UNIAP

Report
Regional Consultation on the
Right to an Effective Remedy
for Trafficked Persons
Annette Lyth
Regional Project Manager, UNIAP
Bangkok, 27 September 2013
CAMBODIA | CHINA | LAO PDR | MYANMAR | THAILAND | VIETNAM
Typical Trafficking Cases
Men,
and
Women
andfishing
children
for
Menwomen
onto
boats
Men,
women
andinchildren
children
Women
and
Girls
Forced
into
exploitative
factories
domestic
work
onto
construction
sites
Prostitution
2
What is the scope of the problem?
Recent research from the Asia region
Estimated number of people in forced labor in the Asia-Pacific region
9.49 million and globally: 27 million (ILO 2005)
Estimated number of Myanmar migrant workers trafficked into
shrimp processing factories in Samut Sakhon province, Thailand:
at least 66,000 – 99,000 (Johns Hopkins U 2010)
Estimated number of Cambodian migrant workers in labor
exploitation in Thailand annually: at least 20,492. 50% cheated, 33%
exploited, 30% never paid. (UNIAP 2010)
Percent of sex workers aged 12-17 in the Mekong countries: 30%
(UNICEF 2009)
UK, EUR

USA




Middle
East


NE Asia (Taiwan,
Korea, etc.)




WHERE DO
PEOPLE GET
TRAFFICKED
TO?














Sex
Labor
Both
Numbers of officially identified trafficking victims per country and year in the GMS, including key destination countries in wider East Asia
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
Total
Key Destinations (alphabetical)
Cambodia
709
701
686
581
N/A
3,119
China, Indonesia, Malaysia Singapore, South
Korea, Thailand, Viet Nam
China
N/A
10,820
16,568
24,118
29,853
81,359
Hong Kong, Japan, Macau, Singapore, South
Korea, Taiwan, Thailand
Laos
235
155
145
195
195
925
China, Malaysia, Thailand
Myanmar
303
302
381
265
261
1,512
China, Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand
Thailand
520
530
509
279
N/A
1,838
China, Indonesia, Japan, Macau, Malaysia,
Singapore, South Korea, Viet Nam
Viet Nam
981
869
671
821
782
4,124
China, Indonesia, Japan, Laos, Malaysia, South
Korea, Taiwan, Thailand
Total
2,748
13,377
18,960
26,259
31,533
92,877
5
UNIAP’s anti-human trafficking work
COMMIT
Policy informed
by reliable data,
research, case
analyses
SIREN
Policy informed by
experiences of
under-served
victims and the
NGOs serving them.
Government
support provided
through COMMIT
Worst Offenders /
Under-Served Victims
SIREN exposes Worst Offenders
and under-served victims;
financial/technical support to
NGOs strengthens SIREN network
Overview: The COMMIT Process
• Government-led process between 6 GMS
governments (China, Cambodia, Lao PDR, Myanmar,
Thailand, Vietnam)
• COMMIT Memorandum of Understanding signed by 6
countries in 2004 (Ministerial level)
• Multi-sectoral COMMIT Task Forces established to
oversee national activities across all 4 Ps
• Sub-regional Action Plans (COMMIT SPAs) and annual
COMMIT SOMs provide operational framework
• Annual Workplans developed and implemented
COMMIT Strategic Plan of Action III
• Identify victims, and provide
age and gender appropriate
care
• Ensure victims are not held
in detention
• Provide victims with safe and
timely repatriation, through
cross-border cooperation
• Offer appropriate,
individualized reintegration
options
9
SUPPORT TO
UNDER-SERVED
VICTIMS
(CSO GRANTS)
SHELTER SELFIMPROVEMENT PROJECT
All shelters and reception centers in
Vietnam; 6 pilots in China; launching in
Cambodia, Laos, and Myanmar in 2012
LEGAL AID/SUPPORT
12
The criminal justice response to human trafficking in the Greater Mekong Sub-region, 2008 – 2011
2008
A
Cambodia
172
2009
P
117
C
N/A
A
231
2010
P
165
C
N/A
A
242
2011
P
C
249
A
P
C
215
255
247
182
.
China
N/A
1,353
2,161
N/A
1,636
2,413
N/A
1,919
3,680
N/A
1,773
3,045
Laos
23
8
N/A
74
26
N/A
32
79
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
Myanmar
127
127
127
145
145
145
170
170
170
135
135
135
Thailand
42
N/A
N/A
95
22
17
70
79
18
83
67
13
Viet Nam
718
N/A
N/A
748
N/A
N/A
683
N/A
N/A
670
N/A
N/A
13
ETHICS AND HUMAN
RIGHTS TRAININGS
In all Mekong countries, for government, NGOs,
media, academia
CHALLENGES TO REINTEGRATION
• Not at all or inadequately assisted
• Forcibly assisted
• Undermine victim autonomy and
empowerment
• Inadequate national and transnational referral
mechanisms.
• Lack of information
• Under resourced
CHALLENGES TO PROSECUTIONS
• Long court processes with little
incentive for victims to endure
• Many entry points for cases to be
sabotaged, with credible threats to
life
• Police case filing is often weak –
little evidence, making prosecutions
difficult
• Weak protection of victims’ rights in
fair trial standards
SOME REFLECTIONS
ON THE DRAFT BASIC
PRINCIPLES ON AN
EFFECTIVE REMEDY

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