Confidence Building Measures and Preventive Diplomacy

Report
Confidence Building Measures
and Preventive Diplomacy :
ASEAN Perspectives
By
C.P.F. Luhulima
ASEAN – exercise in CB & PD
• Characteristic:
1. Border & territorial
2.
3.
4.
disputes;
Ethnic conflicts &
animosities;
Religious prejudice;
Fear of smaller
states of the bigger
ones.
•
1.
2.
3.
Goals:
Economic growth;
Social progress;
Cultural
development in the
region.
To promote regional peace & stability
ASEAN & the Concept of PD
•
The Principles of
ASEAN (TAC 1976):
• Sovereign Equality;
• Territorial integrity;
• Non-interference in
the internal affairs
of a member state.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
It is to guarantee that each
country shall have the right
to:
Lead its national existence
free from external
interference subversion /
coercion;
Not interfere in the internal
affairs of one another;
Settle the differences /
dispute and conducted
only by peaceful means;
Refuse threat / use of
force;
Encourage effective
cooperation among
themselves.
UN & the Concept of PD
• UN Charter - article 33 (1):
If a dispute between countries in the
region occur and disturbing regional peace
and harmony  the parties to the dispute
should be persuaded to take the initiative
in finding solution through peaceful
negotiation and in the shortest time
possible.
The ARF & the Concept of PD
• To help prevent disputes
•
•
& conflicts from arising
between States that could
potentially pose a threat
to regional peace and
stability;
To help prevent such
dispute & conflicts from
escalating into armed
confrontation;
To help minimize the
impact of such disputes &
conflicts on the region.
• Non-coercive;
• It requires trust &
•
•
•
confidence;
It operates on the basis of
consultation & consensus;
It is voluntary;
It is conducted in accordance
with universally recognized
basic principles of
international law & interstate relation embodied,
inter alia, in the UN Charter,
the Five Principles of
Peaceful Co-existence and
the TAC.
Kofi Annan’s concept of PD
1. Preventive deployment;
2. Preventive disarmament;
3. Preventive humanitarian action;
4. Preventive peace-building.
Implementation of PD
Case study:
1. The Philippine government & the Moro
National Liberation Front;
2. The conflict between the Government of
Indonesia and the Gerakan Aceh
Merdeka (Aceh Freedom Movement).
State Sovereignty and Human Rights:
Seeking the Equilibrium
• Since the atrocities in
Srebrenica, Kosovo
and Rwanda, a state
also responsible in
protecting its citizens
from domestic conflict
and various acts of
violence and
atrocities.
• Reasons why a State
1.
2.
failed to protect its
citizens are:
Lack of political will;
Narrow national
interest and
negligence.
Key word : B A L A N C E
The Outlook
1. A step-by-step approach in order to ensure
2.
3.
consensual progress to secure the maintenance
& continuing enhancement of commitment of all
participants in the ARF process.
ASEAN & ARF shall deliberate on settling clear
cut targets in preventing disputes & conflicts in
the region (not only between states but also
between the state and its citizenry).
ASEAN will have to shift from an explanatory to
a normative approach in its endeavours to shape
in its future, also in nurturing confidencebuilding, preventive diplomacy and approaches
to conflict resolution.
Thank You

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