
bring changes.
Cyclical models undertake
situational analysis
whereby the context or situation in
which curriculum decisions are to be
taken is thoroughly studied.
This helps curriculum developers take
correct decisions thus encouraging
active participation of staffs in school
based curriculum.
cyclic model of curriculum
Strengths of Cyclical Model
•Provide logical sequence;
•Provide baseline data for objectives;
•Able to cope with changing
circumstances;
•Provide flexibility (and relevant to
school situations and more appropriate to
cur dev by teachers)
Weaknesses of cyclical
model
•It is difficult to locate;
•It is not different from objective
model since it adopts logical
sequence;
•It takes time to undertake an
effective situational analysis
A CONTINUUM OF CURRICULUM MODELS
Dynamic/interaction models :
Walker
Skilbeck
Dynamic/interaction model
Strengths of dynamic model
•Curriculum developer can begin
with any of the elements;
•The model allows cur developer to
change the order of planning (to
move to and fro amongst the cur
elements)
•The model offers flexibility
Weaknesses of dynamic model
•The model does not necessarily
specify objectives;
•The model offers so little direction;
•The cur developers need a lot of
time to determine the beginning
stage in cur dev
Samples of Curriculum
Sample Curriculum- marillac hs.docx
HEALTH-K-12-Curriculum-Guide.pdf
“Curriculum Development”
A dynamic Process
Some basic facts
• As teachers we are not free to teach any topic we
choose,
Rather:
• We are guided by national, local and/or
institutional standards that specify what
students should know and be
able to do;
• These
standards provide
framework to help us
identify teaching and
learning priorities and
guide our design of curriculum and
assessment
•Shift of paradigm from focusing
on teaching to focusing on
Learning;
• “if your students are not
learning, you are not teaching”
• Curriculum is used as a
“means” to an “end”
Curriculum Development
•Is a systematic, logical and dynamic
process for achieving organized learning;
•It allows educators to:
Articulate characteristics of:
•Graduates (prior knowledge, experience,
professional goals, expectations);
•Curriculum design;
•Content;
•Teaching Method;
•Assessment of student’s achievement;
•and Program Evaluation
WHY SHOULD WE CONSIDER VARIOUS MODELS?

To keep the educational system up-to-date with prevailing
advancements in various subjects;

To reduce the gap between actual output and required
output;

To adopt blended mode of education;

To offer more meaningful education;

To offer international standard so that credit transfers,
student, faculty exchange program can take place.
Curriculum, defined as a
• Structured Series of Intended Learning Outcomes;
• Written Total Plan for Education of Learners for which
Action to be taken.
Domains of Curriculum consists of
Curriculum Development
Curriculum Design
CURRICULUM MODEL
Curriculum
Model is defined as a
plan of action that can be employed
to structure a subject
or knowledge area from a
theory into practice.
VARIOUS CURRICULUM MODELS

Curriculum Design in a Context of Widening
Participation in Higher Education;

New Design to face the challenges of 21st century;

Differentiated curriculum model;

Integrating Information Literacy into the Higher
Education Curriculum;

Interdisciplinary curriculum model;

Internationalizing the Higher Education
Curriculum:
• Using a Learning Outcome-Led Model
• Prescriptive & Descriptive models
• iCarnegie's dynamic curriculum delivery
model
• Transformative curriculum model
• Model based on faculty-driven processes
and practices through dept initiatives
• Inquiry based model
According to Duncan McCallum, the deputy academic
secretary at the University of Cambridge,
“A good curriculum
should engage and
challenge the student”.
Videos\Reflecting on the Curriculum A Digital Story.avi
NEW DESIGN TO FACE THE CHALLENGES OF
21ST CENTURY.
The new design should take into account

Learning Environment;

Learning Process;

Learning Reward;

Design Process
Thank You…

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