Policy 1 - ministry of water supply and drainage

South Asian Conference on Sanitation
4th – 7th April 2011
Republic of Maldives
Ms. Shaheeda Adam Ibrahim
Director General
Water and Sanitation Department
Ministry of Housing and Environment
Country Profile
 Total no. of islands : 1190
 No. of inhabited islands : 198
 Geographical area :90,000km2
 Land area : 300km2
 No. of geographic atolls is 26 and administrative is 20
 Elevation: Less than 2m above mean sea level
 Population of Maldives. : 324,992
 Population of the capital, Male’: 103,693 ( Area : 2sq. Km )
 Annual growth rate : 1.69%
 Climate :Tropical, warm and humid
 Mean Annual Temperature : 25 to 31 Degrees Celsius
 Annual rainfall : 2000mm
Water and Sewerage Services
• In Maldives water resources are mainly available as groundwater and
rain water
 Maldives has very little in terms of freshwater resources. There is
practically no surface water sources
 Freshwater resources exists as groundwater - unconfined and
extends below seal level in the form of a thin freshwater lens.
 These island aquifers lie at a depth of 1-1.5 meters below the surface
 Rainwater harvesting is the primary source of drinking water in 90%
of the outer islands with groundwater used for washing, agriculture and
other domestic uses. Desalinated water is mainly used in the capital
island with piped connections.
 Wastewater disposal systems in most of the outer islands are within
the plot (on-site sanitation using septic tanks and soak pits).
 In the capital and 22 other islands sewerage systems are installed
Country Commitment
 The provision of safe drinking water supply and sanitation is regarded
as a basic right for all Maldivians in the new constitution of the country
 To achieve the goals and objectives of the sector the priority areas and
activities are included in the national development plans and
The National Strategic Action plan 2009-2013 -the principal planning
document of the Government includes Policies, Goals, Objectives and
strategies for the water and sanitation sector
 The Ministry of Housing and Environment Annual work plan with
activities and budget
 National Adaptation Plan of Action (NAPA)
Goals and objectives of the sector
1. Ensure access to safe drinking water and sanitation facilities as a basic
human right for all.
2. Protect and preserve the country’s vital fresh water resources and
establish water stocks for use in emergency and disasters.
3. Enhance the role of private sector participation in the provision of
water and sanitation services while encouraging a smooth shift in the role
of the government as a regulator and facilitator in the provision of these
4. Introduce the use of renewable energy and other modern technologies
to minimize the cost of providing drinking water and sanitation systems
and to protect ground water.
Key Sector Policies:
Strategic Action Plan (2009-2013) :
Policy 1: Improve accessibility in delivery of safe water and sanitation
Policy 2: Prioritize provision of safe water and sanitation when designing
development projects and emergency response.
Policy 3: Establish effective operation and maintenance procedure for
water and sanitation systems in the Maldives.
Policy 4: Facilitate private sector investment in the water and sanitation
Policy 5: Strengthen technical, financial and human resources capacity
for water and sanitation sector.
Policy 6: Enhance community and civil society participation in the water
and sanitation sector.
Policy 7: Strengthen legal and institutional framework to improve sector
Policy 8: Improve water resources management to preserve environment.
Policy 9: Improve safe water consumption at public and domestic levels
through implementation of thorough water safety plans.
Sanitation Coverage ,2006 census.
access to improved sanitation with island wide sewerage
systems in Maldives
Male’ ( Urban)
Outer Islands
% access to sewer network
% without access to sewer network
On-site sanitation is not considered as safe sanitation.
Types of Sewerage Systems
Sewerage systems are in operation in 22 islands:
•Small bore systems (9 islands)
•Conventional gravity system (11 islands)
•Vacuum systems (4 islands)
Types of Sewerage Treatment systems in operation
• Aeration system
•Filter Beds
•Rotating Bio Dics
Vilifushi Island
Area : 13.5 ha
Density (land/capita) : 691 sq.ft
Type of system - Conventional gravity HDPE: 160 & 225
STP : RBC - Aeration
Vilifushi-Sewerage Treatment Plant
RBC - Aeration
Filtration – Chlorination
Sea Outfall & Recharge
Vilifushi-Drying bed
& Compost used for agriculture/gardening
Environment Friendly methods
Access to safe sanitation facilities in outer islands
 Lack of institutional and financial capacity for establishment,
operation and management of water and sewerage services
 Providing services to all the islands - dispersed population (
Individual systems for different islands)
 Lack of cost effective technology for small islands.
 Lack of trained personnel in the sector
 Lack of regulatory framework, guidelines and standards
 Lack of capacity to respond in an emergency and in mitigating the
impacts of climate change (water shortages during dry periods)

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