The Modernisation of the Public Services and Employment Relations

Report
The Modernisation of the Public
Services and Employment Relations
Ian Kessler, King’s College, London
Lamming (2003): LB Brent Social
Services
•
•
•
•
•
•
Recruitment Difficulties
Uncompetitive Salaries
Agency Staff
Poor Inductions
Supervision and Monitoring
Workload
New Labour: Modernising
Government, Cabinet Office, 1999
Government matters. We all want it to deliver
policies, programmes and services that will
make us more healthy, more secure and better
equipped to tackle the challenges we face.
Government should improve the quality of our
lives. Modernisation of government is vital if
the government is to achieve this ambition.
David Cameron, Speech of Modern
Public Service, Jan. 2011
I want one of the great achievements of this
Government to be the complete modernisation
of our public services
Questions
• What is meant by ‘modern (public services)’?
• How might the modern connect to
employment relations?
• How has this connection played itself out in
practice?
Structure
• A Traditional Approach
• A ‘New’ Framework
• The Framework in Action
A Traditional Approach
The Public Sector
Role of government
in delivering good
& services
Ideological
Rational
BIG STATE
SMALL STATE
Directly funded& provided:
•Public sector
Law making
Enforcement
Defence
Emergency
Directly funded
•Private sector
•Independent sector
Welfare benefits
Education
Environment
Health
Social Care
Neither directly
funded nor provided
Rail
Utilities
Housing
Others ?
UK Public Sector Employment (‘000)
Construction
Forces
Police
(incl.
civilians
Public
admin.
Of
which:
civil
service
Education
National
Health
Service
Other
health
and
social
work
Other
(incl.
Corps.)
Total
public
sector
1999
111
218
231
1,175
502
1,394
1,207
393
730
5,456
2001
110
218
229
1,196
513
1,418
1,231
400
732
5,531
2003
80
222
249
1,257
557
1,528
1,402
344
792
5,871
2005
75
213
273
1,290
563
1,595
1,515
367
779
6,106
2007
62
200
282
1,285
543
1,630
1,492
360
743
6,052
2009
53
196
293
1,220
525
1,664
1,554
356
974
6,312
2011
46
194
281
1,176
513
1,651
1,591
349
891
6,177
2012
42
187
262
1,091
464
1,600
1,561
323
833
5,899
The Public Sector Employer:
Distinctive?
•
•
•
•
Public money
Essential services
Political imperatives
Distorted/opaque
markets forces
• Distinctive workforce
Profiles of Public and Private Sector
Workers (Audit Commission, 2001)
Workers in the public sector
Workers in the private sector
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
-
Have more qualifications
44% have at least one degree or NVQ 5.
Are more likely to be female and work part
time
63% are female /30% part time
Are more likely to be on fixed term/temp.
contracts
More than 10% of such contracts
Are older
16% are aged 29 are below
27% 50+
Are more likely to be in a union
59% are union members
More the ethnically diverse
15.6% of ethnic minority workers are in
health/social work
•
•
•
•
-
Have few qualifications
24% have at least one degree or NVQ5
Are less likely to be female and work
part time
42% are female/23% work part time
Are less likely to be on fixed/term
contracts
Under 6% on such contracts
Are younger
31% are aged 29 or below
21% 50+
Are less likely to belong to a union
19% trade union members
Less ethnically diverse
11.2 of whites in health and social work
The Public Sector Employer:
Distinctive?
Public money
Essential services
Sovereign
Political
imperatives
Distorted/opaque
labour market
Distinctive
workforce
Model
A ‘New’
Framework
Definition of modern:
Relating to the present or recent times as
opposed to the remote past (OED)
ER & Public Management
I945-79
1979-97
1997- 2010
Public Management:
Values/Assumptions
User
Modern
Recipient
Sovereign
Citizen/Consumer
Professional
Knight
Knave
Pawn
Provider
State
Private
Mixed
Hands on
Hands off
Handy
Hierarchy
Markets
Networks
Public
Administration
New Public
Management
Governance
No Agenda
Short Agenda
Long Agenda (?)
State
Structures
Management
ER:
Industrial Relations
Work Relations
Employment Relations
16
Blair (2010)
Bureaucracies are run by people. People have
interests. And whereas the market compels
change, there is no similar compulsion in the
public sector...I had worked out the crucial
failure of the first term: the mistaken view
that raising standards and performance could
be separated from structural reform...I was
now clear that public service reform need
major structural change.
Framework in Action
•
•
•
•
•
New Labour Government
Work Relations
A (Laudable?) Experiment that Failed
How they tried
How they failed
Work Relations as a Key ER Domain
Job regulation relates to the social organisation
associated with production processes, including the
allocation of tasks and responsibilities, as well as the
rules governing the determination of the terms and
conditions of employment and their implementation.
(Martin, 2003)
19
New Labour Modernization & Work Relations
Values
Effectiveness
• Choice
• Voice
• Inclusive
• Joined up
New Labour
Modernization
Efficiency
• Prudent
• Consensual
• Accountable
• Targeted
Network Governance
• Local Govt
Structure/
Management
Diversity
(High-Low)
(incl. Social Care/Education)
• Healthcare
• Civil Service
Work Relations
• Professions
• Roles
• Ways of Working
• Actors
• Infrastructure
20
Control
(Tight-Loose)
Professions: From Knave to Pawn?
TEACHER
SOCIAL WORKER
NURSE
Dilemma
Knave
Knight
Pawn
Tough
• Jurisdictions
• Capability not Status
• Diluted Authority
• Choice
• Voice
• Control
Outcomes
• Crisis of Identity
• Removed
• Neutered
21
Love
• Reward
• Return to Core: Re-Modelling
• Deepen Professionalization
Work Roles
Efficiency
Effectiveness
NEW ROLES
Recast
Novel
• Teaching Assistant
• HCA
• CSO
• Gateway Workers
• Support, Time & Recovery
• Emergency Care Practitioner
• Parent Support Advisor
• Community Development Worker
Outcomes?
22
New Ways of Working
•
Community Engagement
– Outreach
– Crisis Resolution
– Family-Nurse Practitioner
•
Integration
–
–
–
–
•
Every Child Matters
Team Work
Multi disciplinary
Cross Agency
Efficiency
– Lean Production
– Outsourcing
23
New Actors: Service Users
CHOICE
VOICE
CONTROL
User Driven Services
Co-Design
Co-Production
Co-Supervision
Users as:
• Employer
• Worker
• Partner
?
24
?
Supportive Infrastructure
New Professions
New Ways of
Working
New Roles
New Actors
INFRASTRUCTURE
Capabilities
Planning
Regulation
• Formal
• Flexible
• Generic
• Transferable
• Demand/Supply
• Sector skills
agreement
• Training
• Accreditation
• Safety
• Registration
25
ER & Public Management
Public Management:
Values/Assumptions
Coalition?
Recipient
Sovereign
Citizen/Consumer
Citizen/
Consumer
Professional
Knight
Knave
Pawn
Knight (?)
Provider
State
Private
Mixed
Open: Any
Qualified
Hands on
Hands off
Handy
Hands-Off
Hierarchy
Markets
Networks (Top
Down)
Networks
(Bottom Down)
Public
Administration
New Public
Management
Governance (1)
Governance (2)
No Agenda
Short Agenda
Long Agenda (?)
Confused
Agenda
User
State
Structures
Management
ER:
Industrial Relations
Work Relations
Employment Relations
26
Summary
• What is meant by ‘modern (public services)?
- Of the time
- Different times
• How might the modern connect to employment relations?
- Interface between ER/PM
- Closer links between disciplines
• How has this connection played itself out in practice?
- New Labour and Work Relations: A Failed Experiment?

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