17th January, 2014 - Right To Education Pakistan

Report
NEPAL PRESENTATION
A Round Table Policy Discussion
"Right to Education – Perspectives from South Asia"
17th January, 2014 – Islamabad, Pakistan
KAMAL P POKHREL
DIRECTOR, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION, NEPAL
1
PRESENTATION OUTLINE
1. Background Information
2. Provision on Right to Education (RtE) in Nepal
–
–
–
Legal Provision (Constitution and Laws)
Sector Plans, Programs
Provision on proposed RtE Act
3. Experiences from Past
4. Issues
–
–
–
–
–
Access
Quality /Student Learning/ Quality
Infrastructure and holistic coordination mechanism
Teachers management
Resources for Education
5. Non-state Actor’s (I/NGOs, Private sector) role in education
6. Country's position on Post 2015 Development Agenda
2
1.1 Nepal – Key Facts
•
•
•
•
•
Political transition stage – Post conflict
Population 26.5 million
42% under age 18
66% of the population is literate (5+)
Culturally rich and diverse – 123 different
language groups
• Geographic diversity – mountains, hills and
the plains.
• Ranked 147 out of 187 countries on the HDI
(a least developed country)
3
1.2 EDUCATION AT A GLANCE
Nepal Education Budget NRs. 81000 m = US$ 810 m (2013); 4.3% of GDP, 65% of National Budget
For Basic Education
Legal Instrument : Education Act, Regulations, Guidelines, Circulars
Apex Institution : Ministry of Education
Current National Program : School Sector Reform Plan (2009-2016), Free and Compulsory
education Program.
Enrolment : Total: 8.7 million
Basic (Grade 1 – 8; Age 5-12 years) : 6.5 million
Secondary (Grade 9 – 12; Age 13-16 years) : 1.2 million
ECD (Age 3-5 i.e. 36 to 39 months : 1.0 million)
GPI, almost 1:1 at all level
No. of Schools: 34782 (with 14% share of private) and secondary level-grade 9-12 : 8711)
Teachers: Total : Govt pay roll: 152,909 + community hired + private school teachers
Female teachers 41.5%
Indicators: Net Enrolment Rate : 95.6% (Primary)
Survival : 84.1% (Primary)
Cohort graduation 75% (Primary)
Out of School Children 1.1 m aged 5-16 years and 0.6 m aged 5-12 years
Literacy : 65.9% (2011 Census) and 69% (2013 estimated)
4
2.1 LEGAL PROVISION: RIGHT TO EDUCATION IN NEPAL
Nepal’s
Commitment
on Int’l
forum
(HRDeclaration,
CRC.
EFA,
Interim
Constitution
of Nepal 2006
Fundamental
Rights :
Article 17: Right
to Education and
Culture
Education
Act – 1971
Child Act,
1992
Education
Rules 2002
Child Rule
- 1995
Child
Policy
2012
Right to
Education
Act:
(in the
process of
ratification)
MDGs)
5
Nepal and int’l Conventions/Declarations
Nepal being a signatory of various Declarations has devised policy and
legislative instrumentation to ensure the right of children to education
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Universal Declaration of Human Rights 1948: Article 26
Declaration of the Rights of the Child 1959
U.N. Convention on the Rights of the Child 1989 (Ratified: 14 September 1990)
International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights 1966: Articles 13
& 14
Minimum Age Convention 1973
Optional Protocols to the CRC on Sex Trafficking, Armed Conflict 2000
International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights 1966
Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination against Women
1979
Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention 1999
International Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Racial Discrimination
1965
International Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities – CRPD 2006
(Signed: 3 Jan 2008)
6
Salamanca Declaration on Special Needs Education 1994
The Interim Constitution of Nepal: Jan. 15, 2007
Under Part 3 – the Fundamental rights
#Article 17 Right to Education:
(1) Each community shall have the right to receive basic education in their mother
tongue as provided for in the law.
(2) Every citizen shall have the right to receive free education from the State up to
secondary level as provided for in the law
(3) Each community residing in Nepal has the right to preserve and promote its
language, script, culture, cultural civilization and heritage.
#Article 22. Right to the Child :
(1) Every child shall have the right to have their own identity and name.
(2) Every child shall have the right to get nurtured, basic health and social security.
(3) Every child shall have the right against physical, mental or any other form of
exploitation. The exploiting actions shall be punishable by the law and the person
who is treated in such manner shall be compensated in accordance with the law.
(4) Helpless, orphan, mentally challenged, conflict victims, displaced and street kids
at risk shall have the right to get special provision from the state for their secured
future.
(5) Any minor shall not be employed in factories, mines or for any other hazardous
work or shall be used in army, police or in conflicts.
7
RtE related debates in the Constituent Assembly,
2008-2012
– Each community shall have the right to basic education in mother tongue
as provisioned in the law
– Each community shall have the right to free education up to secondary
level as provisioned in the law
– Free education includes, inter alia, absence of all forms of tuitions, free
midday meals and school dress, and provision of hostel and scholarships
as per need.
8
Education Act – 1971 and Education Rules - 2002
• Provisions on establishment, management, operation
of school throughout the Nation
• Provision of free education (free Textbooks, no tuition
fee, exam and admission fees) up to grade 8
• Other entitlements to marginalized and deprived
children
• Provision of standardized curriculum, examination,
Teacher recruitment and development to serve the
pupil
• All institutional and instructional arrangements made
for school education
9
Child Act, 1992, Child Rule – 1995 and Child Policy 2012
• Various provisions enacted in line with international
conventions/declarations (viz. Child Right of survival,
protection, development and participation)
• Apex Agency to look after Children’s Right : Ministry of
Woman, Child and Social Welfare (MOWCSW)
• Provisions of district level, VDC level and local level
mechanism to look at children matters
10
2.2 RIGHT TO EDUCATION IN PLANS AND PROGRAMS
2002
2003
Basic and Primary
Education Program
(BPEP II)
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
Education for All EFA
Secondary School SESP
Tenth Plan
Eleventh Plan
2011
2012
2013
2014
2015
Education for All EFA
Years 1 to 12 Sector-Wide
Approach
12th Plan
13th plan
Education for All - Global Programme











Education for All National Plan of Action (EFA/NPA-2001-2015, long term) – Goal 2
EFA Core Document (2004-09, medium term) – Goal 2
Thirteenth Plan (2013-15) NPC:
Education Sector Plan: School Sector Reform Program (2009-15) – Component 2
Out of School Strategy Paper (2013-2015), FCBE 1093 VDCs, 13 districts – Pilot
FCE
Literacy/NFE Policy and Program Framework – Related with FCE
Community School Support Program (CSSP, 2003- 2009) – Contributes to FCE
Construction of Primary Schools (EFA 04-09; JICA, 03-06) - Contributes to FCE
Teacher Education Project (TEP, 02-07) - Contributes to FCE
Various Programs of UN agencies, such as UNICEF, UNESCO, UNDP, WFP, ILO
Various programs of I/NGOs such as Save the Children, Plan Nepal, World
Education, World Vision are contributing to FCE of Nepal
11
RTE IN SCHOOL SECTOR REFORM PLAN (SSRP) 2009-15
Goal of basic education
‘to ensure equitable access to quality education through a rights-based
approach and promotion of a child friendly environment in schools’ (p. 13)
Objective of the basic education
‘to ensure equitable access to quality basic education for all children in 5-12
age group’ (p. 13)
Strategic Interventions
‘A phased plan for a compulsory basic education policy through statutory
arrangement, appropriate at national and local levels’ and
‘Incentive schemes to encourage local governments to adopt and declare
basic education free and compulsory in their respective areas’ (p. 15)
12
2.3 Right to Education Act (RTE Act)
Present Status :
In the Cabinet for endorsement
Preamble :
to ensure the school age children's right to free and compulsory education
Definitions :
– Free = not to charge any kind of fees (monthly tuition, admission, readmission, sports, extra-curricular, lab, library, exam, maintenance, primary aid, etc)
and removal of any financial burden by the state that prevents a child
from completing specified years of schooling
– Compulsory = mandatory provision of admission, attendance,
retention and completion of specified level of education, parental
duty to admit their children to school
13
The Beneficiaries
– 5-12 years age children, gradually up to grade 12
Right of a child:
– All children shall have right to free and compulsory education at the
neighborhood school.
Duty of the Government:
– to ensure free education to every child including immigrants residing in the
country for more than three months;
– establishment of school unit in each community to ensure access at child’s
neighborhood;
– ensure no child with disability remain out of school;
– ensure school Minimum enabling conditions (teacher, curriculum, textbooks,
school calendar, incentive and support system to the students)
14
Entitlements:
– Textbooks, Midday meal, materials, other incentives, special attention to
children from in danger community (socially, financially or other reasons)
– Voucher system/ incentive coupon for poverty card family is under discussion
Community Participation :
– Majority of SMC members from among parents of children in the school
– Empowered SMC by giving extra powers e.g. evaluation of the teachers
Quality Measures :
– Academic responsibility of the teachers and code of conduct specified :
Teachers qualification for appointment upgraded.
– Permanent teacher to be recruited by national level TSC and temp. at local level
– Students can opt for change of a school if school does not meet quality
standards
– Schools Norms and standards are set
• Minimum Infrastructure: Classroom, teachers, textbooks, separate toilets and book corners,
sports facility
• Teacher-Pupil Ratio of 1:40 (max.)
• School days (220 opening days, 192 days net instruction) and total instructional hours (800
hours grade 1-3, 1000 hours upper grades)
15
Special Arrangements:
– Providing second chance education for over-age and dropout
children;
– integrated and segregated schools for differently-abled children;
– residential schools for remote areas with difficult geography,
– special incentives system for deprived and vulnerable ethnic groups,
– mainstreaming of traditionally run Madarsha, Gonpa and Gurukuls
education
– Local government Municipality, VDC, Wards’ geographical territory
taken as unit of FCBE implementation
State Facilities to parents who admit, retain and assist their children to
complete desire level of education
– Different social security allowances
– National ID, citizenship, voter ID, land-owner/property card, poverty
card and any other ID
– Eligibility of a candidature
– Eligibility of entry in public services
– Bank loans and waiving
(this clause to be enforced in two years of enactment):
16
Partnership for sharing responsibility and funding:
– Joint responsibility of central and local government (own fund
and allocations from centre),
– local bodies (VDCs, Municipality) to plan and implement
– Integrated govt programs to be implemented in the targeted
pocket areas,
– DDCs right to coordinate and intervene to ensure FCE
– DEOs to establish and coordinate NGOs networks
– NGOs to prioritize FCE within their plans/programs
Role of private schools:
– Provide scholarships (with residential facility wherever
applicable) for 10% of total students,
– Enroll students with voucher scheme,
– Establish institutional linkage with specified public school to
share experiences,
– Government to allocate grants to best performing private schools
17
3. EXPERIENCES FROM PAST AND LESSONS FOR FUTURE
WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO FREE & COMPULSORY PRIMARY EDUCATION (GOAL
2 OF EFA OR COMPONENT 2 OF SSRP)
3.1 Policy Focus:
• Improving equitable access (More schools to bring School Closer – 30
minutes or less, alternative schooling, flexible school hours, free education,
free textbooks, school feeding, school mapping, increase number of female
teachers, Focused Interventions to Bring Out-of-School Children into the System)
• Improving quality and efficiency (Curriculum improvement, teacher
training, Resource Centre and their Professional support, School environment,
reform in school exam, Introduction of CFS, SZOP, NVT with directives)
• Increasing institutional capacity (EMIS, decentralized management, HRD
plan)
• Continuing school self- Governance and community involvement
(Block grant, performance based incentives, Community school management)
• Targeted programs for disadvantaged (Incentives, scholarship to
remove Economic Barriers)
18
3.2 INTERVENTIONS/MEASURES
Access Measures:
» Welcome to school program for reaching the disadvantaged children in the
rural area
» Grants to public lower secondary and secondary schools to provide free
education to all dalit students helped increase their enrolment and retention
» 3-phase approach to Free and Compulsory Education (expanding access of free
education; ensuring FCE as fundamental right through proper legislation; and
piloting and gradually making FCE compulsory) paved the way for RtE Act
Focused Interventions
» Special incentives for all girls upto grade 8 , all dalit, and Karnali (remote
area)children and children with disability up to grade 12
» School feeding program (day meal program) ensured not only enrolment of the
children but also their retention for the whole day and for the whole year
» Oil for mothers for daughter’s enrolment and retention worked well in
increasing girls’ enrolment
» residential programs in remote district help girls complete secondary education
» Alternative schooling programs for children in difficult circumstances
19
Quality Measures:
» Free textbooks to all public children up grade 10 to helped enrolment as well as
learning
» Pilot approaches like Community ownership & management of schools to raise
quality of public schools
» School buildings, toilets (with water), furniture
» IT expansion for learning 8500 secondary schools receive fund for 5 computers,
power, connectivity, learning material
Interventions for efficient management
» PCF, block grants, training, Teachers (female), reservations
» Administrative and Instructional support structure in place (local and centre)
» Textbooks (opened to private), multiple sets, digitization
» Collaboration and partnerships (national and global)
20
3.3 SOME OF THE ENCOURAGING ACHIEVEMENTS
•
•
Significant improvement in enrolment : Pri. Level NER from 80% (2000) to 95.6%
(2013)
Female teachers from 30% (2006) to 42% (2013)
•
Licensing of teacher profession has been undertaken successfully
•
ECD enrolments increased (GER from 10% (2000), and 41.4% (2006) to 73.7% (2013)
•
Gender parity reached to 0.99 (2013)
•
Initiation to institutionalize of decentralized governance and management systems as a
result 13000 schools took part in community managed school (CMS) program
•
robust planning, implementation, reporting and monitoring mechanisms through the
ASIP process at the centre and through SIPs, VEPs and DEPs at the local level.
•
Well Established EMIS – regular bi-annual school census and reporting in the form of
Flash reports I and II
•
VDC wise database of out of school children and illiterate people (from National
Census 2011 and household survey of NFEC)
•
Visible Systemic readiness: RtE Act in progress
21
4. ISSUES
4.1 Access of hardcore group is a point to begin with
– Still some children (>4%) are not in school – who are they? Where are they?
Identification of OOSC is an issue.
– How they could be brought to school? How to Bring the children of marginalized
community, Musahar, Chepang, , Chamar, Dom, Halkhor and Dusadh, Raute,
working and street children, the hardcore groups
– Girls due to social barriers, Muslim communities, Rural mountain, children with
special needs are out of easy access to schooling
– Guaranteeing equitable access to those out-of-school
4.2 Student learning/quality in schools is at the core
– Learning achievement of the students is low as reported by several research
studies and external examinations
– Curricular intents and expected outcomes of curriculum should be further
disseminated
– Synchronization of textbooks, CAS and teacher training with curriculum is a need
– Integration life skill/soft skills into teaching learning requires more efforts
– Need to shift the focus on assessment for learning rather than assessment of
learning
22
4.3 Infrastructure and holistic coordination mechanism is needed
– Ensuring Prioritized Minimum Enabling Conditions (PMECs) in each school
– Making schools and classrooms sensitive to needs of disadvantaged children
– Coordination among govt (MOE, MOWCSW, MOFALD, MOHA, MOHP, local
governments) as well non-govt agencies
– Institutionalization of coordination - statutory provision to be created under
the coordination of NPC
4.4 Teacher management is a complicated issue
– Mandatory provision of training and licensure, qualification upgrading of
teachers, reservation policy, need based TPD program is in place,
– Crucial concerns in the area of teacher management and devt
• Redeployment and management to address the disparity in STR across the regions
• Teacher time on task (time with children) and irregularities
• The proportional share of female, Dalit, Janajati, disadvantaged popn
– A strong and transparent teacher performance monitoring and evaluation
system with clear standards is needed for teacher accountability
– Teachers are not in a position to see their needs for demand driven TPD in
certain critical areas, such as CAS, reading skills, or the new curriculum so
needs further response to teacher development effort
23
4.5 Resource is a basic requirement to reach the goal
Current Arrangements of resources for education:
₋ Education as a largest sector of public funding
₋ Donor's commitment The pooling development partners include the Asian
Development Bank, Australia, Denmark, the European Union, Finland, Norway,
the United Kingdom, the United Nations Children’s Fund, and the World Bank
including funds from the Fast Track Initiative, FTI and Non-pooling: JICA, USAID,
UNESCO and WFP
₋ FTI/GPE (received 120m USD in 2012 and next round in place)
₋ Local government legally bound to invest in education
₋ Growing investment of private sectors and I/NGO's
₋ Community and parents’ investment
24
… Resource is a basic requirement to reach the goal
Issues:
₋ Fragmentation and weak links in programmes
₋ Unplanned spread of settlements in rural areas and overlapping catchments
areas in cities
₋ Declining DP support
₋ Ensuring proper distribution and utilization of resources provided to schools
₋ Yet to explore multiple sources of funds
Way Ahead
₋ 20% share of govt’s annual budget expected
₋ Concrete cost sharing approach to be instituted (GoN : regular cost including
teacher salary, Local body/community : space, infrastructure and matching
grants, non-state Partners I/NGOs - technical aspects, capacity building,
learning materials and child friendly environment)
₋ Mobilization of adequate funds – multiple non-state actors to be intensified
25
5. NON-STATE ACTOR’S (I/NGOS, PRIVATE SECTOR) ROLE IN EDUCATION
• Non-State actors (I/NGOs, NGOs, Private sector, CSOs etc) have played a major
part in supporting the GON to improve children’s access to quality education
and enhance the delivery system ranging from ECD level to higher education and
for access, quality, HRD, Teacher Development.
• Private sector holds 14% of education share (in terms of school, student and
teachers)
• Red Book support and direct support in practice
• Partnership guideline prepared jointly and approved by the government guides
the collaboration
• Expansion of collaboration with exiting as well as with new partners is desirable
(and always feasible in Nepal)
26
I/NGOs area of expertise in Nepal
–
–
–
–
–
–
Locally connected: Intervention at very grassroots level and hard core areas
Working in line with the principle of Neutrality, Impartiality and Independence
Fulfilling gaps in specialized areas through TA support
Quick response at disaster situations
Regular meetings and loose networks are in place for regular coordination
Essential partners for advocacy or policy lobbying
Some Issues still exist
– Duplication in investment
– Report requirement not matching government’s ones (additional burden at
school level)
– Replicability /sustainability
– Transparency
27
6. NEPAL'S VIEW ON POST-2015 DEVELOPMENT AGENDA
A team led by MOE and supported by UNESCO working on this with the
objectives of
– Assessing the progress made in past in 7 goals of EFA (One additional goal of
Nepal is to Mother Tongue and multilingual education)
– identifying the remaining challenges in meeting MDG’s and EFA’s goals
– Developing holistic vision for post-15 agenda
Progress to date
– 7 separate thematic groups led jointly by a Joint Secretary of MOE and an
expert from academia formed and work in progress
– Table work
– Wider consultation with stakeholders such teacher unions, students, parents,
local bodies, dalit/woman/janjati commissions, I/NGOs, Private sectors,
Journalists, youth, CSOs and other govt agencies)
We have yet to finalize Nepal’s position in this discourse, however some of the
priority areas identified are
– Putting education first in the post-15 development agenda
– Quality Education for All
– Student learning is at the core
28
Some other priority area for post-15 Era
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
Free and Compulsory Basic Education
Right to education in mother tongue
Equity strategy to ensure equitable access to hard core group
Special provision for disadvantaged children to bring remaining
OOSC from core hard group; Multi-disciplinary intervention
(Formal and Flexible)
Better addressing the pedagogical issues relating to language,
gender, social and economic to ensure completion of schooling
meaningfully and beneficially
Special intervention for Early grade reading
Life skills and value of local wisdom
Ensuring Minimum Enabling Conditions (MECs) at all school
ICT applications in education with coonectivity, digital contents
and alternatives energy schemes
Continuous assessment system
29
– Investing more in children (midday meal in needy pockets, more
resource for quality 70:30)
– Focus on strong partnership (INGOs, NGOs, DPs, private and public
sectors) to work on a common ground in achieving both qualitative
and quantitative aspects of FCE
– Enhanced Partnerships (DPs, I/NGOs, private sectors and other
government agencies)
– Sharing at local, regional and global levels,
– Making local governments more responsive with explicit role of
local governments, VDC, municipality,
– Legal responsibilities of local bodies municipalities – enlargement
and enrichment to be ensured
– Strong governance: Dissemination of the Legislation to the lowest
possible unit: Accountability frameworks and responsiveness
– Proper acknowledgement of people’s livelihood, parental literacy
and mother’s engagement in education
– Parenting education to empower & mobilize parents for quality FCE
30
POTENTIAL AREAS FOR REGIONAL COOPERATION
• Regional Forum – Create a regional or bilateral cooperation
mechanism to share RtE experience and to offer a common
post-15 agenda in the global education Community
• Sharing Technical Expertise – Share experience and expertise
of governments and non-governmental professional bodies in
meetings to be organized on a periodic/regular basis
And lastly Nepal welcomes multilateral or bilateral funding
support, technical assistance, sharing of expertise/best
practice from participating governments and non-govt
agencies
31
Sagarmatha: the Top of the World
Thank you
32
Annexes
Status in terms of major EFA Indicators
No
Indicators
Achievement
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2012
Target 2015
1
Gross Enrolment Rate of Early
Childhood / Pre School
12.8
19.8
19.9
39.4
69.9
41.4
73.7
80
2
Percentage of New entrants at
Grade 1 with ECD
7.8
9.6
13.7
10.9
NA
18.3
55.6
80
3
Gross Intake Rate at Grade 1
122.9
101.3
117.1
125.9
148.1
148
138
102
4
Net Intake Rate at Grade 1
-
74.0
76.1
-
NA
86
90.7
98
5
Gross Enrolment Rate
124.7
118.4
126.7
130.7
145.4
138.8
130
105
6
Net Enrolment Rate
81.1
82.4
83.5
84.2
86.8
87.4
95.6 100
7
% GNP channeled to Primary edu
1.8
2.0
1.9
2.0
1.9
2.0
2.0
2.5
8
% of Education Budget channeled
to Primary Edu.
56.7
60
60
60
63
57+3
65
65
9
% of teachers with required
qualification & training
15
NA
17.4
30.5
44.9
60
98.2 100
10
Percentage of teachers with
required Certification/License
-
-
-
--
100
100
100
100
33
No
Indicators
Achievement
2001
2002
2003 2004
2005
2006
2012 Target2015
39.9
35.7
35.8
49.8
47.3
37
11
Pupil Teacher Ratio
39.7
30
12
Repetition Rate:
12.1
-- Grade 1
38.7
36.8
34
NA
28.3
30.0
19
10
12.2
-- Grade 5
9
11
13.5
NA
10.4
10.0
12
8
13
Survival rate to Grade 5
65.8
67.6
67.7
76.2
79.1
80
84.1
90
14
Coefficient of Efficiency
60.0
60
NA
NA
63
NA
15
Percentage of Learning
Achievement at Grade 5
40
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
<50
80
16
Literacy Rate
16.1
-- Age Group 15-24
70
NA
90.1
NA
76
NA
84.7
95
16.2
-- Age Group 6+ years
54
NA
NA
NA
60?
NA
65.9
90
17
Adult Literacy Rate (15+ years)
40.7
NA
48
NA
52?
NA
59.6
75
18
Literacy Gender Parity Index
(15+ years)
0.6
0.67
NA
NA
0.7
NA
0.99
1.0
10.6
80
34
Abbreviations used
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
CAS = Continuous Assessment System
CFS = Child Friendly School Framework
CRC = Convention on Children Rights
CSO = Community Social Organization
DDC = District Development committee
Devt = Development
DP = Development Partner
ECED = Early Childhood Development
EFA = Education for All
EMIS = Educational Management
Information System
FCBE = Free and Compulsory Basic Education
FCE = Free and Compulsory Education
FTI = Fast trach Initiative
GER = Gross Enrolment Rate
GON = Government of Nepal
Govt = Government
GPE = Global Partnership for Education
VDC = Village Development Committee
GPI = Gender Parity Index
HR = Human Right
HRD = Human Resource Development
I/NGO = International/National NonGovernmental Organization
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
ID = Identification Card
MDG = Millennium Development Goal
MEC = Minimum Enabling Conditions
MOE = Ministry of Education
MOF = Ministry of Finance
MOFALD = Ministry of Federal Affairs and
Local Development
MOHA = Ministry of Home Affairs
MOHP = Ministry of Health and Population
MOLJ = Ministry of Law and Justice
MOWCSW = Ministry of Woman, Child and
Social Welfare
NER = Net Enrolment Rate
NFEC = Non-formal Education Centre
NPC = National Planning Commission
NVT = Non – Violence Teaching OOSC = Out
of School Children
PMEC = Prioritized Minimum Enabling
Conditions
RtE = Right to Education
SSRP = School Sector Reform Plan
SZOP = School as a Zone of Peace
TPD = Teacher Professional Development
UN = United Nation
35

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