Writing An Abstract

Writing Your Science Fair
250 Words or Less
The Abstract Should Be:
• A short summary of your complete work (250
words or less)
• It should be written in 3rd person
• It should include:
– Your problem statement
– Procedure/Methods
– Results
– Conclusion/Further Implications
Your Problem Statement
• This can be worded as a question or as a
• Should be followed by a brief statement of why it
is important or your hypothesis
• Ex. What is the effect of wing angle of attack, or
the angle between the airflow and the wing’s
direction, on the lift, or upward force, produced
by an airplane?
• This information is vital for creating and flying
more efficient airplanes.
Your Problem Statement (cont.)
• Ex. The purpose of this experiment was to
determine the effect of essential oils on the
growth of partially antibiotic resistant
Streptococcus Pneumoniae.
• The hypothesis was that when essential oils,
specifically Thieves, Bergamot, Roman
Chamomile, Geranium, Lavender, Lemon,
Oregano, Peppermint, Pine, and Thyme, was
added to partially resistant Streptococcus
Pneumoniae, then the growth of said bacteria
would be inhibited.
• Should be a brief, yet detailed description of
how the experiment was conducted.
• Enough information must be given so that the
reader understands how data was collected
• Make sure to include what the control group
and experimental group look like
Procedure/Method Example
• First, a wind tunnel, or a tool used to test the airplane,
while it is kept stationary, in moving air, was
constructed. Also constructed were three balsa wood
gliders, with the angle of attack modified to 2° on
plane “B” and 4° on plane “C”, both experimental
groups. Plane “A”, the control, was not modified from
the original 0° angle of attack. Wing size and shape
were controlled by using the same brand and style of
glider. The gliders were tested in the wind tunnel by
attaching a paperclip to a string on the glider’s wing
and setting the paperclip on an electronic balance
Procedure/Method Example
• To test this, growth of the Streptococcus Pneumoniae took place in
Petri dishes filled with a goat blood and agar mixture. A specific
amount of Streptococcus Pneumoniae (0.5 McFarland) was
inoculated into each of the 30 Petri dishes. 4 sterilized filter disks
and 1 pre-inoculated Penicillin G. filter disk were evenly placed on
each of the Petri dishes. One filter disk was left sterile (Control
Group). Using a sterile loop to measure, 1 filter disk received 10
micro liters of an essential oil (Experimental Group), 1 filter disk
received 20 micro liters of an essential oil (Experimental Group),
and 1 filter disk received 30 micro liters of an essential oil
(Experimental Group). Each of the 10 essential oils were tested in
triplicate. The 30 Petri dishes were then incubated at 37ºC for 24
hours. Readings were taken using a caliper to measure the zone of
inhibition for each disk.
• Give the actual quantitative data that was collected
• Ex. The final data shows that some of the oils were
more effective against the growth of Streptococcus
Pneumoniae than the Penicillin G. Those oils were
Oregano and Thieves. Penicillin had an average zone of
inhibition of 23.4 mm. Oregano had an average zone of
inhibition of 28mm at 10 micro liters, 30mm at 20
micro liters, and 33mm at 30 micro liters. Thieves had
an average zone of inhibition of 31mm at 20 micro
liters and 32.33mm at 30 micro liters. Lavender oil
received incorrect results due to a malfunction while
inoculating the disks.
Results (cont.)
• Ex. Plane “A” created 0.355 g of lift, plane “B”
created 0.415 g of lift, and plane “C” created
0.355 g of lift on average. This proves that
plane “B”, with 2° angle of attack, created the
most lift, and that a 4° angle of attack, plane
“C”, was too much for the glider.
Conclusion/Further Implications
• What do the results tell us and how are these
results useful
• Ex. Companies producing toy gliders, like the
ones in this experiment, should make them with
a 2° angle of attack for the best lift.
• Ex. This experiment leads to the conclusion that
certain essential oils could be used topically
against the growth of partially antibiotic resistant
Streptococcus Pneumoniae. This could be useful
in preventing the spread of Streptococcus
Engineering Based Abstract (Ex.)
A serious problem exists within the petroleum industry. When oil is
spilled into an aquatic environment the entire eco-system is
threatened. A variety of filtering systems exist, but none are
optimal. A safer more efficient and environmentally friendly system
is needed. This project was designed to verify the effectiveness of
three different types of natural filtering media on removing oil from
water. A mechanical system utilizing a diaphragm pump to create
suction through an oil boom, to extract the oil slick, from the water
and transfer the fluid through a filter, capturing the oil and
discharging the water. The filter system was comprised of three
different media; Coconut Fibers, Hair, and Eco-Friendly pads. The
system was targeted to remove the oil contaminants to a level of
(9.98 mg/L), which is the allowable threshold for drinkable water.
The target rate was achieved on the eco-pad filter only, with a 2.5
mg/L of oil contaminates. The experiment offers a viable
alternative to current filtering systems.

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