Hispanic American applies to the Americans who came from Mexico, Puerto Rico and Cuba. Five major subgroups- Mexican Americans, Puerto Ricans, Cuban Americans, Central Americans and Southern Americans. The number of Hispanic Americans has risen dramatically. 1960- 3 million 1980- 15 million 1995- 27 million 2009- 46.9 million César Chávez, born on March 31, 1927. Second- generation American. Left school after eighth grade to work in the fields to support his family. Joined the United States Navy In 1946 Dreamed to create an organization to help migrant farm workers whose poverty he had shared. Seen as a civil rights leader to Hispanic Americans. Died on April 23, 1993. http://www.laprensa-sandiego.org/archieve/march2902/chavez03.jpg Dolores Huerta, born on April 10, 1930 in New Mexico. Her father was a miner and farmer and her mother was a businesswoman who owned her own restaurant and hotel. Went to the University of Pacific’s Delta Community College Met Chavez while working for the Community Service Organization (CSO) Huerta was seen as another civil rights activist for Hispanic http://images.chron.com/blogs/pulsolatino/Dolores%20Huerta%203%20AP%20Phot Americans. o%20Rich%20Pedroncelli.jpg United Farm Workers (UFW) of America- formed in 1966 by Chávez and Huerta. Benefited farmers Got support from United Auto Workers, Robert Kennedy and Jerry Brown, the California governor The grape boycott Chávez used strikes, fasts and marches . He would continue to lead strikes against bananas, lettuce, and vineyard owners. http://content.cdlib.org/ark:/13030/hb0199n93x./ http://si.wsj.net/public/resources/images/OB-EQ666_chavez_G_20091012104303.jpg During the 1940s Mexicans were asked by the U.S. to fill the labor shortage as a result of World War II. Braceros program These workers were called braceros. Displaced many Mexican- Americans Most effective 19471964. 5 million were given jobs. http://www.opb.org/programs/oregonexperiencearchive/braceros/media/braceroqueue.jpg During the 1970s bilingual education was the center of controversy. Parents believed in order for their children to be equal to those who spoke English they would have to learn bilingually. Others who opposed this believed it slowed down the assimilation or the absorption of a minority into society. The Bilingual Education Act of 1968 ensured schools would have assistance for bilingual teaching programs. The number of illegal immigrants during the 1960s and 70s was rising quickly. In 1968 Congress passed the Immigration Reform Act. Fined employers anywhere from$250- $10,000 for every illegal immigrant that they employed. Hispanic Americans will soon be the biggest minority in the U.S.