Production and Operations Management: Manufacturing and

Report
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McGraw-Hill/Irwin
©2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, All Rights Reserved
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Chapter 4
Product Design
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OBJECTIVES
• Product Development
Process
• Economic Analysis of
Development Projects
• Designing for the
Customer
• Design for
Manufacturability
• Measuring Product
Development Performance
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Typical Phases of Product Development
• Planning
• Concept Development
• System-Level design
• Design Detail
• Testing and Refinement
• Production Ramp-up
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Economic Analysis of Project Development Costs
• Using measurable factors to help
determine:
– Operational design and development
decisions
– Go/no-go milestones
• Building a Base-Case Financial Model
– A financial model consisting of major
cash flows
– Sensitivity Analysis for “what if” questions
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Designing for the Customer
House of Quality
Quality Function
Deployment
Ideal
Customer
Product
Value Analysis/
Value Engineering
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Designing for the Customer:
Quality Function Deployment
• Interfunctional teams from marketing,
design engineering, and manufacturing
• Voice of the customer
• House of Quality
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Designing for the Customer:
The House of Quality
Correlation:
X
X
X
Customer
Requirement
sEasy to close
Energy needed
to close door
Door seal
resistance
Check
force on
level needed
Energy
ground
open door
to
Accoust. Trans.
Window
Engineerin
g
Characteris
tics
Water resistance
X
X
Easy to open
Competitive evaluation
X = Us
A = Comp. A
B = Comp. B
(5 is best)
1 2 3 4
5
AB
X AB
XAB
3
A XB
Doesn’t leak in rain 3
5
Technical evaluation 43
(5 is best)
2
10
6
B
A
X
BA
X
6
9
2
3
Reduce force
to 9 lb.
Reduce energy
to 7.5 ft/lb.
Maintain
current level
Maintain
current level
Target values
X A
Reduce energy
level to 7.5 ft/lb
Maintain
current level
No road noise
2
Importance weighting
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©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2004
*
X
7
Stays open on a hill 5
Customer
requirements
information forms
the basis for this
matrix, used to
translate them into
operating or
engineering goals.
X
Strong positive
Positive
Negative
Strong negative
B
A
X
B
X
A
BXA
BA
X
B
Relationships:
Strong = 9
Medium = 3
Small = 1
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Designing for the Customer:
Value Analysis/Value Engineering
• Achieve equivalent or better
performance at a lower cost while
maintaining all functional requirements
defined by the customer
– Does the item have any design
features that are not necessary?
– Can two or more parts be combined
into one?
– How can we cut down the weight?
– Are there nonstandard parts that
can be eliminated?
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Design for Manufacturability
• Traditional Approach
– “We design it, you build it” or “Over the
wall”
• Concurrent Engineering
– “Let’s work together simultaneously”
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Design for Manufacturing and Assembly
•
1.
2.
3.
Greatest improvements related to
DFMA arise from simplification of
the product by reducing the number
of separate parts:
During the operation of the product,
does the part move relative to all
other parts already assembled?
Must the part be of a different
material or be isolated from other
parts already assembled?
Must the part be separate from all
other parts to allow the disassembly
of the product for adjustment or
maintenance?
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Measuring Product Development Performance
Performance
Dimension
Time-to-market
Productivity
Quality
Measures
•Freq. Of new products introduced
•Time to market introduction
•Number stated and number completed
•Actual versus plan
•Percentage of sales from new products
•Engineering hours per project
•Cost of materials and tooling per project
•Actual versus plan
•Conformance-reliability in use
•Design-performance and customer satisfaction
•Yield-factory and field
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End of Chapter 4
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