Towards Inclusive Social Management in China

Report
GED Component C Report
公平发展 公共治理项目C部分报告
June 2011
CAPACITY DEVELOPMENT OF CIVIL SOCIETY
ORGANIZATIONS:
TOWARDS INCLUSIVE SOCIAL MANAGEMENT IN CHINA
中国社会组织的能力发展
——迈向包容性社会管理
Paper written by
Fengshi Wu, PhD, Chinese University of Hong Kong
Jianyu He, PhD, Tsinghua University
Redited and amended by
Karla W. Simon, JD, Catholic University of America
Presentation by
Karla W. Simon, JD, Catholic University of America
Jianyu He, PhD, Tsinghua University
CLARIFICATION OF TERMS / 词汇阐明
 Civil Society Organization (CSO) – Non-governmental organizations in
China that serve the public welfare, such as charitable organizations,
min fei organizations, and independent foundations, etc.
社会组织 (CSO) - 又称民间社会组织。指中国各种民办公益团体, 如慈善
组织, 民非机构, 民办基金会, 等等。
 Inclusive social management – Social management that involves CSOs
in the process of managing social welfare, including designing,
implementing, and evaluating social welfare projects with government
at all levels.
包容性社会管理 – 指在社会福利管理过程中,开放接受民间组织参与的一
种社会管理方式。民间社会组织得以协助政府设计、实施、及评估各种社会
福利政策项目。
WHAT DOES THE PAPER ADDRESS? / 本文中心内容
 This policy research paper evaluates the impact of Project
Component C (CompC) – “civil society involvement” – of the GED
project sponsored by the European Union (EU) and the United
Nations Development Programme (UNDP) (hereinafter the Project).
本文对由欧盟与联合国开发计划署共同赞助的“公平发展公共治理”项
目(GED)子项目C (以下简称"项目") – "公民社会参与" – 作出了效果
评估。
WHAT DOES THE PAPER ADDRESS? / 本文中心内容
It addresses the following questions / 主要问题如下 :
•
What has the project implemented?
项目目前实施了什么?
•
How has it been implemented?
又是如何实施的?
•
How has it influenced thinking/policy development and what
changes has it brought about?
项目对人们思想及政府政策有什么影响, 又有没有促成什么具体的变化?
•
What impact has it on the development of the legal and policy
environment for civil society organizations in China?
它对中国民间组织法律及政策环境的发展又有什么作用?
•
What will be the future benefits from the changes?
这些变化将来还会带来什么效益?
PROJECT PARTNERS / 合作伙伴
The EU-UNDP-GoC GED Project was designed to work with the
National Bureau of Civil Organization Administration (the National
Bureau) within MoCA, the key government bureau in reforming the
legal and policy environment of CSOs, as the partner in CompC.
负责中国社会组织法律政策改革的民政部民间组织管理局, 是GED项目子
项目C的中方伙伴.
The GED grant has been the largest external funding made available
to MoCA in history and it allowed more flexibility for the policyentrepreneur-minded MoCA officials to explore various policy options
and to mobilize for policy advocacy within the GoC. This review was
commissioned by the Project to analyze its impact.
GED资金是民政部有史以来所获得过的最大外部援款。它给民政部各位富
有创意的官员提供了相对高的灵活性, 协助他们探索新方案, 倡导新政
策。 本文是由该项目委托, 为项目所作的效果评估。
DEVELOPMENT OF CSOS IN CHINA:
1978-2012 / 中国社会组织发展史: 1978-2012
By way of background, it is important to note that the revival of Chinese CSOs
began with the introduction of the economic reform in 1978. It was not until a
decade later that a regulatory environment for them was introduced by the
State Council (two different types of CSOs were recognized – social
organizations (1989) and foundations (1988). In addition, it was only at the
end of the 1980’s that the National Bureau was created. Subsequent to that
time provincial and local offices of MoCA also established registration and
management offices for CSOs that were subject to their jurisdiction. At the
beginning all the CSOs that were set up were tightly linked to government –
many of these are well known to the Chinese people. These include the China
Charity Federation, Project Hope, etc.
中国民间组织的复兴起源于1978年改革开放时期的到来。历经十年后, 国
务院分别于1988年与1989年制定了基金会及社会团体登记管理条例, 相关
监管系统就此初具雏形。1980年代末期,民间组织管理局成立。此后各地方
民政局也分别设立了社会组织登记管理机构。起初,所有新成立的社会团
体均与政府关系紧密,如众所周知的中华慈善总会,希望工程,等等。
DEVELOPMENT OF CSOS IN CHINA:
1978-2012 CONT’D – REGISTRATION
中国社会组织发展史 - 登记程序
The 1988/89 regulations contained structural barriers to the full development
of CSOs. These included the “dual management system” (a CSO was
required to have a “guiding” agency as an official sponsor – also known as a
“mother-in-law”). There were also other strict requirements in the
registration procedures, such as the limitation of one CSO in the same field
in a given geographic area. There was also a lack of friendly policies (e.g.,
tax exemption and deductibility of contributions).
1988/89年间颁布的管理条例中含有某些不利于社会团体发展的结构性障
碍,例如大家熟悉的“双重管理”制度。同时,登记程序中还设有其他
各种严格条例,例如同一地区同一领域内限制只能组成一个团体。此外
还缺乏各种支持性措施(如免税,减税条例)。
The same types of rules applied in new regulations for CSOs and a new
type (min fei) issued in 1998 and for jijin hui in 2004.
此类条例后来被长期沿用,如1998年民办非企业管理条例及2004年新版
基金会条例等。
DEVELOPMENT OF CSOS IN CHINA:
1978-2012 CONT’D – REGISTRATION
中国社会组织发展史 - 登记程序
By 2008 advocacy for more lenient rules on registration and management began
to pay off. A deadly earthquake hit Sichuan Province on 12 May that year
(generally called the Wenchuan or 5/12 earthquake), killing an estimated 68,000
people. The earthquake required not only an instantaneous response from the
government, but also, for the first time since 1949, a nation-wide bottom-up
social mobilization to join the disaster relief and the reconstruction efforts.
2008年,多年来推动开放民间组织管理体制的种种努力终于开始见效。那年5
月12日, 四川汶川发生严重大地震,据估计遇难人数高达六万八千人。这场
灾害不仅要求政府作出迅速反应,同时还激发了建国以来第一次全国性、自
发性的社会动员,加入救灾重建工作。
The creation of grass roots social organizations, networks among them, and
citizens’ self-organized voluntary activities surged. Leaders of the Party and
governmental agencies spoke highly of these individual and collective acts in
public. Many Chinese people first heard about the concept of “civil society
organization” at that time.
此时,草根性民间团体,网络,及群众自发志愿活动在全国各地大量涌现,并赢
得党政机关领导人高度评价。有不少中国人在这期间第一次听说到“民间社
会组织”这个概念。
DEVELOPMENT OF CSOS IN CHINA:
1978-2012 CONT’D – REGISTRATION
中国社会组织发展史 - 登记程序
Despite the prolonged wait for the new CSO regulations, which have not been
issued to this date, experiments and institutional innovations have also been
introduced at the local level in the past four years, e.g., during the EU-UNDPGoC GED Project.
虽然民间组织管理新条例至今尚未出炉,但最近四年以来(也就是GED项目执
行期间) 全国不少地方已开始进行各种制度创新的尝试。
Many of the experiments have focused on direct registration, and Guangdong
Province will establish such a procedure on July, 2012. There have also been
experiments for small, local grass roots organizations in Qingdao and elsewhere
called the bei’an process.
这其中,不少试验主要注重于建立民间组织直接登记体制,例如广东省将于
2012年七月起开始实行直接登记。其他试验还包括青岛等地为地方小型草根
组织设立的“备案”体制。
Minister of Civil Affairs Li Liguo has indicated that direct registration provisions
should be adopted at the national level.
民政部长李立国曾表示,直接登记条例应在全国范围内采用。
DEVELOPMENT OF CSOS IN CHINA:
1978-2012 CONT’D – 12TH FIVE YEAR PLAN
中国社会组织发展史 - 十二五规划
Importantly, in the 12th Five-year Plan (2011-2015) passed by the National
People’s Congress in March 2011, there was for the first time a specific
chapter designed to address the development of social organizations. The
chapter emphasized strengthening the social organization sector by two
means: a) fostering the development of the social organizations, and b)
strengthening the supervision and management of social organizations
including the establishment of the direct registration system.
值得一提的是,2011年三月全国人大通过的第十二个五年计划(2011-2015
年) 首次把社会组织发展问题列入专门章节。计划强调应以两种方式加强
中国社会组织建设:第一, 扶持社会组织的发展;第二,加强对社会组织的
监管,如建立直接登记机制等。
DEVELOPMENT OF CSOS IN CHINA:
1978-2012 CONT’D – 12TH FIVE YEAR PLAN
中国社会组织发展史 - 十二五规划
A role for CSOs in social management is explicitly stated in the 12th FYP.
Social management aims to create more harmony in society as well as more
stability and in that sense CSOs are crucial to achieving the goals of the
program.
中国十二五规划明确指出,社会组织在社会管理过程中扮演着重要角色。社会
管理的目的是构建和谐社会,加强社会稳定, 这其中社会组织起着关键作用。
One clear reason for the new social management agenda is improving social
cohesion by promoting equality and justice for China’s impoverished and
discriminated against populations.
为贫困和弱势人口促进平等、伸张正义,从而提高社会凝聚力,是中国新社会
管理方针的明确目的。
Inclusive social management means building cooperation between
government, CSOs, and the public and building coordination between social
development and economic, political, and cultural development initiatives. It
will have an impact on on all of China’s ethnically, regionally, and culturally
diverse people.
建设包容性社会管理制度,需要促进政府、民间社会组织和公众之间的合作,
加强社会发展与经济、政治和文化各方面政策间的协调。它对全国各地区、各
民族所有的人民,都具有深远的影响。
DEVELOPMENT OF CSOS IN CHINA: 1978-2012 CONT’D
TAXATION AND PROMOTION OF CHARITY
中国社会组织发展史 - 税务与慈善事业的发展
With respect to taxation, MoCA has worked tirelessly with MoF and SAT to
develop and implement better tax policies for CSOs and donors to them.
在税务方面, 民政部一直不辞劳苦地与财政部、国税局合作,设计实施有利于
社会组织和捐助者的税务政策。
Currently 120 national level CSOs are qualified to issue receipts for tax
deductible contributions, and the number is expected to grow. Many more
qualify at the local or provincial level.
目前,有120个全国性社会组织有资格发放供税前抵扣的捐赠收据,而其数量还
会继续增长。此外, 在各级地方还有更多单位享有此资格。
The annual national Charity Awards program, broadcast on CCTV 1 and
presided over by Minister Li is a hugely successful event in encouraging
charitable acts and donations in China.
另外,每年度在央视1台播出、由李立国部长主持的中国公益慈善奖,对于鼓励
中国慈善事业发展而言是一个非常成功的创举。
DEVELOPMENT OF CSOS IN CHINA:
1978-2012 CONT’D – CHARITY LAW
中国社会组织发展史 - 慈善法
Although the Charity Law, on which the Ministry began work in 2005/06 was
stalled for many years, on June 4, Dou Yupei, the Deputy Minister of Civil
Affairs, announced that the draft law had been submitted to the State Council.
In addition, disclosure guidelines for charities regarding their donations will take
effect this year. The draft regulations are now in a public comment period.
今年6月4日,民政部副部长窦玉沛宣布,自2005/06年起已策划多年的慈善法初稿
终已完成,并已上报国务院。此外,慈善机构捐助信息披露管理办法也将于今年
生效。目前,条例草案正处于讨论阶段。
In 2011, a number of major scandals involving charitable organizations erupted
in China. During this year's top annual legislative meetings, Qin Bailan, a
member of the CPPCC National Committee, blamed the scandals on lack of
regulations.
今年两会期间,政协委员秦百兰在会上指出,2011年中国公益界爆发的多起丑闻,
都归咎于缺乏规范管理。
DEVELOPMENT OF CSOS IN CHINA: 1978-2012 CONT’D
RESEARCH AND RESEARCH NETWORK
中国社会组织发展史 - 研究与研究网络
During the GED project MoCA worked with academics and practitioners to
create many books, training materials, etc. It has developed a much more
precise method of commissioning research.
GED项目期间,民政部与相关学者及其它公益界人士合作发行了许多书籍、教
材等多种文献。在这过程中,民政部也建立了一套更为精确的研究委托程序。
Prior to the GED project, there were no ministry-level research grants available
for research related to CSOs. Considering the importance of ministry-level
grants within the academic community in today’s China, the project funding
provided encouragement to academics and other researchers to study the
CSO sector.
GED项目执行前,中国没有部委级专项拨款支持社会组织问题的相关研究。正
因为在今天中国学术界获得部委级拨款的重要性,GED项目经费为高校学者和其
它研究人员进行社会组织的相关研究提供了不少动力。
In addition, new networks of researchers and practitioners have been fostered
- many of them are here today. This is also a major achievement of the project.
此外,项目还帮助培育了这个领域内的不少新秀,包括今天在座的许多位。这也
是GED项目的一大成就.
DEVELOPMENT OF CSOS IN CHINA: 1978-2012 CONT’D
RESEARCH AND RESEARCH NETWORK
中国社会组织发展史 - 研究与研究网络
One of the other key outcomes was the publication of the Journal of CSO
Management Studies. It is a journal, first and foremost, to serve government
officials dealing with administration of CSOs on a daily basis, practitioners
affiliated with CSOs, and researchers and scholars who are interested in the
topic. Together they have the prospect in the long-run to set up professional
standards and principles. Chen Shicheng, the chief editor, said that the GED
grant in 2008 and 2009 was a key funding source to support the early
development and improvement of the Journal.
GED项目的另一主要成果是《社团管理研究》杂志。这本杂志的主要对象包括每
日处理社团事务的政府官员,社会组织的工作人员,以及对这方面问题感兴趣的
研究人员和学者。从长远来说,这些人都是将来建设这方面专业标准和规则的主
力。据主编陈世澄先生说,在2008-09年间,GED是杂志早期发展过程中的关键
资金来源。
International and comparative research, using GED funds, was also conducted
through study tours for officials from MoCA and other ministries.
另外,GED资金也用于资助民政部和其他部委官员举办国际研究考察活动。
DEVELOPMENT OF CSOS IN CHINA: 1978-2012 CONT’D
OUTSOURCING SOCIAL SERVICES
中国社会组织发展史 - 社会服务“外包”
In 2012, in a new attempt to foster CSO development, the central
government for the first time allocated from the fiscal budget a fund of
200 million RMB to support the engagement of CSOs in social service
provision.
2012年,中央政府为了促进社会组织的发展,首次从财政预算中拨款2亿元,以
资助社会组织参与社会服务。
The related files and procedures are listed on the National Bureau website:
有关信息与文件,请上民间组织管理局网址查索:
http://www.chinanpo.gov.cn/2351/51876/index.html.
The awards from the fund were announced in April 2012. The results are at:
第一批立项名单已于2012年四月公布。详情请见:
http://www.chinanpo.gov.cn/2351/53036/index.html.
DEVELOPMENT OF CSOS IN CHINA: 1978-2012 CONT’D
OUTSOURCING SOCIAL SERVICES
中国社会组织发展史 - 社会服务“外包”
MoCA announced trainings both for the organizations that have received the
awards and for the local officials who will administer them. These were held in
mid-June.
最近,民政部还为立项团体和相关地方管理官员举办了培训。培训已在6月中旬
举行。
Outsourcing social services is consistent with the state’s attempt to achieve a
“small government – big society” model for China’s future.
进一步来说,社会服务外包也符合国家为中国未来设定的"小政府,大社会"模式。
It should also help to attract more resources from the private sector in the form
of charitable donations.
同时,它还应有助于从私营部门吸引更多捐款。
DEVELOPMENT OF CSOS IN CHINA: 1978-2012 CONT’D
CANPO AND CSO TRAININGS
中国社会组织发展史 - 中国社会组织促进会与社会组织培训
The establishment of CANPO is also an important outcome of the GED project.
The principal mechanism of CANPO is to support CSOs not only through the
publication of journals and a small grants program for grass roots CSOs, but
also the sponsorship of an annual national forum on the innovation and
development of CSOs.
中国社会组织促进会是GED项目的另一大成就。促进会的主要工作内容,除了发
行刊物及向草根组织发放小额拨款之外,还负责主办一年一次的全国社会组织创
新与发展论坛。
Initiated and hosted by MoCA, around 15 CSO development forums have been
held in the past 4 years. These forums covered a wide range of topics such as
capacity building, state-society cooperation, and the administration of CSOs in
China, which have brought government officials and CSO practitioners
together to promote dialogue and mutual understanding with each other.
最近四年以来,民政部共主办了约十五个社会组织发展论坛。讨论课题包括社
会组织能力建设,政府与社会合作,以及社会组织管理问题。这一系列论坛把
政府官员和社会组织人士带到一起,促进交流,增进沟通。
FUTURE NEEDS
-- TOWARD MORE INCLUSIVE SOCIAL MANAGEMENT IN CHINA
未来的需要 - 走向更具包容性的中国社会管理制度
Not everything outlined in the Project Document was achieved during the 4
years of the GED project, however. While there was much excellent
emphasis on CSO capacity building (and this should continue), the trainings
concentrated almost solely on capacity to carry out functions, to fund raise,
and to manage funds.
但是,并非项目计划中的所有目标都在这四年内成功达到了。虽然政府对民间
组织能力建设的高度重视是可嘉的(而这一点也应该持续),但现有的培训活动
几乎完全致力于业务功能、筹款能力、及资金管理等方面。
In our view, trainings did not focus adequately on CSO advocacy for social
and economic development policies. CSOs are knowledgeable about the
needs of the poor citizens they serve, the environment that is being degraded,
and the health and welfare needs of many diverse populations. Government
can and should invite them to the table to discuss policy.
我们认为,培训还没有充分重视到民间社会组织对社会和经济发展政策的倡导
能力。民间社会组织对于他们关怀的贫困人口、环境保护、以及各种不同群体
的健康福利问题有深刻的认识。政府可以,也应该,邀请他们参与议政。
FUTURE NEEDS
-- TOWARD MORE INCLUSIVE SOCIAL MANAGEMENT IN CHINA
未来的需要 - 走向更具包容性的中国社会管理制度
In conclusion, the GED project contributed in substantial ways to improving the
legal and policy environment for the CSO sector for at least three reasons.
总的来说, GED项目对中国社会组织法规环境的改善做出了重要贡献。这其中
包括三方面:
First, the project has familiarized a large number of civil affairs officials and those
in other sectors about the concepts and practices associated with CSOs, and
generated pertinent discussions among them. This has helped to enhance
MoCA’s capacity to advocate for policy changes with the State Council, etc.
首先, 此项目帮助大批中国官员更加熟悉社会组织相关理论与实践,并激发他
们对有关问题的讨论。这对于提高民政部政策倡导能力发挥了积极作用。
Second, attitude changes among MoCA officials and their peers at the ministry
level have provided impetus for change in attitudes among the provincial and
local civil affairs officials.
其次,民政部及其他部级官员在这方面的新思维,对于改变各级地方民政官员
的观点产生了深远的影响。
FUTURE NEEDS
-- TOWARD MORE INCLUSIVE SOCIAL MANAGEMENT IN CHINA
未来的需要 - 走向更具包容性的中国社会管理制度
Third, all the study tours, training sessions and forums designed for more
inter-departmental exchanges between MoCA and related ministries will in
the long run generate crucial momentum to enhance the political legitimacy
of CSOs in general within the state system.
第三,举办参观考察、培训班和研讨会等各种活动,不但可以加强民政部
和其它相关部委之间的交流,长远来说更将成为提高民间社会组织在国
家政治体制内合法性的关键动力。
We would now encourage MoCA, working with UNDP and other donors, to
invest more time in supporting advocacy training for CSOs involved in
China’s social and economic development.
我们鼓励民政部与联合国开发计划署和其他赞助单位联手合作,投入更多
时间支持培养民间组织政策参与能力,为中国社会经济发展做出更大贡
献。
There are so many good examples of grass roots advocacy organizations in
China, and once some of those CSOs are registered, they can be used as
models for other new and growing CSOs.
如今,中国不乏草根团体倡导种种政策改革的好例子。这些团体得以登记
后,便可成为其它新兴团体的模范。

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