I. Classification of Matter MATTER (anything that has mass & takes up space) MATTER PURE SUBSTANCE (matter with a definite composition) Ex- water, helium, carbon dioxide, sodium MATTER MIXTURE (2 or more pure substances combined in ANY ratio) Ex- lemonade, concrete, shaving cream Pure Substances COMPOUND (2 or more elements chemically bonded together) Ex- sodium chloride, water, glucose, CLUE- chemical formulas have 2 capital letters; it is NOT on the periodic table Pure Substances ELEMENT (cannot be broken down any further) Ex- carbon, oxygen, lithium, hydrogen CLUE- It is any substance written on the periodic table Mixtures SOLUTION (a homogeneous mixture that cannot be filtered & will NEVER settle upon standing) Ex- saline solution, grape juice CLUE- It is clear (might be clear & colored) Mixtures COLLOIDAL SUSPENSION (a homogeneous mixture that cannot be filtered & will EVENTUALLY settle upon standing) Ex- mayo, milk, fog, cool whip CLUE- it creates the Tyndall Effect Mixtures COURSE SUSPENSION (a heterogeneous mixture that can be filtered & will QUICKLY settle upon standing) Ex- Italian Dressing, OJ CLUE- it has distinguishable “pieces” in it. SOLUTION ALLOY (a special type of solution where 2 or more METALS mix together----a “metallic solution”) Ex- brass (zinc & copper); pewter (tin & lead); steel (iron & carbon) CLUE- It is NOT on the periodic table II. Physical Properties of matter that we will use to help us separate a solution? Magnetism A. ___________________________ Demonstration – Magnetism: Density B. ___________________________ Phase Changes C. ____________________________ 1. Lab techniques that uses phase change separation. Distillation – uses different boiling a. ____________________________ points of the pure substances ____________________________ involved to separate and CAPTURE ____________________________ all of the substances of the mixture ___________________________ Distillation Demo: b. ______________________ Crystallization – separation technique that uses the boiling point to capture ONLY the substance with the HIGHEST boiling point Particle Size D. ___________________________ 1. Lab techniques that use particle size separation. – using a screen or paper a. Filtering ____________________________ to help retain the larger items, ____________________________ while the smaller pass through ____________________________ E.__________________________________ Can dissolve in water (Soluble in water) III. Characteristics of Solutions A. Parts of a Solution Solvent – the substance doing the dissolving Solute – the substance being dissolved B. Terms related to solutions: Able to dissolve in each other 1. Soluble -___________________________ _________________________________ ex – Salt is soluble in water NOT able to dissolve in each 2. Insoluble - _________________________ other __________________________________ ex - Water is insoluble in water 3. concentration - _________________________ the amount of solute in a solution _____________________________________ you add more solvent 4. Diluted solution - when _______________________ to a solution in order to decrease the overall ______________________________________ concentration when you remove 5. Concentrated solution - __________________ solvent from a solution in order INCREASE ______________________________________ the overall concentration C. Rate of solution: 1. Definition: ________________________ the speed at which a solvent is able to dissolve a solute ________________________________ 2. Ways to increase the speed at which the solvent dissolves the solute. Increase temperature a. _____________________________ Demo: b. Increase _____________________________ surface area Demo: c. _____________________________ Stir or Shake Demo: D. How do You Describe The Amount of Solute in a Solution? 1. Definition of each: a. Unsaturated- _____________________ Does not have all of the solute that it could at a given ________________________________ temperature solute i. if you add one more piece of _____________ to an unsaturated solution, it will dissolve _______________ into the beaker of solution. Has all of the solute that it can at a b. Saturated - ____________________________ given temperature _____________________________________ i. if you add one more piece of solute _____________ to a saturated Stay as a crystal solution, it will __________________ in the beaker. Has more solute c. supersaturated - _______________________ than it SHOULD at a given temperature ____________________________________ i. if you add one more piece of solute _____________ to a super-saturated solution, it will __________________ in the crystalize beaker. Demonstration – Super Saturated Solution: E. Solubility and Solubility Curves The total amount of 1. Solubility - __________________________ solute necessary to make a saturated ___________________________________ solution at a GIVEN TEMPERATURE a graph that illustrates 2. Solubility Curve – __________________________ the solubility of given solutes in certain ________________________________________ solvents ________________________________________ 1. What is the title of this graph? 2. What is the x-axis label? 3. What is the x-axis unit of measurement? 4. What is the y-axis label? 5. What is the y-axis unit of measurement? 6. What is the general trend expressed by this graph? SUPERSATURATEDanything above the line UNSATURATEDanything under the line 1. What is the temperature of a saturated solution of 36 g / 100 g of water? 2. What is the solubility of BaCl2 at 60 C? 3. If a solution has 40 g of BaCl2 dissolved in 100 g of water and it is at 70 C, how would you characterize it? 4. How would you create a supersaturated solution? c. Common trend between temperature and heat i. as temperature __________________, increases increases solubility _________________. 1. Which salt is the most soluble at 70 C? 2. Which salt’s solubility is least affected by temperature? 3. Which salt’s solubility is most affected by temperature?