Section 1

Report
Chapter
Section
25
1 Section 1
Section 1: A Confederation of States, Objectives
What form of national government did the
Patriots create initially, and what events
revealed that a new government was
necessary?
• Explain how thE statEs’ nEw constitutions
reflected republican ideals.
• Describe the structure and powers of the
national government under the Articles of
Confederation.
• Summarize the Congress’s plan for the
settlement and governance of western
lands.
• List the main weaknesses of the Articles.
The Cold
A Confederation
War Begins
of States
Chapter
Section
25
1 Section 1
Explain how thE statEs’ nEw constitutions rEflEctEd rEpublican
ideals.
Congress encouraged the former colonies to
create state constitutions.
• Although state
constitutions
varied, each
provided for a
republic where
people voted for
their
representatives.
• Patriots disagreed
over the design of
these republics,
especially over how
much power to give
the common
people.
The Cold
A Confederation
War Begins
of States
Chapter
Section
25
1 Section 1
Explain how thE statEs’ nEw constitutions rEflEctEd rEpublican
ideals.
Democratic
Patriots like
Thomas Paine
wanted more
power for
common
people.
They favored:
• weak state governments with
most of their power in a
popularly elected
legislature.
• unicameral or one house
legislature with either a
weak governor or none at
all.
• a large House of
Representatives with small
districts so that the people
had more control.
The Cold
A Confederation
War Begins
of States
Chapter
Section
25
1 Section 1
Explain how thE statEs’ nEw constitutions rEflEctEd rEpublican
ideals.
Conservative
Patriots like
John Adams
feared giving
power to the
common
people.
They favored:
• a governor with broad
powers.
• bicameral legislature, with
two houses.
• an upper house or senate
made up of wealthy, welleducated gentlemen who
would balance a lower house
elected by the common
people.
The Cold
A Confederation
War Begins
of States
Chapter
Section
25
1 Section 1
Explain how thE statEs’ nEw constitutions rEflEctEd rEpublican
ideals.
There was also debate over who should
vote.
• Democratic states like Pennsylvania allowed all male
taxpayers over age 21 to vote.
• Conservative states preserved colonial requirements
of property ownership for voting.
• None gave the vote to women or to slaves.
• In time, most grew more democratic
with the lower house gaining more power.
The Cold
A Confederation
War Begins
of States
Chapter
Section
25
1 Section 1
Explain how thE statEs’ nEw constitutions rEflEctEd rEpublican
ideals.
Most new state constitutions guaranteed
freedom of religion.
Previously, colonies collected taxes for religious
institutions.
Now, religious freedom and pluralism became
the norm.
The Virginia Statute of Religious Freedom set
the example. It allowed for religious liberty free of
state influence.
The Cold
A Confederation
War Begins
of States
Chapter
Section
25
1 Section 1
Describe the structure and powers of the national government
under the Articles of Confederation.
The Articles of
Confederation
was created by
the Continental
Congress.
• This first national
constitution created a loose
confederation or league of
states in 1777.
• Congress drafted the Articles
under John Dickinson of
Pennsylvania.
• Congress’s power was limited
to prevent the problems
experienced under Britain.
The Cold
A Confederation
War Begins
of States
Chapter
Section
25
1 Section 1
Describe the structure and powers of the national government
under the Articles of Confederation.
With the Articles, government power
was limited.
• Congress implemented and enforced laws.
N
O
T
E
S
• Executive power was shared by committees.
• Each state had one vote in Congress.
• Minor issues were passed by a simple majority. Major
issues, like declaring war, required 9 states.
• Amendments to the Articles required
the agreement of all 13 states.
The Cold
A Confederation
War Begins
of States
Chapter
Section
25
1 Section 1
Describe the structure and powers of the national government
under the Articles of Confederation.
Congress had a limited role.
Congress could:
N
O
T
E
S
Declare war or
conduct foreign policy.
Administer relations
with Indian nations.
Congress could not:
Tax
Regulate commerce
between states or states
and foreign nations
There was also no federal court system.
The Cold
A Confederation
War Begins
of States
Chapter
Section
25
1 Section 1
Summarize the Congress’s plan for the settlement and
governance of western lands.
The Articles
created a
method to
settle and
govern the
Northwest
Territory.
The Cold
A Confederation
War Begins
of States
Chapter
Section
25
1 Section 1
Summarize the Congress’s plan for the settlement and
governance of western lands.
• Surveyors divided the territory
into a N-S and
E-W grid to establish hundreds of
townships.
• Each township was subdivided
into one square mile (640 acre)
squares to sell at $1 each.
• Many farmers couldn’t afford the
$1 an acre, and some land
speculators got special deals.
The Cold
A Confederation
War Begins
of States
The Land
Ordinance
of 1785
established
a method to
distribute
public land.
Chapter
Section
25
1 Section 1
Summarize the Congress’s plan for the settlement and
governance of western lands.
The Land Ordinance of 1785 grid system is still evident today.
The Cold
A Confederation
War Begins
of States
Chapter
Section
25
1 Section 1
Summarize the Congress’s plan for the settlement and
governance of western lands.
Northwest Ordinance of 1787 set up a system
to govern territories and create states.
N
O
T
E
S
Congress established a
territorial government and
appointed a governor.
Settlers were guaranteed
freedom of religion, trial
by jury, and rights of
common law.
Once there were 5,000 men, an
Once there were 60,000
assembly could be elected. The
residents, a territory could
appointed governor retained veto
apply for statehood.
power.
It abandoned the British model of keeping
colonies permanently subordinate.
The Cold
A Confederation
War Begins
of States
Chapter
Section
25
1 Section 1
Summarize the Congress’s plan for the settlement and
governance of western lands.
barred slavery.
• required a republican
constitution.
• promised settlers basic
freedoms.
• ignored the rights of Native
Americans.
• resulted in five new states:
Ohio, Indiana, Illinois,
Michigan, Wisconsin, and part
of Minnesota.
•
N
O
T
E
S
The
Northwest
Ordinance:
The Cold
A Confederation
War Begins
of States
Summarize the Congress’s plan for the settlement and
governance
Chapter
Section 25
1 Section 1 of western lands.
The Cold
A Confederation
War Begins
of States
Chapter
Section
25
1 Section 1
List the main weaknesses of the Articles.
Britain denied American
ships access to the British
West Indies and the right
to export goods to Britain
on American ships.
European
nations did
not take the
new nation
seriously.
Spain forbade American
trade with New Orleans.
Britain kept soldiers in
frontier forts located in
the Northwest Territory.
The Cold
A Confederation
War Begins
of States
Chapter
Section
25
1 Section 1
List the main weaknesses of the Articles.
Articles of
Confederation
small
farmers
N
O
T
E
S
Shays’s
Rebellion
(1786-87)
• could not fund the government –
therefore the Federal government
was in debt
• also in debt –banks looked to
the farmers to collect money.
In MA, Boston banks began
foreclosing on western frontier
farmers.
• Led by Daniel Shays,
Revolutionary War Veteran
• Example of conflict between
farmer/frontier and city
• Proved the Articles of
Confederation were too weak to
hold this nation together
The Cold
A Confederation
War Begins
of States
Chapter
Section
25
1 Section 1
List the main weaknesses of the Articles.
• The nation’s debt was
mounting.
N
O
T
E
S
Growing
problems led
to calls for a
revision of the
Articles of
Confederation.
• The economic depression was
deepening as debts,
bankruptcies, and foreclosures
grew.
• Shays’ Rebellion demonstrated
the Federal government’s
weakness.
• Foreign nations did not respect
the United States.
The Cold
A Confederation
War Begins
of States
Chapter
Section
25
1 Section 1
Early State
Governments
Early National
Governments
All states established republics
in which voters chose
representatives.
Most states had a bicameral
legislature.
Most states required property
ownership for voting.
Most states guaranteed
religious freedom in their
constitutions.
Each state had 1 vote, no
matter the population size.
N
O
T
E
S
The nation was a loose
confederation of states.
There was no executive branch.
There was no judicial branch.
Congress could not levy taxes.
The Cold
A Confederation
War Begins
of States
Chapter
Section
25
1 Section 1
What form of national government did the
Patriots create initially, and what events
revealed that a new government was
necessary?
After the Revolutionary War, the Patriots feared entrusting the
Congress with too much power. Most authority remained with
the states.
Explain how thE statEs’ nEw constitutions rEflEctEd rEpublican
ideals.
Describe the structure and powers of the national government
under the Articles of Confederation.
Summarize the Congress’s plan for the settlement and
governance of western lands.
But strong state governments and a weak national government
led to problems.
List the main weaknesses of the Articles.
The Cold
A Confederation
War Begins
of States

similar documents