Rosenhan Background Slides

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PEER AND SELF-ASSESSMENT
Why do it?
Using the mark schemes I have emailed you, assess your neighbour's work as
best you can.
As there are several answers, I suggest you choose the one that you found the
hardest to complete. If you finish this then you can move on to another.
7 minutes.
Once you have your work back – write 2 things you did well and 1 you could
improve upon.
Hand in to me for marking!
STARTER TASK:
Read the front of your envelope
and position yourself in the room
accordingly.
NORMAL
Do not talk at all!!!!
ABNORMAL
What justifications
did you use?
STARTER TASK:
Now, open the envelope, take
out what is inside and decide if
you will stay or move.
NORMAL
Do not talk at all!!!!
ABNORMAL
Think, pair, share:
Think for 1 minute alone
Pair up and discuss with a
partner for 2 minutes
Share with the class
Q. What does this task tell us about the definition of
abnormality or ‘madness’?
Ex: How do you think this links to the diagnosis of mental
disorder?
Think, pair, share:
Think for 1 minute alone
Pair up and discuss with a
partner for 2 minutes
Share with the class
Q. What does this task tell us about the definition of
abnormality or ‘madness’?
Ex: How do you think this links to the diagnosis of mental
disorder?
Think, pair, share:
Think for 1 minute alone
Pair up and discuss with a
partner for 2 minutes
Share with the class
Q. What does this task tell us about the definition of
abnormality or ‘madness’?
Ex: How do you think this links to the diagnosis of mental
disorder?
Think, pair, share:
Think for 1 minute alone
Pair up and discuss with a
partner for 2 minutes
Share with the class
Q. What does this task tell us about the definition of
abnormality or ‘madness’?
Ex: How do you think this links to the diagnosis of mental
disorder?
Think, pair, share:
Think for 1 minute alone
Pair up and discuss with a
partner for 2 minutes
Share with the class
Q. What does this task tell us about the definition of
abnormality or ‘madness’?
Ex: How do you think this links to the diagnosis of mental
disorder?
APPROACH: INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES
STUDY: ROSENHAN (1973)
CORE STUDY:
ROSENHAN (1973)
‘ON BEING SANE IN
INSANE PLACES’
• Since the early C20th categorising mental illness
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has been looked at in the same way as
categorising physical illnesses.
That way is to group together characteristics of
illnesses and put them in categories. This is known
of as the medical model.
The idea is that once the illness is identified it can
then be treated.
The first comprehensive system for identifying
psychological disorders was created in 1896 by
Emil Kraeplin.
Psychologists and doctors use the DSM-IV
(Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental
Disorders) to help them identify and categorise
symptoms.
TO UNDERSTAND THE BACKGROUND AND CONTEXT TO ROSENHAN’S STUDY
TO CRITICALLY CONSIDER DEFINITIONS OF ABNORMALITY
TO ANALYSE THE IMPLICATIONS OF THESE DEFINITIONS
APPROACH: INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES
STUDY: ROSENHAN (1973)
CORE STUDY:
ROSENHAN (1973)
‘ON BEING SANE IN
INSANE PLACES’
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• Schizophrenia is one mental condition where the
symptoms have been categorised.
• What are the symptoms of schizophrenia?
Some examples:
• Hallucinations
• Delusions
• Alogia
• Avolition
• Disordered Speech
• Loosely Associated Speech (‘Word Salad’)
• Catatonia
• Experiences of control
• Thought broadcasting
TO UNDERSTAND THE BACKGROUND AND CONTEXT TO ROSENHAN’S STUDY
TO CRITICALLY CONSIDER DEFINITIONS OF ABNORMALITY
TO ANALYSE THE IMPLICATIONS OF THESE DEFINITIONS
Advantages of using a classification system:
1.
2.
3.
APPROACH: INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES
STUDY: ROSENHAN (1973)
CORE STUDY:
ROSENHAN (1973)
‘ON BEING SANE IN
INSANE PLACES’
Advantages of using a classification system:
1.
Should increase reliability of diagnosis as all
diagnosticians are using the same criteria.
2. May lead to the best treatment outcome for
the patient.
3.Psychiatrists may easily match symptoms to
criteria to efficiently diagnose patients.
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TO UNDERSTAND THE BACKGROUND AND CONTEXT TO ROSENHAN’S STUDY
TO CRITICALLY CONSIDER DEFINITIONS OF ABNORMALITY
TO ANALYSE THE IMPLICATIONS OF THESE DEFINITIONS
APPROACH: INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES
STUDY: ROSENHAN (1973)
CORE STUDY:
ROSENHAN (1973)
‘ON BEING SANE IN
INSANE PLACES’
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•
•
Disadvantages of using a classification system:
TO UNDERSTAND THE BACKGROUND AND CONTEXT TO ROSENHAN’S STUDY
TO CRITICALLY CONSIDER DEFINITIONS OF ABNORMALITY
TO ANALYSE THE IMPLICATIONS OF THESE DEFINITIONS
APPROACH: INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES
STUDY: ROSENHAN (1973)
CORE STUDY:
ROSENHAN (1973)
‘ON BEING SANE IN
INSANE PLACES’
Disadvantages of using a classification system:
1.
Labels may lead to patients being
ostracised from society/find it difficult to get
a job.
2. Patients who do not fit diagnostic criteria
may not be treated appropriately. Boundaries
can seem arbitrary.
3.Social and cultural factors may lead to biases
in diagnosis.
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TO UNDERSTAND THE BACKGROUND AND CONTEXT TO ROSENHAN’S STUDY
TO CRITICALLY CONSIDER DEFINITIONS OF ABNORMALITY
TO ANALYSE THE IMPLICATIONS OF THESE DEFINITIONS
APPROACH: INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES
STUDY: ROSENHAN (1973)
CORE STUDY:
ROSENHAN (1973)
‘ON BEING SANE IN
INSANE PLACES’
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What was Rosenhan interested in?
• Rosenhan believed that the diagnostic system was
flawed in the sense that correct diagnosis was not
always made.
• Using psychological terms, we say that he was
concerned about the reliability and validity of
psychiatric diagnosis.
• He believed that just using the medical model- where
there was a strict set of guidelines to identify disorderscould lead to mistakes in diagnosis.
• He was also concerned that diagnosis was dependent
on context. In other words behaviours would be
described as abnormal because that was what was
expected in a psychiatric setting
TO UNDERSTAND THE BACKGROUND AND CONTEXT TO ROSENHAN’S STUDY
TO CRITICALLY CONSIDER DEFINITIONS OF ABNORMALITY
TO ANALYSE THE IMPLICATIONS OF THESE DEFINITIONS
APPROACH: INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES
STUDY: ROSENHAN (1973)
CORE STUDY:
ROSENHAN (1973)
‘ON BEING SANE IN
INSANE PLACES’
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•
•
What was Rosenhan interested in?
• He believed that what is viewed as normal and
abnormal varies from culture to culture
• He was not suggesting that odd and deviant
behaviour and the distress it bring to those around
them does not exist.
TO UNDERSTAND THE BACKGROUND AND CONTEXT TO ROSENHAN’S STUDY
TO CRITICALLY CONSIDER DEFINITIONS OF ABNORMALITY
TO ANALYSE THE IMPLICATIONS OF THESE DEFINITIONS
APPROACH: INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES
STUDY: ROSENHAN (1973)
CORE STUDY:
ROSENHAN (1973)
‘ON BEING SANE IN
INSANE PLACES’
What was Rosenhan interested in?
The main aim was to test whether the classification
system that determined whether someone was sane or
insane was reliable.
Can sane individuals be diagnosed as insane and
admitted to hospital?
A secondary aim was see whether or not it is the
characteristics of the patients that lead to diagnosis or
the context itself.
i.e. once on the ward, will all behaviour be judged as
abnormal, regardless?
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TO UNDERSTAND THE BACKGROUND AND CONTEXT TO ROSENHAN’S STUDY
TO CRITICALLY CONSIDER DEFINITIONS OF ABNORMALITY
TO ANALYSE THE IMPLICATIONS OF THESE DEFINITIONS
• Homework
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APRC Rosenhan’s study
I can send a template if you’d like
Aims
Procedure (method, sample, design)
Results
Conclusions
Defence mechanism
Reliability
Generalisability
Case Study
SPLAT!!!
Rorschach
Multiple Personality
Validity
Introvert
Schizophrenia

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